Thomas E. Campbell's, Governor of Arizona in 1917, 62-page manuscript written between 1934 and 1939.
Arizona Historical Society Library, MS 132, Campbell Family Papers, Folder 6.
TRUE COPY OF THE NOTES
HON. THOMAS E. CAMPBELL
(Written between 1934 and 1939)
THE I. W. W. IN ARIZONA
TRUE COPY OF THE ORIGINAL NOTES OF THOMAS E. CAMPBELL, FORMER GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA.
During the year 1916 the Industrial Workers of the World under the leadership of W. D. "Bill" Haywood and lesser lights in this radical labor organization with highly Socialistic and Communistic economic ideas decided that Arizona was a fertile field to invade and organize all labor into One Big Union along "horizontal lines," instead of the so called "vertical lines" followed and effected by the old established American Federation of Labor and affiliated crafts organizations under the years old leadership of Samuel Gompers.
The Western Federation of Miners, an affiliate of the A. F. of L. had long been active in Arizona under the leadership of Chas. H. Moyer, with whom Bill Haywood had been associated until they "parted ways" after their successful defense for the assassination of Governor — of Idaho. Moyer was a natural conservative, logical, persuasive, potent in his dealings with employers of labor and opposed to strong-arm methods and bloodshed. Haywood was just the opposite in character and action. He was an orator of no mean ability, a John L. Lewis type without Lewis' education, knowledge and honesty. Haywood advocated force and more force with sabotage if necessary to gain his demands with Employers, always referred to by him as Capitalist Blood-suckers, tools and stooges of Wall Street. All corporations were the handiwork of the devil and formed for the purpose of robbing The Worker of his just portion of the results of his labor in his opinion. His preachments and writings had a strong appeal to the mine workers in the big copper mines in Arizona, controlled and owned by foreign or non-state Corporations and referred to as "absentee owner millionaires." This declaration being true with a couple of exceptions gave Haywood and his imported and well trained organizers strong tools with which to work on the miners in the copper camps of Arizona. In the movement to organize the I. W. W. (nicknamed The Wobblies) in Arizona he and his representatives had the full support and encouragement of the Governor of Arizona, Geo. W. P. Hunt, then serving his third successive term and the most powerful leader in the dominant Democratic Party.
HUNT – I.W.W.
Hunts close and intimate association with the so-called Wobblies was proven in the Superior Court of Maricopa County, Arizona in the famous criminal
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libel case of Hunt vs. Allen B. Jaynes, owner, manager and editor of the Tucson Citizen and Colonel Fred S. Breen, owner and editor of the Coconino Sun – two of the oldest newspapers in Arizona. (The defendants Jaynes and Breen were acquitted by the jury upon the evidence produced by them from numerous photographs of Hunt with I. W. W. organizers, original and copies of Hunt’s correspondence with I. W. W. leaders.)
Governor Hunt, now dead, was one of the most colorful and popular characters ever developed in Arizona. His mausoleum, financed by himself on federal property in the Papago National Monument a few miles east of Phoenix, is a shrine visited daily by admirers, tourists and curiosity seekers. It may be well to state at this point in this narrative that age old history repeats itself, "Politicians Make Strange Bedfellows". The engineer, a Republican who designed and constructed the Shrine was the man who managed the political campaign that defeated Hunt for reelection as Governor in 1916. Political opponents from 1912 to 1924, they became firm personal friends until the death of Hunt, each admiring the virtues of the other, both retaining their strong partisan affiliation. Tom Moddock, the engineer, still lives and . Hunt, alive, was always much alive and ambitious. He came to Arizona in the middle 80ties to the Globe Mining District, then a booting camp, as rough and tough as Billy-be-Damned – a hundred miles off the railroad. Bull teams, mule teams, horse drawn stages, jack-asses and Shanks-Mare (the then common term for walking) being the only mode of transportation. Hunt "punched" a Jack-ass into the active mining camp of Globe, seeking some sort of employment. He was a native of Missouri; unacquainted with mining but not afraid to work at anything he could do. He was hungry and shoe-less and needed to eat for he was naturally a "fat man". His first job was in a miner’s boarding house washing dishes for his meals and a dollar a day, working 14 hours a day, then a promotion in wages and destruction. Being of dependable habits came to the attention of the Manager of the Old Dominion Copper Company Store he was employed in the stores warehouse, a promotion and increased income which he thriftily saved. The Jackass turned out on his own, the scanty bed-roll carefully stored in the Warehouse, he rented a simple room in the Kinney House for Miners whom he come to live with and from whom he learned the hard days work, their dangers inherent to their underground labors, the resultant injuries,
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sudden death and a pauper’s grave, unsought, unknown and cast-away like a broken pick-handle by those for whom they labored for ten hours at 35 cents per hour.
Naturally, his understanding and sympathy was with his own room-mates and their economic problems and the then mode of living and he became their understanding friend but helpless to change or improve their condition because of his own uncertain employment with the Company that controlled his job and theirs. By hard work, dependability, thrift, and growing popularity with the populace he became headman in the warehouse, then into the store to eventually become Manager or the Old Dominion Commercial Company. Being a so-called Company Employee and popular with the miners and customers he was easily successful in local politics for Globe had grown into Municipal importance.
From this status he ( with Company and popular support) became the political and business leader of the Community so twas only a step to the Territorial Legislature of which he was a Representative and Councilman(now Senator) a number of Terms. Having acquired control of The Old Dominion Commercial Company, organizing and controlling the only Bank in Globe, Statehood for Arizona approaching in 1911 he was elected a Member of the Constitutional Convention and thru a compromise between the Representatives of Business and Labor was elected President of the Constitutional Convention.
No longer a "hired man", a half a millionaire in his own right, there was buy a few wealthy men in Arizona at this time, he became the Champion and Advocate of Organized labor and as he preached – the poor people. The big and rich Copper Companies, the railroads, the well to do and all predatory wealth became his target. Selling his large Globe interests, investing in Tax free Bonds and gilt-edge mortgages he slashed so called Capitol right and left, defeating Conservative Democrats for the nomination for Governor (He was the Daddy of the Primary Law in the new states Constitution) and was elected over his Republican opponents three times, up to the year 1916.
This very brief review is but a sketch of this remarkable mans career, stated here for the purpose of showing his sympathy and support for any militant labor movement against his arch enemies, the Copper Companies and predatory interests would receive his hearty support in any conflict that was certain to arise. The political campaign of 1916 was waged – and it was a very bitter one on the issue, Huntism & Wobblyism vs. Good Government.
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The Republican Candidate Campbell won the election by a majority of 30 votes. Hunt appealed, resulting in a recount of all ballots. The Court, presided over by the present Democratic Justice of the Supreme Court, R. C. Stanford that Campbell had won by 67 votes. Hunt appealed to the State Supreme Court which decided that Hunt was the victor by 43 votes. Hunt took office for the balance of the fourth term.
Notwithstanding the fact that the Western Federation of Miners had Local Unions in all the large Copper Camps in Arizona they had not obtained recognition or a bargaining status with the Mining Companies and their memberships represented but a minority of the employees. The "8 hour law" for Miners was in effect by Legislative action since 1903, wages with a minimum of $4.50 per 8 hour shift were based on the so-called Butte, Mont. system, which system increased the minimum wage on the price received for refined copper on the Atlantic Seaboard as shown monthly by the Engineering and Mining Journal. The system worked in this manner. With 15 cents per pound as a base, the wages were increased 10 cents per shift for the even cents increase and 15 cents for the odd cents increase and so on. Thus if copper sold for 20 cents per pound the pay increase would amount to 60 cents per shift or $5.10. This wage system was approved and acceptable to the local Unions where and when put into effect. The Butte system was not acceptable, approved or put into effect in the Clifton-Morenci Mining District, causing a long drawn out and bitter strike in 1915 stopping all production of copper in that District. The Strikers, encouraged and supported by the Governor, who refused protection to the management and property controlled the situation. An appeal to the Governor for militia protection was denied and the Management, fearing personal violence, fled by train to El Paso, Texas where negotiations were held with representatives of the Strikers and officers of the Western Federation of Mines. After consuming several months of time an agreement was reached, the mines, mills and smelters resumed activities. This action on the part of the Chief Executive of the State left a bitter and lasting taste in the mouths of all the Mine Managers in the State, proof to them that they could look for no help from that source in their future dealings with organized labor. Hunt boasted that " he had run the Foreigners out of the State and would do it again should a similar situation arise".
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Hence the first "deportation" in Arizona was the Mine Managers from the Clifton-Morenci District.
The Corporations effected by this "strike" was the Arizona Copper Co. a British Corporation, the Detroit Copper Co. a subsidiary of Phelps, Dodge Corp. and the Shannon Copper Co. controlled by Massachusetts Capital. The I.W.W. had a fertile field to cultivate when they arrived the following year of 1916 in this strife torn District.
The year 1916 was utilized by the organizer so the I.W.W. as a "coring from within" period on the established W. F. of M unions, that is the Wobbly term for proselyting members from the W. F. of M to their own organizations, and secretly signing up other workers with the Red Card. Also becoming members themselves in the Local Unions, in order to take it over lock, stock and barrel when the time came to strike. This program was most successful and effective when the propitious time to them arrived in the summer of 1917. The slogan "All for one and one for all" was the watchword.
Strange as it may occur to those of today the first I.W.W. strike in Arizona pulled was not in the Copper Camps but against the Goodyear Rubber Company, then spending millions of dollars reclaiming thousands of acres of desert land in Maricopa County in order to produce the famous Pima Long Staple Cotton, so necessary for the production of Cord automobile tires and other war uses, the Egyptian Long Staple having been cut off from the American market by German U submarines. Goodyear, sensing the United States’ early entrance into the War was working day and night on their now well known Chandler project had established a large labor and material camp, employing some 1100 men, 600 work mules and farming machinery. Haste and more haste was the watchword in order to plant the 1917 cotton crop.
The I.W.W. officials with state headquarters in Phoenix had quietly organized a goodly number of the workers on this project, decided the time was opportune to make demands for a closed shop, meaning only members of the I.W.W. could get a job – higher wages in all classifications, the eight hour day, the check-off system for collecting membership dues and the elimination of Company Store and Commissary and the deduction from payrolls of employees debits. These demands presented by the grievance
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Committee of the I.W.W. were refused by the Company management. The following morning the job was picketed; all roads leading to and from the project being held and controlled by the picketers, who refused to allow anyone except officials of the Company to pass the Picket Line. The job was at a standstill, even the mules missed their usual breakfast and dinner. An immediate appeal by the Management was made to the Sheriff of Maricopa County against the action of the Picketers and for the protection of Employees who were willing to work. The Sheriff, an old time cowman responded immediately, gathered his Deputies together and closed the public and private roads to the project, assuring full protection to those employees that wanted to work.
The job breathed life again, was completed in time for spring planting and a beautiful crop of cotton harvested that fall.
GOVERNOR APPEALED TO BY I.W.W.
Grover H. Perry, a Chicago lawyer and disciple of Karl Marx, was in charge of the Phoenix Headquarters of the I.W.W. With the dispersal of his Pickets by the Sheriff he appealed to Governor Campbell to take action in protecting the legal rights of his Pickets under a state statute providing for Peaceful Picketing.
Campbell granted the audience to Perry and a committee of six representing the strikers. Perry acted as Attorney and C. W. Culver, Secretary of the Union was Chairman and principal spokesman for the committee. Campbell understood that only Perry would be present at this conference and was surprised when 7 men marched into the Governor’s office until informed by Perry that all I.W.W. grievance Committees were selected by the members of their Union as their representatives upon every occasion found necessary when presenting their cause to Management or Public officials. Campbell found this action to be true in many future conferences with the I.W.W. representatives.
The Nationalistic composition of the Committee was most interesting; Perry was a Jew, Culver an American of Virginia lineage, the others Irish, Mexican, Italian, Spanish, Austrian – all non-citizens of Arizona and two non-citizens of the United States but with "first papers" so they said.
Perry, lawyer-like, presented the cause of action, after stating his thanks for the conference, being first time any I.W.W. grievance committee
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had been received by the Chief Executive of any State in which they were organized.
It appeared to Campbell that this conference would be most important with so many witnesses to testify called in a stenographer from his office force (a former Court Reporter) to make a verbatim report of the Conference. After assuring Perry and Culver that they would receive a copy of the transcript they raised no objection. This conference, which lasted over two hours was more than a liberal education for Campbell on the plans, purposes and ideology of the new to him, I.W.W. organization. Later, in 1918 when this organization was outlawed by the Federal Govt., and 114 leading members thereof was tried and convicted before Federal Judge Kennison Landis in Chicago, including Perry, Culver and Kane of this Committee, the transcript of this first conference held in Arizona, among many others held during the Copper Strikes during the summer of 1917 became damaging evidence against the Arizona defense in this action. Campbell appeared in this court as a witness for the Govt. and recognized a number of his forger conferees, all of which were convicted and served various terms in Federal prisons – all but Culver who turned out to be a Federal Secret Service man, planted in an important position.
At this first conference Culver as Chairman and spokesman for the Committee declaimed the aims and purpose and intent of the organization which admittedly was to stop all production for war use by any manner or means at their command. "The I.W.W. was against all wars because they were Capitalistic born and only the Worker suffered at home and died on the battle field. He declaimed, with great vigor and much heat in the Socialistic Doctrine of the equal division of property and profits, introducing for the record being then made. Culver subsiding, Perry called on each of the other members of the special committee, who added their testimony to that presented by Culver. The members of this special committee, in their eagerness to propound the ideology of the I.W.W. movement had lost sight of the purpose of this conference, viz., "to appeal for their constitutional and statutory rights to "peacefully picket" any operation or industry that would not meet their demands were brought to that point by their Atty. Perry. Upon direct examination by Perry and cross-examination by Campbell they admitted quite cheerfully that they used all measures at their command, save slugging
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and bloodshed to persuade the workers from returning to their jobs. Perry summed up the statement made by all the committee members, pulling no punches or retracting the opinion stated, closing with "Mr. Governor we appeal to you for justice and relief from the persecution of the sheriff and entrenched capital. We appreciate this opportunity to be received by you as the Chief Executive of this State and await your decision but would like it as soon as possible so we can know your attitude to Our Cause."
Convinced by the testimony presented that the I.W.W. as an organization was not a sincere development for the betterment of labor, but a movement to destroy all private enterprise and our democratic way of life I told Perry and the members of the Committee that my decision had already been reached, and for their information and the record, a copy of which would be in their hands tomorrow. I would state it now "I cannot subscribe to the aims and purposes of your organization and will while Governor of Arizona do all in my power to thwart your efforts to confiscate and destroy property of any and all kinds in the State of Arizona. I consider yours an outlaw organization and will act accordingly."
Perry arose, the Committee did likewise, including myself. He said "Well, you know where we stand and we have been open and above board with you. Someday you will learn more about the strength of this world wide movement of the working people who produce all wealth, suffer privations most, protect and support Government and die in wars or poverty. We did not expect any other decision from a member of the Capitalistic class but we do again thank you for the interview". Culver said in parting – we will be seeing you later when we are in the saddle, riding as you say Out West – riding high wide and handsome. The transcript, from which these verbatim references are taken further adds. "The Governor – The transcript of this conference will be available tomorrow, one of you come and get it for your files – Adios."
Perry called and receipted for the transcript. The strike was abandoned. The War Clouds for America were on the Eastern horizon. The I.W.W. turned toward copper – the Red Metal.
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I. W. W.
COPPER IN ARIZONA
With the United States entering World War No. 1 the demand for copper increased and was declared by President Wilson a strategic metal vitally necessary for war uses. Arizona was then producing 60 per cent of the Copper in the United States and 40 per cent of the world’s production. Copper producers were urged to increase production to meet the increased demand of the United States and The Allies. The goal set for Arizona was a billion pounds a year being 25 per cent greater than any previous year. A central buying authority was created representing both the U.S. and The Allies and the price fixed at 23 cents per pound. The copper companies met the challenge by increasing mine production, enlarging plant facilities, employing more men and increasing wages under the Butte Plan. In that war the Federal Govt. did not advance funds for Capital expenditures as in World War No. 2. All copper camps were booming in Arizona due to this expansion.
Inflation effecting the cost of living had not been felt as yet in the in the early part of 1917 but was approaching, due mainly to the increased purchasing power of the wage earners and their natural desire to enjoy the more abundant mode of living. With a guaranteed price for copper at 23 cents per pound plus the gold and silver contained in the raw ore as a savable by-product the Mining Companies were making magnificent profits, with resultant dividends to stockholders, the great majority of whom were out of state residents.
Patriotism ran high to win the war with all aid possible in supplying rugged men for soldiers and sailors, copper for guns and ships, cotton for tires, cattle, sheep and food stuffs to "make the World safe for Democracy". President Wilson’s "to proud to fight" was forgotten, politics were adjourned, Hoover, Food Administrator held the confidence and support of the Nation with his slogan – "Food Will Win the War," Arizona’s National Guard Regiment of Infantry, only 600 strong was approaching full war strength by eager volunteer enlistments, had been Federalized and was training on the Mexican Border, where it had been encamped for over a year. It was now known as the 150th U. S. Infantry and no longer under the jurisdiction of the Governor, who had by this action no forces under his direct command.
The sheriffs in the 14 counties and the Town Marshals or Chiefs of Police in cities were the sole forces to maintain law and order in their respective jurisdictions. The Governor had been formally advised by Secretary of War, Newton Baker that should situations arise where the Civil Officers would be
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unable through the sources at their command to maintain law and order the Governor could call upon Major-General H. A. Greene, U.S.A., commander of the District in which Arizona was located, with headquarters at Douglas, Arizona for such assistance as he, the General, deemed necessary to meet and control the situation.
In plainer words General Greene was the boss, deciding when and where troops were needed to preserve the peace and keep production of War necessities flowing. The governor could petition for help needed but the General had the final say.
The I. W. W.’s, under the leadership of Frank H. Little, nationally known chief lieutenant of Bill Haywood was diligently organizing the Mine, Mill and Smelter men throughout Arizona and the large Copper Camp at Cananea, Sonora, Mexico, located a few miles south of Naco and connected thereto by railroad. This property was owned and controlled by American Corporations, the Phelps-Dodge Corp being the controlling factor. The Cananea Copper Company was employing some 3000 workers in all their operations of which 80 per cent were Mexicans, the others being Americans occupying managerial, key and skilled position.
The whole set up at Cananea was a fertile field for I.W.W. purposes, the Mexican workers accepting the doctrines and preachments of the clever and well tutored Mexican organizers under Little, with the Red Banner typifying Revolution, the Red Card denoting membership, the slogan – "Mexico for Mexicans". Drive the Gringos out and divide the property and profits under a Socialistic program in accord with the teachings of the successful revolt against the Diaz government by Madero and successive revolution leaders including the prominent and heroic Pancho Villa, the bandit, but a worshipped hero in the eyes of the peasantry and workers in Cananea and along the Border of Sonora & Chichwaya(?)(Probably means Chihuahua). Was it not our beloved "Pancho," who with only a handful of brave followers raided Columbus, New Mexico, where a regiment of Gringo soldiers were stationed, forcing them to run for cover like a bunch of chickens, and out-foxed Black Jack Pershing and the entire American army in his leisurely return to his home in Parral.
Even old and superannuated Carranza, not popular with the Sonorans killed and captured a "whole regiment of U. S. A. negro soldiers," returning them to the
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United States as a token of his contempt and the demand that all Gringo forces evacuate the soil of Mexico before they were all killed or captured, and "didn’t his orders force Pershing and his white-livered soldiers to tuck their talks and return from whence they came, defeated and disgraced."
Plutarco Elias Calles, later to become President of Mexico, a resident for many years of Cananea and vicinity, engaged in teaching school and later as a proprietor of a small grocery store, a popular place of meeting of socialists, revolutionists and I. W. W. organizers had become a popular leader of these groups had become a prominent General in the Mexican Revolutionary Army. With this formidable group of Revolutionary leaders, the years old hatred of Capitalistic Americans the exhortations of I. W. W. leaders Cananea was ripe for a successful Strike, that promptly closed down all operations except the Railroad, the operating forces of which were practically all Americans.
Threats against the lives of all Americans were such that all women and children were hurriedly bundled up and sent to the States, husbands and other American employees followed. When this general exodus became apparent the lives of those left to protect the mines, mills and smelters were threatened with death. Appeals for military assistance to the U. S. Govt. went unheeded and the situation approached a crisis when the Strikers threatened to blow up the trains and rail-track if the Management did not immediately meet the demands of the Strikers.
I.W.W. – COPPER, CANANEA
THE GOVERNOR IS CALLED
Governor Campbell was informed of the situation and petitioned to intercede with President Wilson and the Secy. of War, which he did to be advised by the War Department to get in touch with General Greene at Douglas as per former instructions. This was done, a conference arranged for Campbell to meet General Greene at Douglas, stopping en route to visit and review the former Arizona National Guard at Naco, the Port of entry to Cananea. Upon arrival at Naco Campbell was met by Colonel Al Tuthill of The Guard and his staff and an U. S. Army Major in command of a battalion of Cavalry. The little Border town was filled with bewildered and anxious refugees over their men folks still detained in Cananea. Word of Campbell’s arrival
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arrival in Naco was telegraphed to Cananea with the suggestion to spread the news that he was there for the purpose of seeing that all Americans in Cananea would be protected and allowed to leave peacefully and harmless. The Review of the Infantry Regiment and the Battalion of Cavalry planned for the late afternoon was advanced in time, orders issued for the change and the Camp was alive. Full battle strength with marching equipment was ordered. Every officer and soldier, horse and mule drawn equipment, machine guns, mounted howitzers and pack trains in Camp turned out, presenting a resplendent and forceful fighting array as they passed the reviewing group, all mounted including the Governor. The period of preparation and the Review consumed several hours purposely so awaiting the word from Cananea that the last train of evacuees had left that place and was safely on its way to Naco. The imposing and impressive bluff worked. The trains arrived amid much rejoicing amongst the reunited families and friends and much disgust among the soldiers who thought at long last the orders of "Watchful Waiting" had been suspended and real action had begun. The strike at Cananea continued, all production of copper had ceased. The I.W.W. had been successful in attaining their principal objective – closing down the Copper Mines of the Southwest.
GOVERNOR ON TO CONFERENCE WITH
Governor Campbell took the E. P. & S. W. train arriving in Douglas an hour later to be received by Major General Greene and Staff at the station, accompanied by a guard of honor – a troop of cavalry which escorted them to the Gadsden Hotel where a brief reception was held with the Mayor of Douglas and citizens before proceeding to the Army Camp nearby for the purpose of viewing another Review of troops.
The ceremony over the Governor and General Greene reviewed the labor situation in Arizona, particularly the activities of the I. W. W. in the various Copper Camps. General Greene stated "that his orders from the Secretary of War was to cooperate with the Governor of Arizona to the extent that when he Greene, in his judgement deemed it necessary to preserve law and order and the production of the needed copper." These orders, in case of need of armed forces, other than civilian officers, made the Governor subservient to the Secretary of War but was accepted.
A plan of understanding and cooperation was agreed upon as follows:
Whereas, and if the Governor was called upon the Sheriffs of the several counties threatened or strikes had taken place beyond the control of the Sheriffs and an appeal had been made by them to the Governor for help and assistance, and in the judgement of the situation warranted the presence of troops the Governor was to petition General Greene for such need. Upon receipt of said petition he, Greene would promptly send an officer of rank and experience from his staff as his official representative and be guided in his future action by this officers recommendation.
General Greene was a blunt forceful character, a soldier of the Old Army School and as future events proved, prompt in action and dependable. The conference ended and the Governor returned that evening for Phoenix, the Capital counting the day well spent.
CLOUDS UPON THE HORIZON
The success of the I. W. W.’s at Cananea was a signal for immediate action and attack upon all the Copper Mines of Arizona. A lull of a few days after Cananea, a hurried trip by Frank Little to the various Copper Camps to confer with and survey his battle lines and then to Jerome, Arizona where the United Verde Copper Company was producing 10 million pounds of copper per month and the United Verde Extension Copper Co. was producing nearly 5 million pounds. Here Little found the Western Federation of Mines and Crafts of the American Federation of Labor better entrenched than in any other Mining District under the leadership of H. S. McCluskey, an experienced, astute, well educated and really brilliant student of organized labor, its aims, purposes and ambitions. He was a glass-blower by trade but a professional Labor organizer by profession, a student of economics and Government and law. An orator of real ability, honest and holding the confidence of his fellow Union men. Jerome was not what is commonly known as a Union Camp and the Unions as such were held only a "soft agreement" with the Copper Companies, who had accepted and had in effect the Butte Scale of wages. Robt. E. Talley was General Manager, asst. and active head, of the United Verde, was very popular with all his Employees. Talley was Virginia City, Nevada, born and bred of Pioneer mining people, educated as a Mining and
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Metallurgical Engineer at the Mackey School of Mines, Reno, Nevada. He came to the United Verde as Asst. Mine Foreman and over the years worked his way up the hard way to become Asst. General Manager of the great and rich United Copper Company, owned and controlled by U.S. Senator W. A. Clark of Montana. The General Manager of the Company was Charles W. Clark, senior, son of the Senator, a graduate Mining Engineer, a "Yale man", national and international "play-boy" of note, but withal a brilliant engineer when not engaged in his multitudinous hobbies. Charley, having complete confidence in Talley let him carry the burden and responsibilities of operating this world-renowned Copper property. Talley, knew mining from A to Izzard. He had been through the mill from mucker to manager, knew the "unit of all labor in every activity," knew men who worked with their strong bodies for he had experienced their days and nights labor. He was sympathetic and understanding of their very soul and was sympathetic. Talley was and until his untimely death the most honored and beloved Mine Manager in Arizona by those who worked with and for him.
James S. Douglas, son of the famous Dr. James Douglas and for many years the head of the Phelps Dodge Corporation, father of the notable statesman, Lewis S. Douglas was the President, General Manager, or the United Verde Extension Copper Co, and successful developer, when all others failed. Douglas was a self-made man, refusing an available college education though urged by his highly distinguished and well to do father. He preferred to learn his mining the hard and practical way, and while associated with his fathers many mining enterprises from very minor positions to Mine Manager was always independent and self sufficient in his own right. He always followed and backed his own untrammeled judgement. Douglas by hard work, over the years, and application, thrift and cautious investments was a well to do man. Conservative at the same time taking a "long chance," where others had failed with his own means and judgement. He was generous to old timers, with which he was associated in earlier days be they prospectors, mines, teamsters, gamblers and inn-keepers. Hundreds he helped, when need and help was needed. Jim Douglas had a deep sentiment for these old work-worn Pioneers and always good for a "quick touch" and to some he thought more worthy (of) substantial and continued assistance. An unusual man who rarely forgot old friends and never forgave an enemy. Being a hard worker
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himself he expected all of him employees to follow his example, hence was classed as a "hard taskmaster" and not popular with the massed, who were not taken into his heart. Douglas was absolutely opposed to the principal of collective bargaining and Unions. He believed that every man should bargain for himself, retain his own freedom of action and sell his labor when, where and for whom he choose. To him every worker was an individual to be treated as such and always paid good wages for a good days work.
Against these two strong men and the Corporation they represented were the guns of the Wobblies aimed, with Frank Little leading the attack with a small number of militant and well trained followers. McCluskey leader of the A. F. of L. adherents stood on the sidelines allocated on a steep mountain side was the living abode of the employees of both Companies. The United Verde Mine Works being "Up the Hill" and the Extension "down the Gulch." The respective Smelting Plants being located at Clarkdale and Clemenceau (the latter under construction) some 6 and 8 miles away respectively, both near the Verde River, but several miles apart. A narrow road connected the Town with the United Verde Mine, intersecting the Extension Road on the Main Street of the Town, thus easily patrolled by Picketers or Peace officers.
On a bright sunny June, 1917 morning the I. W. W. began their assault against the United Verde, throwing out their Pickets armed with handbills declaring a strike was in effect, urging all Employees to remain away from their jobs until the demands printed upon the hand bills had been obtained from the two Copper Companies. The demands were for a "6 hour day, 6 days a week, a minimum wage of $6.00 a ‘closed shop’ with the ‘check-off system’ elimination of the Company Store and a reduction in rents and utilities-water and electric lights.
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There was only about a dozen I. W. W. on the Picket-Line meeting the Morning Shift going to work and the Graveyard (right) Shift coming off, both using the narrow road – an ideal place to distribute the posters and urge the men to join in the strike or be Scabs against organized labor. A goodly number of the Morning Shift employees heeding the demands and threats of the Pickets turned back and with lunch buckets in hands returned to their homes to await the outcome of the attack. The news of the Strike in effect spread through the District like wild-fire. Employees, loyal to the Company after years of employment and non-members of either the A F of L or the I. W. W. went through the Picket Line, notwithstanding personal abuse and some rough handling, but the large majorities of the workers remained away. so much so that the United Verde Mining Plant employing about 1500 men was forced to cease operation. To a lesser degree but also effective, the Extension was forced to do likewise. Thus a handful of non-resident and non-employed I. W. W. leaders shut off the production of 4000 tons of copper ore per day It should be stated that while there was much feeling existing between the Officers of the A F of L Unions and the I. W. W. leaders the former was sympathetic with the Strike, hoping thereby to gain recognition from the Copper Companies as the sole bargaining agency, make Jerome and the Verde District in which a number of other Companies were operating, but none as yet in the production stage, a Union Community, including the Smelter towns of Clarkdale and Clemenceau, not as yet effected by the strike.
Sheriff Joe Young and deputies with Fred Hawkins, long term Town Marshall and his Deputies were keeping the peace. Numerous fist fights between sympathizers and non-sympathizers occurred daily, threats to blow up the mining Plants, the Narrow gauge railroad connecting Jerome with the outside world.
[end p. 16]
(The present splendid Federal Highway was still "on paper") were increasing. Casked cases of dynamite of ruse in the mines were found as well as hand make bombs, unique in character and as effective as super-hand grenades. These bombs were constructed by filling empty condensed milk cans with dynamite, bolts, nuts, nails and screws, placing in the can an explosive cap with a short piece of fuse. This grenade was compact, quickly lighted, easily handled and deadly in effect. Fortunately none were used buy experiments showed their effectiveness.
As a matter of discipline, long and well tested as an effective manner in which to hold strikers "in line" under observation by their leaders, to impress the operators and the community of their strength and solidarity, marching with banners asserting their demands and American Flags had become a daily occurrence on the public streets. To keep interest, excitement, and emotion at a high pitch, leaders of racial workers addressed them in their own language, attempts to "march on" to the Company Plants for a demonstration and what not was frustrated by Sheriff Young and mounted deputies, but only after strong resistance. The intensity of feeling from hundreds of unemployed men grow hourly. The "pot" having reached a boiling point with many members of the A F of L Unions taking out Red Cards of the I. W. W. thereby weakening the membership of the older Unions, they the officers of the A F of L led and directed by the astute McCluskey countered the I. W. W. demands as heretofore noted with proposal in the form of a petition to the Mines Management. This proposal was accepted by the Companies for consideration and as a basis for negotiation. The demands of
[end p. 17]
the I. W. W. had been rejected in toto by the Companies. When this situation arose the I. W. W. noted they were losing command and followers a bitter fight arose between these two divergent leaderships, thus a three cornered fight ensued with the I. W. W. threatening dire reprisals upon the Companies that completely ignored them but was dealing with their Labor-enemies and competition. Sheriff Young, after days and nights spent in "holding the peace" and noting the situation becoming worse rather than better petitioned the Governor for assistance. The Mine Management did likewise. The Governor who had been a resident of Jerome for over ten years, engaged in Mining knew Sheriff Young and Marshall Hawkins very well also the Mine Managers. He felt that the Strike situation in Jerome must be serious else these valiant and courageous officers would not call for assistance until and unless they needed it badly.
It should be noted here that the great majority of Arizona Sheriffs and other Peace Officers were proud of their ability to protect all property and persons under their jurisdiction without calling for outside support, and only in the last extremity would they do so. Later events in other Copper Camps proved this to be true.
The Governor upon receipt of this "Call for Help" communicated the petition to General Greene at Douglas, requesting his cooperation and assistance in consonance with the previous understanding.
General Greene advised the Governor that Lt. Colonel J. J. Hornbrook as his representative would report to the Governor and with him proceed to Jerome and as a Reviewing Officer
[end p. 18]
report his findings and recommendations to him for final action. In plainer words General Greene assumed the role of final arbiter so far as armed forces were concerned in this appeal as well as all others during the strikes in Arizona during the summer of 1917.
Colonel Hornbrook, a Cavalry officer, known throughout the Army and The Border where he had served for years, as "Sunny Jim" was a large man, an imposing figure in his Cavalry uniform, calm in manner, endowed with an unruffled disposition, much common sense and good judgement. Unlike many Regular Army Officers he was an "easy mixer" with all kinds of people. Mine Managers and Miners were all the same kind of clay to Sunny Jim.
The Governor and Colonel Hornbrook proceeded to Jerome by rail, arriving in Jerome in the late afternoon in time to witness a "well drilled marching demonstration" by the Strikers and their families, all carrying American Flags. The parade was orderly conducted and was arranged to impress the Governor and Colonel Hornbrook of their attitude and solidarity.
None of the known leaders of the I. W. W. or the A. F. of L. were recognized in the parade, No speeches were made or demands presented and the parade quietly disbanded. The armed mounted deputies, headed by Sheriff Young remained at their station as night fell.
The evening and well into the night the Governor and the Colonel held conferences with sheriff Young and Marshall Hawkins obtaining their experiences and views on the situation, also McCluskey and the Grievance Committee representing the A F of L and last buy not least the IWW leader Frank Little and his Grievance
[end p. 19]
Committee, who petitioned for a presentation of their side of the contest.
Little, whose general reputation as a Red and saboteur, a killer if need be was a great surprise to the Governor who had never met or seen him before. Instead of being a big, rough, tough, low-browed looking criminal he looked just the opposite – more like a well dressed, well groomed clerk, average in stature, clear unwavering eyes, well shaped forehead, short straight nose and a strong chin. All in all a good looking man of about 40 years of age.
Little had superb composure, talked with a soft well modulated voice, so unlike many other militant leaders and Committee members of the I. W. W. Governors need to meet later. Before he presented the I. W. W. demands for discussion he said "You, Mr. Campbell are the second Governor I have ever met and I want to thank you for receiving and recognizing this Committee from our organization. I saw you a number of times, years ago when you were manager of the Haynes Copper Co and the Jerome Verde. At that time I was a member of the Western Federation of Miners and worked a few shifts in the "Big Hole" – referring to the United Verde, but she was too hot for me, and I could not put up with "the chow" at the Old Mulligan – the Company Boarding House. Continuing Little said, When you were mining here I never expected to see you Governor of Arizona as I did not think any Republican could ever lick my good friend Governor Hunt. You know better than I do that Arizona is a very strong Democratic State and organized labor, including the Railroad Boys are always strong for Governor Hunt. Little was well informed on the political and labor situation in Arizona and could have conversed all night on these interesting but inappropriate and inopportune subjects.
Upon request he presented the I. W. W. demands upon the Copper Companies, also the ideologies of the I. W. W. organization, similar and almost verbatim as those presented in the Goodyear Cotton Co. Strike by Grover H. Perry, already referred to.
Colonel Hornbrook made copious notes of Little’s presentations and asked him many pertinent questions, all of which he answered with
[end p. 20]
cavil or equivocations.
Little had been advised – it was Town Talk that the Governor and the Big Army Officer was holding a meeting with the Mining Operators the following morning – so he wanted to be advised if the Governor would arrange to have him appear at this meeting to present his demands. The Governor told him that the meeting was for the purpose of hearing from the Operators and that neither the A F of L or the I. W. W. representatives would be present but in any event the Governor would not present the IWW demands or request the Operators to receive Little and his Committee for the reason that he considered them an Outlaw Organization, intent on destroying the old established A. F. of L. organization and the stoppage of copper production so necessary for war purposes. Little was visibly disturbed with this blunt statement by the Governor, stating calmly as he left the conference, "I am not surprised at your attitude and action Mr. Governor but when the Supreme Court decides the election contest, now on appeal before them and Governor Hunt is again sitting on the throne, we will have a friend at Court," Note: Campbell, on the face of the official election returns in November 1916 was elected Governor over Hunt by 30 votes, and Campbell was seated after a bitter battle had been decided by a divided court decision Justices Ross and Franklin approving and Cunningham dissenting. Hunt continued his contest for the office on the allegation that "there had been fraud and irregularities in every precinct in every County in Arizona, demanding a recount of all ballots. The recount of all ballots was held in the Superior Court of Maricopa County, Judge R. C. Stanford presiding. It is well to note that Judge Stanford was a Democrat, as were all members of the State Supreme Court. After months of ballot counting and hundreds of witnesses for both sides had testified Judge Stanford decided that Campbell had been elected by a majority of 67 votes.
Hunt appealed Stanford’s decision to the Supreme Court here it was presiding at the time of the Jerome strike. Months after the I. W. W. insurrection in Arizona occurred and industrial peace had been effected the Supreme Court decided that Hunt was the victor by a majority of 43 votes.
[end p. 21]
With a hearty hand-shake and a smile on his face Little said "We’ll be seeing you again in the near future when we are dealing the hands." Big Mike Sullivan of the "Dear Mike letter fame" from Governor Hunt and a member of the Committee interrupted further conversation by Little with – "For Christ’s sake lets get out of here and get going". Little and Campbell never met again. He was shortly afterwards found hanging from a railroad trestle outside Butte, Montana, but the revolutionary seed he had sown in the Copper Camps and elsewhere in Arizona was sprouting in fallow ground, and already becoming fateful and poisonous fruit.
The demands of the IWW being ignored by the Governor and the Mine Operators negotiations began between the Grievance Committees of the A. F. of L. and the Operators, the Governor acting as Conciliator. Many conferences were held covering a period of two days and nights. Meantime Colonel Hornbrock mixed with the Strikers, IWW and A. F. of L. alike, peace ensued. The very presence of this kindly impressive looking Army Officer proved an effective tonic. He represented the authority of the Federal Government with trained uniformed forces at his command, if need be and all hands knew and respected it.
Of the seven demands made by A. F. & L. all but two were granted by the Mines Management and an agreement entered into. The demands denied was (1) Recognition of the A. F. & L. as the sole bargaining agent with the closed shop, and (2) The check off system. Note: The Closed Shop is defined by Union Labor as a 100 percent Union Job, no one to obtain employment unless a member of the Union in good standing. The check-off systems means the collection of all dues, assessments and penalties levied by the Union by the Employer. When the settlement between the A. F. of L. and the United Verde and United Verde Ext. with all the smaller Operators in the District accepting its terms and conditions the Strike was called off Union and non-union and all employees, returning to their jobs, without prejudice. Mine production was resumed in time to prevent the closing down of the Smelters.
The I. W. W. organizers and their few followers, opposed the settlement, those heretofore employed refused to return to work and continue their
[end p. 22]
strike with threats of violence to those employees who had returned to work. In view of the presence of this militant menace to the future peace of the Verde District, Colonel Hornbrook upon the request of the Governor, recommended to General Greene that a Company of Infantry be assigned to Jerome for such a time as definite peace had been restored.
The Governor and Colonel Hornbrook returned to their respective stations, Phoenix and Douglas, grateful for the results attained on this their first Strike mission.
The soldiers took their time in arriving at Jerome but during the interim the Wobblies continued their various activities, in the District. This was the situation on June – 1917 when a Committee was created, composed of Mine Operators, members of the A. F. of L. and Citizens for the purpose of ridding the District of the IWW and their sympathizers. This Committee gathered up Wobblies, marched them to the Railroad Station, placed them in cars and deported them to Jerome Jct., where another train awaited them, guarded by a number of Citizens from Prescott and shunted them off to Ashfork on the main line of the Santa Fe Railroad. From there they were taken to Kingman, Arizona and unloaded, a total distance from Jerome of 145 miles. The Governor was not aware of this action and movement until he received a telegram from the Sheriff of Mohave County protesting the dumping of these undesirables on his community and requesting his advice. The Governor replied "Turn them loose." This was done and thus the first Deportation of Wobblies occurred during the War Summer of 1917.
No action was ever taken against those responsible for this Deportation. In fact the incident is but little known or ever referred to by the people of Arizona or elsewhere. The Wilson (Secretary of Labor) Commission in its investigation of Labor Troubles in Arizona during 1917 gave it scant attention when they ascertained that the A. F. of L. through its members aided and abetted this action.
After the Jerome Deportation and the arrival of troops no further strikes of stoppages of Copper production occurred in this District. The poison well had been removed. The Governor alone, faced the music of future public praise and comdemnation.
While the Wobblies had lost their fight at Jerome they had made headway
[end p. 23]
in their attacks upon the Copper Camps of Globe and Miami, Bisbee, Clifton and Morenci. Ray of all the major copper camps remaining untouched by the Wobblies. The reason was due to foresightedness of the General Manager of the Ray Consolidated Copper Co. Mr. Lewis S. Cates, now President of the Phelps-Dodge Corp.
Ray held an isolated position in the rugged mountains of Pinal County, connected with the outside world by a single county road and a Railroad, controlled by the Company to its Junction Point with the Arizona Eastern Ry. at Kelvin, a rarely used and almost impossible road connected with Superior, site of the Magma Copper Co. Anyone entering Ray was obliged to use the Railroad or these two roads. A handful of Company Deputy Sheriffs could easily command them and under Cates they did. No suspicious character or known labor agitator was permitted to enter the were quickly picked up and with the help of Judge French, Justice of the Peace were arrested as a vagrant or trespasser and "floated out of Town." Ray was an out and out, 100 percent, non-union community, and this means all Unions. Cates well earned his sobriquet "The Czar of the Pinals." Ray had no strikes, Cates’ methods worked during the critical period. The inference might be gained that Cates was a rough-neck, came up in the mining game to his commanding position in the Copper World, the hard way but he was not by any means.
Lewis S. Cates was born (a blue blood) of a distinguished New England family, educated and a graduate of the famed Massachusetts Institute of Technology as Mining Engineer. Casting his future in the Western Copper Camps his ability and courage to tackle tough and difficult jobs was soon recognized by his Employers. He pushed up the ladder rung by rung until he Became General Manager of the Ray Consolidated Copper Co. at Ray, Arizona, a stepping stone to higher and more important positions. Cates, the cultured gentleman was a natural mixer among all kinds – a firm and trustworthy friend to high and low alike and an unforgiving enemy.
By June – 1917 Strikes had been called by the Wobblies and passively participated in by the members of the A. F. of L. in a manner referred to in the earlier Jerome Strike. The Governor was in daily, almost hourly contact with these situations, particularly with the Sheriffs and Peace Officers of the affected communities. Assurances had been given the law and order officers by
[end p. 24]
the Governor of such help and assistance as he could give them if the need arose.
Miami, six miles from Globe the county seat of Gila County was a comparatively new Copper Camp, springing up almost over night as a very important copper producer from very low grade copper ore, of which there was and still is hundreds of millions of tons of ore carrying around 20 pounds of copper per 2000 pounds of ore. This huge low-grade deposit was known to the mining world for many years but could not be handled profitable until it had been successfully demonstrated by the Utah Copper Company that by using improved methods of mining and milling on the scale of thousands of tons of ore daily it could and would show a profit.
The Miami Copper Company, owned and controlled by the Lewishons was first in this field of production. Millions of dollars had been expended in mine exploration and development, a 10000 ton copper day capacity Mill had been constructed, water for mining and milling demands had been developed after great difficulty. The enterprise was a success, Miami, the Town was a busy hustling community of 8000 (?) people.
The Inspiration Copper Co. followed in this field, after years in mine exploration and development, transportation lines, water and a 30000 ton daily capacity Mill had just reached full production. To accomplish this result some "20,000,000" had been expended.
Near by the International Smelting Co. had constructed a fine, up to date Smelter for the purpose of smelting all the concentrated ores from the Miami Copper Co., Inspiration and other ones in the District including those from the Mines in the Globe area.
Both the Inspiration Copper Co. and the International Smelting Co. were subsidiary compositors of the Anaconda Copper Co. of Montana. Both the Miami Copper and the Inspiration were so called – dry mines, that is they waste practically no water for service in their necessary operations. This handicap and the ever increasing demand for water by these large consumers necessitated obtaining water from the excess amount being — by the Old Dominion Copper Co., near Globe and some six miles distant. The O. D. was making millions of gallons daily which had to be pumped from great depths or else their mine workings would be flooded and the mine wrecked. In other words if the O. D. mine pumps were shut down, the Mills, works and Smelter at Miami must cease operation as well as the Destruction of the O. D. Mine itself.
[end p. 25]
The Wobblies were well aware of these facts. Shut down the O. D. pumps and their battle of sabotage would be easily and quickly won throughout both Districts. 6000 employees out of jobs, 30000 inhabitants distressed, millions of dollars of property imperiled, and last but by no means least, a million pounds of copper per day withheld from war uses. The Wobblies attack was on the O. D. Shut down the O. D. mine pumps and we can win the revolution was the orders. Control the roads and trails entering this property, prevent employees from manning the power plant, hoisting engines and the mine pumps and we’ve got the Wall Streeters licked. One road connected the O. D. plant with the County road and Main Street of Globe; control this road and victory was certain. This was promptly done by massing hundreds of men, women and children on this narrow road – the strikers claimed they had the legal right to do so under Arizona Law of Peaceful Picketing – to the entrance to the O. D. property. All trails into and from the plant was guarded by the Strikers, using force if necessary to prevent loyal employees from giving relief to their fellow who were remaining on their jobs.
When the "Mass Picketing" was established on July 3rd and Sheriff Tom Armer attempted to enter the O. D. works he was prevented to do so. His car was forcibly turned around and he was told to get going or get hurt. Sheriff Armer was an Old Time Cattle man and long resident of Gila County. He was a brave man and experienced peace officer, proudful of his ability to deal fairly with all classes of people using persuasion in the enforcement of his duties rather than force but he had never experienced before a major strike and the problem of dealing with "mass picketing" led by determined men using all methods to gain their objective.
Conscious of the purpose of the IWW leaders to shut down the O. D. plant and its effect upon both the Miami and Globe Districts, appealed to for help and protection by the Mine Management and the citizens of Miami and Globe. Armer increased his small permanent force of Deputies by obtaining from the far and near cattle ranges a number of raring, rooting, tooting hard riding cowboys, all old personal friends and former associates of the Cowman Armer, ready to follow their sheriff through hell and high-water, Armer knew the temper of these men and their natural antagonism to anyone interfering with the war effort and particularly the non-resident Wobblies. When Armer was turned back by the Mass Picketers, these Cowboy Deputies declared the time had come to start riding and shooting their way
[end p. 26]
through the line. Armer knew what such action would mean and he alone as Sheriff, would be responsible for such a holocaust. Persuading his angry forces to remain on station around the County Court Hous until he could get word of the situation to the Governor, and with their promise to do so he telephoned the Governor at Phoenix late the evening of July 3rd explaining the critical situation at the O. D. and the urgent need of outside help.
The Governor had also been in close communication with Mayor Keegan of Globe and the Episcopal Minister Johnson who had been elected Major of the Citizens Home Guard. Major Johnson had had experience as a Non Commissioned officer in the Regular Army before entering the Episcopate, was popular and much beloved by the people of Globe and a Patriot to the core. Johnson followed the communication from Sheriff Armer that the situation was so tense that he had mobilized the Home Guard and that sixty or seventy members were at that time billeted in a building near the Court House, and prepared to protect the Town against the threatened mob violence. The Guard had been partially armed with S. S. Springfield Rifles and ammunition, sequestered by order of the Superior Court Judge Walter Shute while awaiting delivery to a small force of former Arizona Nat’l Guardsmen on post at the Roosevelt Dam and Power Plant some 40 miles distant. Those Guardsmen not armed with Springfields had their own sporting rifles, shot guns and pistols.
Major Johnson also urged the Governor for immediate action.
The Governor communicated these requests for Federal assistance to Major General Greene stationed at Douglas to be advised that he was sending his representative Major Burdell to review the situation and that he would arrive in Globe by train the morning of the Fourth of July to report to and consult with the Governor.
[end p. 27]
The Governor advised Sheriff Armer and Major Johnson that he was leaving Phoenix by auto via the Apache Trail - the present Superior, Miami, Globe, Highway having not yet begun and sould arrive in Globe around 2 or 3 o'clock in the morning unless suffering a break-down or interference by strikes. Joe Prochaska, State Game Warden, was pressed into service, having a sturdy car and being an excellent driver acquainted with the steep, rocky and tortuous road. Excepting a heavy thunder and lightning storm - more noise than rain, parked cars and trucks on the roadside for the night or awaiting the abatement of the storm no delay or incident occured and record time was made.
Globe was dark upon arrival except the Sheriff's office, the Home Guards' rendezvous and the Dominion Hotel across the way. Stopping first at the Sheriff's office the Governor was met by Sheriff Armer and the situation reviewed with Major Johnson of the Home Guards and plans of action agreed upon for the day. They were simple. The Governor would assume all resopnsibility and authority as he might need and call for from the Sheriff, Town Marshall, Mayor, Home Guards and citizens thus setting up an undisclosed Martial Law. That until seven o'clock when Major Burdell would arrive "all hands" would remain at their posts until called to action. The Mine Managers were noticeable by their absence this historic Fourth of July morning.
The Governor's headquarters for the day and those succeeding were in the parlor suite of the Dominion Hotel. The faithful and ever present Prochaska and hte most efficient and competent stenographer (former Court Reporter), Fred Lynch for the Governor’s office, constituted the Governor's Aides. No sleep was attempted or needed, an early breakfast and the arrival of Major Burndell.
The Fourth of July, as always in the past years, was a day of general celebration in Globe. In view of the War the celebration had been planned on a big scale. A grand parade of all school children, fraternal organizations, firemen, patriotic pageants, mounted cowboys from the cattle country and public addresses for the morning program, to be followed in the afternoon
[end p. 28]
by a Championship Baseball Game between the Miamians and Globeites - both semi-professional teams well supported by the two communities, drilling contests between the hard-rock miners of the District and Cowboy Sports. A real old-fashioned Fourth of July Celebration was to be entered into and enjoyed by all, and the Community amidst the largest and bitterest labor strife ever held in the District. All stores and shops were closed for the holiday - saloons were out and had been since State Prohibitions had gone into effect on Jan'y 1st, 1915.
Major Burdell arrived, booted and spurred in full uniform, met at the Railroad station by the Governor and taken a block away to the Dominion Hotel where quarters had been reserved. Without delay they went to the Sheriff's office to meet Sheriff Armer and hear repeated his difficulty with the Mass Picketers. Armer was surrounded by his armed regular and Cowboy Deputies, Major Johnson of the Home Guards and a goodly number of them were in attendance – the scene had the appearance of a Border Revolutionary Army prepared to repel the attacking forces, only awaiting the Command to "get going."
Major Burdell reviewed the situation calmly, told those assembled that his orders from General Greene was to report to the Governor, personally look over the situation and report his conclusions upon the peace and order in the community and the need of troops to General Greene for its preservation.
Both the Governor and Major Burdell agreed that the first thing to do was to pay a personal visit to the scene of the Picketing and ascertain for themselves how the picketing was being conducted and the situation effecting the O. D. plant and Mine Pumping. The second move was a request for transportation to the scene of action. Two motor trucks were immediately made available, in fact they were in readiness, well filled with food and bedding for the beleaguered Mine Manager, plant watchmen, Power House and the men working the precious Mine Pumps, also Ice, milk and provisions for the O. D. Hospital, located within the plant area.
The Governor called for volunteer drivers for the two trucks. A chorus replied, the Governor selected the Superior Court Judge (Walter G. Shute) to drive the truck he was to occupy, and an unknown and unarmed man to accompany Major Burdell. The Sheriff, deputies and all members of the Home Guard were requested by the Governor to remain where they were awaiting his further orders.
[end p. 29]
Without escort the two trucks started down the Main Street – The Governor leading. Burdell following – toward the Road entering the O. D. Plant, which should be noted was enclosed by a high wire fence. A locked gate, attended by two Company watchmen, allowed entrance.
This road was filled its entire length and width by a mass of people, men, women and children, many of the former being armed with clubs and pick-handles, the latter with sticks and stones. At least a thousand people were present listening to addresses from several of their leaders. As soon as the Truck occupied by the Governor and Judge Shute turned into this road a hue and cry went up from the mobs – "You can’t come in here – You can’t come in here, You can’t cross our Picket Line. The Speaking ceased and the Truck was quickly surrounded and caused to stop or else crush many persons. The Governor arose from his seat and was immediately recognized by some of the leaders who beckoned to all for quite. "This is the Governor let him talk" came from several leaders, none of which were then recognized. The Governor said "I am here to restore peace and order in this District. The Sheriff has tried to and failed. Your actions yesterday and this morning proved that need and I am here as the Chief Executive of this State for that purpose, even should the declaration of Martial Law by necessary – and you all know what that means. Boohing, hissing and cat-cauling ensued. Turn him back, turn the SOB back became the chorus. During these few fateful moments, the truck in low-gear and the engine running, the Governor said "Open up that line we are going inside." The truck slowly started, several of the leaders mounted the sides and waiving their hands to their followers shouted "Open up the line. Open up and let them through." Immediately, the mob opened up, the gate was thrown over and the Truck proceeded to the O. D. Mine office before proceeding with its badly needed cargo – but Major Burdell and his truck of bedding etc. did not show up. I was quickly certain that the Strikers had held up the Burdell’s Truck, turned it around toward Town with the statement to him that they had let the Governor thru The Lines only, after he had consented to their demands that his Governor’s Truck would be the only one allowed thru the lines. Of course no such consent had been given but it worked with Major Burdell, and he never did deliver the truck, instead reported the occurrence to the Sheriff without any concern whatever, saying. Governor Campbell has the situation well in hand, later he learned the real truth and reason for so doing, when the Wobbly Leaders and those hundreds present told all over the
[end p. 30]
District how "they had turned back the Tin Soldier."
Mr. P. G. Beckett was General Manager of the Old Dominion Copper Co. when interviewed by the Governor. He was so angry at his plight, and so incensed by the lack of protection of his critical responsibilities that he could hardly converse audibly. His British Blood was boiling and had been for the three days he had been forced to remain at his post, during which time he took no rest or sleep. Calming down a bit he recounted the treatment he and his loyal employees had received at the hand of the Strikers, the futile efforts of the Sheriff to protect them, the gallantry and patriotism of the Home Guard, but "Why in hell don’t you get help from the U.S. Army, who are at your disposal as have been advised from Douglas." You got soldiers for Jerome, why not this District which is ten times "Redder" than Jerome and has twice the production of Copper.
The Governor — his dependence upon Brig. General Greene, his own desire to obtain soldier help and reliance upon Major Burdell’s recommendation to General Greene of the immediate need of help. The telephone ringing interrupted the Governors further explanation of his present situation. Beckett answered it saying "Yes he is here. What’s that? The Major was turned back? Good God, What’s next?" Yes, yes we must have some relief."
The conversation between Becket and evidently the Sheriff or Undersheriff was interrupted by a maddened roar from the mob down on the near-by road. The Governor and Beckett rushed to the door to ascertain what was happening to arouse the mob, who had quieted down during the brief interview, to see a large truck filled with armed Cowboys passing through the gate and on up to the office. Becket was noticeably pleased and thanked the deputies for coming. The Governor was visibly perturbed and disappointed at their coming, contrary to his final orders to the Sheriff and ordered them out of that Truck into the one he brought in and return immediately with him to the Sheriff’s office. With but few exceptions they obeyed and the return trip began with Judge Shute driving. The Cowboy Deputies mumbled and grumbled about Tin Soldiers and "no guts" anymore in this Country, passed through the gate to encounter the howling, cursing mob, vile in their epithets toward all in the Truck, but particularly the Cowboy Deputies who had but a few minutes
[end p. 31]
before "crashed their unpregnable Picket Line." The Truck moved slowly through the mass, while the cursing and damning increased. These moments were the tensest and most critical during this whole strike. Caution and calmness must prevail on the part of the Armed Cowboys or else a massacre would occur. "Keep your head boys, keep your heads, remember your sworn officers of the law pleaded the Governor. Don’t a soul shoot unless we have to to get out of here and we will soon be thru there."
The truck moving at a snails pace suddenly stopped dead, and do all he could with, gears, starter and curses could not start it. The mob crowded upon it with shouts "pull the SOB’s off, all of them, stick their guns up their ass the damn bastards." Fortunately, this truck had a high body, the 20 or so Cowboys standing in a solid group with rifles ready for instant use were a formidable looking group of quick shooting, determined men and while the mob threatened violence their leaders held them under control, save the curses uttered. No rock or club or cold was thrown; had there been the consequences would have been horrible to relate. The Governor addressing the Strike Leaders requested the mob to get away from the truck, allow all on board to get out and proceed Up Town. This was done, but the mob followed the close order marching group out of the road, on to the Main Street and Up Town, hurling a continuous string of curses. With the Governor and Judge Shute urging peace and patience, the group marched up the middle of Main Street. "Look what’s coming down the Street" from a dozen throats at once. The Home Guard, 100 strong in non descript clothes, 12 abreast in military fashion on the quick step, all armed to the teeth, and the first two lines with bayonets on the U. S. Springfield Rifles, and the Episcopal Minister, Acting Major F. M. Johnson, Jr. in command at their head.
The Preacher-Major was a commanding looking figure in his outfit – a campaign hat of Spanish-American vintage, Khaki shirt open at the throat desplaying a small gold crucifix on a chain, khaki riding pants tucked into high sporting boots and around his waste an ammunition belt. His side arms, swinging low on the him a Regular Army 45 automatic revolver. In this outfit the Major was truly prepared for action and not for a Chaplain’s duty.
[end p. 32]
The howling cursing mob followed the Governor and the Deputies saw the oncoming Home Guard as soon as Main Street was entered and in groups left the street for the sidewalks and side streets, mixing with the people there. The shouting ceased, quiet prevailed save the tread of marching feet on the macadam and the grumbling of the insulted and frustrated Cowboys, one, more audible than the others, but expressing their hurt feelings said time and again, "Hell, I rid all the way from the Mogollon Rim to get me a Wobbly Scalp and all I git is what Pete Kitchen got in Sonora." The tension of the past quarter-hour which seemed like hours was broken by Reds complaints and general bantering along like lines was indulged in. A talking Cowboy is always a certain sign of amiability.
The Home Guards and the Governors Group met in the middle of the street. Major Johnson called upon his Company to Halt and present arms. With soldierly dignity and in proper form, saluted the Governor saying, "Sir I present the Globe Home Guard to you. What is your command."
The Governor accepting the salute said "Major Johnson, return your Guards to their quarters and await further orders." The Major gave his command – "Right about face, march." The Guard returned to quarters as directed and remained there during the day.
The Governor with the Deputies returned to the Sheriff’s office in the Jail Building where he met Sheriff Armer and demanded to know who had sent in the Truck and Deputies against his orders. Armer replied "I did – because I felt that you were in danger and needed help." "Who told you I needed help" the Governor asked. Armer relpied – "One of my deputies telephoned me that he heard a conversation between several of the Strike Leaders that they were going to hold you up when you came out of the Plant until you agreed to bring out all the Deputies who were patrolling the entrances to the works," When I got this word and knowing what they did to the Army Major I thought it was time to act and I assume responsibility for so doing. As a matter of fact they did cripple the truck and left you afoot, didn’t they? When I heard that you were stranded and a big fight was coming off I sent word to the Home Guard what was happening, and told them to get busy at once and rescue you and Judge Shute. Now that’s the whole story, except that you don’t
[end p. 33]
know these Red Bastards as well as I do and what they are up to. You can’t handle them by talking pretty and treating them decently like white men. I’ve tried to for the last three days and see what they did to me. You better get government troops up here "muy pronto" or there will be hell to pay just as soon as they find out that "long finger of yours is not loaded". My outside deputies are all fed up and are threatening to saddle up and go home, the Home Guard are grumbling and losing confidence in your desire or ability to bring in relief."
The Governor explained his position with reference to getting troops, his dependence upon the recommendations of Major Burdell to General Greene, that he would talk to the Deputies and the Home Guard requesting them to remain on duty until relief came which he was urging. They all agreed. By this hour a large crowd of Citizens had gathered at the Court House and Jail to be present at the next move. The 4th of July parade was called off but the Governor made an address to them from the danger to life and property was over, that he was conferring as soon as possible with the Strikers Grievance Committees of both the A F of L and I. W. W. unions with the hope to have them abandon their Mass Picketing of the O. D. Plant, threats to and against families of non-union employees including those on the jobs, remain in their homes and celebrate the 4th of July in a quite manner in order to avoid entanglements with the Strikers. That everything possible was being done to ease the pent-up tension to the end that peace and order would obtain. The address was respectfully but not enthusiastically received and the crowd dissapated.
The Governor went to the Hotel to confer with Major Burdell and learn the details of his "enforced turn back" by the Strikers, his conclusions, if any about recommend troops for the area. The Major was little concerned that he was not allowed to enter the O. D. Plant. That he had not witnessed any violence on the streets or elsewhere. That the Governor had the situation "well at hand" and saw no reason for recommending the calling for troops at this time. A Committee from the I. W. W. with headquarters in Miami called upon the Governor and requested that they present their grievances which was granted upon their promise to abandon their "Mass picketing" of the O. D. Plant and refrain from parading on the Main Street of Globe as was threatened. With reluctance and opposition within the Committee they stated they would have to hold a meeting with their leader members and present to them the
[end p. 34]
Governors demand, reporting later the results of their efforts. Up to this time no request for a conference had been made by the officers of the affiliated union of the A. F. of L. They held that the strike was brought about and being conducted by the I. W. W. and that their policy was to be one of "watchful waiting", meantime advising their members not to attempt to pass through the I. W. W. Picket Line and return to their employment. At 4 pm an augmented Committee of the I. W. W. returned and reported they had succeeded in abandoning the afternoon parade but could not persuade their followers to abandon the Mass Picketing of the O. D. Plant for the reason that to do so would be giving up their principal weapon by which the Copper Companies would be forced to meet their demands.
The conference was held in the Dominion Hotel, ten representatives of the I. W. W. being present headed by Roger S. Culver as Chairman, the same individual who was so prominent in the Goodyear Cotton Company Strike already referred to. The demands were the same as presented at Jerome ten days with the addition that the I. W. W. was to be the sole bargaining agent for all labor in the District, the claim being made that the I. W. W. membership at that time far exceeded in numbers the membership in the A. F. of L. Unions. The Governor, Major Burdell and Reporter Lynch who took down all the statements made were present. The members of the Committee pulled no punches in their demands or purposes, stating that it was their purpose to control all labor in the Copper Camps of Arizona. Kick out the ineffective, weak and Copper Controlled A. F. of L. that until their demands were fulfilled not a pound of copper would be produced. The conference lasted two hours, practically every body in the Globe-Miami District had been advised that such a conference was in session and the ultimatum presented.
The Officers of the A. F. of L. Unions held a hurriedly called meeting in the Miners Union Hall in Globe from which a telephone call came to the Governor from Mr. Joseph Cannon, an Executive officer of the A. F. of L. "that as a representative of Samuel Gompers, President of the A. F. of L. he protested any dealings with the I. W. W. and would not consider or entertain any agreement, tentative or otherwise that might be entered into between the I. W. W. and the Copper Companies, also that the Governor had not recognized powers to act as Conciliator, also that he had already requested of Secretary of Labor Wilson that a Federal Conciliator be immediately sent to
[end p. 35]
the District as his representative and assume charge of all negotiations. It was evident that Mr. Cannon was all "het up", promptly accepting an invitation from the Governor to meet with him at a later hour. Meantime a parade of Strikers, I. W. W. and A. F. of L. combined had been organized in Miami and were demonstrating up and down the streets of Miami. A number of prominent citizens of Miami were very sympathetic with the Strikers and lent them much encouragement. Miami was noted for being Anti-Company, though depending upon its very existence and maintenance upon the operation of the two Copper Companies there.
When the Committee was informed that a big parade was then active in Miami, contrary to promises heretofore made to the Governor their reply was blandly made – "that the promise to restrain parades did not include Miami but only Globe".
The conference ended without any definite action being agreed upon, the Committee appeared pleased to have had their speeches recorded and requested they be furnished a copy when transcribed. Later this was done.
Major Burdell was present throughout this conference but did not interrogate any of the Committee. Truly, he was a silent Reviewer. I recounted the telephone conversation with Mr. Cannon, told him of his National importance as a labor leader of the A. F. of L. and the engagement made to meet him. Sheriff Armer and Major Johnson of the Home Guards had been impatiently waiting in the hotel lobby to learn the results of the Conference and future plans for policing the Town for the balance of the day and night, also what had been done toward getting troops into the District, this latter question being directly made to Major Burdell who replied "My orders are to report my findings and make my recommendation direct to General Greene" with that reply, Armer and Johnson, faces aflame, stamped out of the room. When they had departed Burdell said "This day has been one of the most interesting I have ever spent and has been a real lesson to a Regular Army man in the responsibilities and head-aches of those officers in Civil positions.
The candor in which those I. W. W. fellows answered your questions bordering on treasonable acts against the Nation at War was a revelation to me. You have a lot of experience with them no doubt. Do they always talk and preach the Socialistic Doctrine like they did today? I replied, Yes, they are a revolutionary outfit and their leaders are Communistic, and will, I believe do anything to gain their ends. They made the same talk in Phoenix last spring and very recently in Jerome, where Colonel Hornbrook was representing General Greene and recommended that troops be sent there. The only difference between the situation in Jerome was the in Jerome the I. W. W.
[end p. 36]
had less than 100 members here and in Miami they must have many times that number.
Mr. Cannon was announced and was alone. He was an unusually fine looking silver haired man about 50 years old, meticulously dressed with the airs and address of a United States Senator. He had been active all of his mature life as a leader in the Union movement, an Executive Officer directly under Samuel Gompers, president of the A. F. of L. In Arizona at this time to combat the inroads of the opposition I. W. W. and strengthen the ranks of the A. F. of L.
The conference with the I. W. W. was retold to Mr. Cannon. He well knew their ideology and methods of "boring from within" on affiliates of the A. F. of L. and their racial and militant organizers preaching intimidation, strong-arm methods, dynamiting and sabotage, all of which he condemned, adding however that up to date no great harm had been done to copper production or the peace of the several communities. That working conditions, wages and hours in the face of the rising cost of living and the enormous profits being made by the Copper Companies of Arizona demanded correction, that his Own People were in sympathy with the Strike initiated by the I. W. W. for the purpose of materially bettering their condition, also that in a few days Federal Conciliators would be in the District and thru them conditions would be adjusted and all will be peaceful again, that all organized labor was absolutely opposed to the presence of Troops in effected areas, as they looked upon their presence as a form of intimidation. When Cannon was asked by the Governor what his attitude was toward "mass picketing" street demonstrations, refusal to allow employees of the O. D. to man the power house and mine pumps, denial of the of the constituted peace officers to enter the plant he abandoned his calm reserve and rising to his feet, heatedly he said "Mr. Governor, I decline to reply to your cross questions. We all know your sympathy and association are with the Copper Barons; since this nation entered the War and Copper has been designated by the President as a strategic metal, fixed the price and control all production you have no authority to interfere in matters concerning the Govt., Employers and Employees. The Federal Representatives will settle these things and lastly I want you to know and remember that in all strikes, called by the Federation or the I. W. W.’s the "fight of one is the fight of all" Good-day Sir!
[end p. 37]
"Who will preserve peace and order and protect property meantime," said the Governor as Cannon departed. No reply was forthcoming as the door slammed.
Burdell arose and said, "After that talk by Cannon I am convinced a troop or Cavalry would be helpful here and will now prepare a code message to that effect to General Greene.
Major, this Mining District is ten miles in length running from Inspiration Mines on the west to the Iron Cap Mines to the East. One troop of Cavalry cannot properly and safely patrol that large area. I recommend and urgently request that a Battalion be sent here immediately, said the Governor.
The Code message was dispatched to General Greene at Douglas. Within an hour Burdell received a Code Message from General Greene instructing him to locate a suitable Camp Ground for a Battalion of Cavalry which would entrain for Globe immediately, arriving by special train late the same evening.
Burdell got busy and selected a temporary site on the O. D. slag dump which was several acres in extent, water and power lines were easily accessible, even a telephone line connected a watchman’s shack with the Smelter office and the outside. Altogether, an ideal camp site for the purpose intended. The approach to the site was through the road leading into the plant, now being held by the Mass Picketers.
Word that the Soldiers were coming spread over the District, by mid-afternoon, the Towns people came out of their homes and did their needed shopping, the School Bells rung the children to school, all was quite but the tension was apparent, for the picketers were still active as ever. Rumors ran riot that the Wobblies of Miami were marching on Globe to take over the Town. The Sheriff and his Deputies patrolled the town and outside roads and trails. The Home Guard maintained a substantial guard at their quarters.
The march from Miami did not materialize; instead a committee of ten representing the I. W. W. appeared at the Dominion Hotel to see the Governor and Major Burdell. Again Culver was the Chairman. The purpose of this meeting was to learn whether the soldiers had been ordered to the District and who was responsible for their coming? Was it true that I secret conference had been held with Joe Cannon to which they had no representation. Was it
[end p. 38]
true that the Governor had ordered that the City Streets and County roads could no longer by used for parades, or the public parks be occupied for the purpose of holding meetings of their membership and listening to addresses by their leaders.
The Governor told the Committee the troops – a battalion of Cavalry would arrive late that afternoon, that a conference was held with Mr. Cannon but that no agreement or understanding of future action was reached, that no more demonstration of hostility, parades or public addresses was to be held (outside of Union Halls) without his permission. The Committee, though one Kane stated that they would make this report to their members but no longer would they be responsible as leaders for what might happen in the future. Culver requested a permit to use Brewers Park in Globe, adjacent to the O. D. Plant for a public address by one of their National Leaders, a Mr. Clark, who would arrive the following morning. This request was denied but was attempted without permission and without success. During the long period of this conference, a street parade and many inflammatory speeches were being made on the streets of Miami. It was learned later that the purpose of the Conference was to use it as a ruse and defiance of the Governor’s orders. Likewise, addresses to continue the Mass Picketing and heated talks against the Copper Barons, Home Guard and all Capitalism were being made on the road leading to the O. D. Plant. The A. F. of L. leaders were strongly silent.
Telephone reports were received during the day from the Copper Camps of Clifton, Morenci. Sheriff Slaughter reported that he had the situation well in hand, that no attempt was being made by the Mine Managers to resume activities.
Sheriff Harry Wheeler reported from Bisbee that picketing was increasing, more outsiders, believed to be Wobblies were joining the Picket Line, loyal mine workers were being intimidated and absenting themselves from their jobs, that he had increased his deputy forces but that he did not need any outside forces to maintain order. Colonel Jack Greenway of Rough Rider Fame and leader of the Warren District Home Guards, also General Manager of the Calumet and Arizona Copper Co. reported that their walking forces were on a 50% level, that Sheriff Wheeler was protecting all those who went to work and could be relied upon to do his full duty should a crisis arise, also that Colonel Hornbrook was in the District
[end p. 39]
as a representative of General Greene and available on notice should troops be needed from Douglas just 30 miles away. Sheriff Young of Yavapai reported from Jerome that that area resumed work but that the Wobblies were still in the District, doing a lot of talking about "pulling the Camp", and would bear watching. This he was doing.
Rob’t E. Talley, General Manager of the United Verde confirmed the Sheriff’s report.
These reports were comforting. The Globe-Miami District remained the crucial center of extreme activity and defiance, and the soldiers were on their way to maintain order and allow mediation of differences to proceed in an orderly manner.
The long, hot July day waned; suspense and fear of what might occur during the night mounted in the minds of the Citizens. Would the troops never arrive was the sole topic of conversation from home to home. Darkness fell, homes on the hillside remained unlighted, the unpeopled streets alone remained lighted, business houses were dark though sheltering armed guards in case of attack. Hourly reports were received from the Train Dispatcher’s office in Globe of the progress of the Troop Train, which should arrive at 9 pm if no interference occurred.
Major Burdell left the hotel, walked a long block to the Depot to meet the train and the command. He was gone sometime when out of the night a long blast of the locomotive whistle announced the arrival of the Troop Train.
Many citizens were on hand to welcome their protectors, a great shout of joy rent the air that could be heard for blocks. Homes lighted up, women and children’s voices shouted and screamed – "the soldiers are here." The soldiers are here."
The Governor relaxed with a sigh of relief and for the first time in 3 days and 3 nights felt fatigue. The Troops unloaded in good order and in good time but it seemed hours had dropped by since their arrival. Where was Burdell? Who was in command? What are the orders of the Commander? All these thoughts raced thru the Governor’s mind who had never heretofore experienced such a situation and responsibility.
[end p. 40]
From the hallway came a sound of many heavy footsteps, the clanking of sabers, the door to the Parlor was opened by Major Burdel in spick and span uniform of a Major of Artillery, followed by a dust laden and sweat begrimed Colonel and his staff of 4 officers – all in service khaki.
Major Burdell introduced the Governor to Colonel Smith and his Staff. "Be seated Gentlemen, I am very glad to see you and after your long hot dusty trip I know you will need some cooling refreshments." Colonel Smith remained standing, tendered thanks and said "I must join my command, now prepared to move on to our bivouac located, Major Burdell advises is about a mile away. The Command in unmounted except for a bunch of pack mules loaded with arms, ammunition and rations."
"What are your orders Colonel Smith, asked the Governor" "To report to you, Sir" replied the Colonel. Astounded, the Gov. said "O.K." Here they are" Your camp is located on the O. D. Slag dump, water, electric lights and even a telephone are available. In order to enter and occupy this Camp you must pass through a Mass Picket line of hundreds of men, women and children. I don’t think they will resist your command, but in any event clear them out, and keep them out for they have no legal right to picket in that manner. In the morning I will consult further with you. Should the occasion demand will telephone you or send a messenger.
Colonel Smith saluted, the Staff likewise said Good-night Sir, faced about and was gone. What a soldier! The District could sleep in peace this night. Their Government would protect them, their homes, their freedom.
Major Burdell as guide and liaison accompanied the Command to their Bivouac, returning to the hotel around midnight, reporting that the camp had been set up, hard rations had been issued and eaten. That Colonel Smith had telephoned General Greene’s headquarters of his arrival. That a goodly number of Pickets were on guard at the entrance when the Command arrived, stepping aside to let it pass, some jeering and muffled curses were uttered but no violence or resistance offered. That a guard had been placed at the entrance gate and that the order to "clear the road" of all pickets would be attended to early tomorrow morning.
[end p. 41]
After Colonel Smith’s departure Sheriff Armer, The Mayor, Town Marshal, Major Johnson and several of the Home Guard called on the Govenor for further advice and counsel. They were told of the army orders and advised to all go home and get some rest until further advised the Troops would be on guard though the Civil Gov’t would continue to function without interference.
The Home Guard was glad to be relieved from service but the Cowboy Deputies were disappointed and very disgusteed that they would return to the Ranges without a Wobbly Scalp to exhibit.
At 6 am Colonel Smith reported that all Mass Picketers had been ordered to vacate the road to the O. D. Plant, some refused to comply until persuaded by troopers with fixed bayonets. A slight prick in their bottoms sufficed to prove to them that the troopers were obeying orders. A guard was constantly kept at the entrance to this road and no further attempt was made by the Picketers to interfere with the passage of traffic in the area.
Business throughout the District was resumed but the Strikers did not call off the Strike, only employees necessary to man the Power Plant and the Pumps at the O. D. remained employed. The "Federal Conciliators representing the Sec’y of Labor were due the following day. John McBride of Phoenix, Arizona had represented Sec’y Wilson for some time in Arizona. He was a Union Man of long service being at one time the President for a term of the A. F. of L. but in recent years a Justice of the Peace in Phoenix. To accompany him to Globe a special appointment had been given Governor Geo. W. P. Hunt, well known friend of Labor and intimate friend of I. W. W. leaders as well as officers of the A. F. of L. He had resided in Globe for many years, was well known and respected in his old Home Town. At this time he was contesting the election of Governor Campbell, whom he disliked with a fervor. His appointment was enthusiastically received by The Strikers as a victory over Campbell who had caused the Troops to enter the District. Upon the announcements that Hunt was coming as a representative of the Federal Gov’t. the Wobblies Leaders became bold, had hand bills printed in Miami announcing that Clark of Chicago, representing Bill Haywood, President of the I. W. W. would address a mass meeting at Brewers Park, Globe at 10 am scattering them throughout the Globe area. This action was contrary to the decision given the Wobbly Committee by the Governor the previous day. When this announcement
[end p. 42]
came to the attention of the Governor he telephoned to Colonel Smith that such a meeting was contrary to orders and requested him to use such means as he deemed necessary to see that that same was not held. The Colonel simply said "Your orders will be carried out," and they were – to the letter.
Shortly before 10 o’clock the Park began filling with men, women and children until over 600 people were there. A committee of Wobblies from Miami arrived with Mr. Clark, the Speaker of the Day, simultaneous a Troop of unmounted Cavalry arrived, commanded by a rangy Red Headed Captain. The troop marched into the Park headed by the Captain. Clark arose from his seat, mounted a table and began his address. The Captain approached Clark and commanded him to desist. Clark replied "By whose orders do you interfere with a peaceful assemblage" By my commanding officer the Captain replied. Clark hesitated. The Captain said "Off the table and every body get out of this pavilion." Clark, still on the table raised his voice and said "Let’s get out, we are not ready yet to fight the United States Army." Every body left the Pavilion, some cursing the Army, the Gov’t., the Governor, gradually the crowd melted away. The Troop remained for some time, leaving a small patrol.
This incident and the earlier one in the morning on the road was sufficient to prove to the I. W. W. revolutionists that the United States Army was in charge and that the Governors orders must be obeyed.
Conciliators McBride and Hunt arrived from Phoenix in the afternoon. Arrangements were made for a meeting between them and the Mine Managers the following day. Campbell called the meeting to order in the County Court Room, turned it over to Judge McBride, bade goodbye to Colonel Smith and departed for Phoenix.
The Conciliators continued in Session, the Strike was called off, the mines were put in production pending the final settlement of differences arranged later by Secretary of Labor Wilson’s Committee. Colonel Smith and the Battalion of Cavalry remained in the District for several months, at a temporary camp established mid-way between Globe and Miami, conducting their regular training.
[end p. 43]
Information on the Strike situation at Bisbee was assuring. Colonel Hornbrook advised that Sheriff Wheeler had control of the situation and that employment was slowly improving. Greenway confirmed the statement.
Reports from Jerome stated the I. W. W. organizers continued their activities and much unrest among the employees in the District ensued but no violence except threats and intimidation. The Cliftton, Morenci District remained static, no work, no production of copper.
Refer to date and reference to deportation from Prescott and Jerome papers.
At 10 am on July 12th 1917 the Governor received a telephone from R. Allyn Lewis Stockbroker, Phoenix, Arizona asking "If he had heard that a deportation of Wobblies, their adherents and many other citizens was taking place in Bisbee and the Warren District being conducted by Sheriff Wheeler with the aid of 2000 Deputies."
The Governor replied that he had received no such information and would communicate immediately with Sheriff Wheeler. The effort to do so by telephone was frustrated, he being informed that it was impossible to got a wire through to Bisbee but could reach Tombstone the then Seat of Cochise County. This was done immediately to the Sheriff’s office. The Under-Sheriff informed the Governor that Sheriff Wheeler was in Bisbee so far as he knew, having had no word from him that morning, that he knew nothing about any rounding up of Strikers and a deportation in progress, that he would try and get in touch with Wheeler, ascertain what was going on and so advise. No further word was ever received from the Under Sheriff.
The Governor telephoned County Attorney Ross who was reached in Tombstone. He replied that he knew nothing about any untoward incidents taking place in the Warren District.
Repeated efforts to contact Sheriff Wheeler, Greenway, Colonel Hornbrook by telephone the Governor telegraphed to Wheeler hoping to reach him by that method and learn the true situation. At 3 pm the Governor received the following telegram from Wheeler - Quote.
July 3rd. All mines at Globe cease operations. "Double strike called" 1st Union of Mill, Mine and Smelter Workers and the IWW, the Metal Mine Workers Int. Union.
5,000 men out in Clifton Morenci. Sheriff Slaughter and 80 deputies preserve order.
Bisbee-IWW statement in City Park: "We will not sign peace terms until every other company which now has labor troubles on its hands accedes to the demands of the strikers in every part of the state.
Gov. Campbell advised by Chas. H. Moyer, President, Int. Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, A. F. of L. has no authority for calling a strike at Bisbee and assumes no responsibility therewith.
Globe, July 2nd. IWW headquarters in Jerome. Will again strike in Jerome, telegram from Secretary.
July 4th, Bisbee. 1600 men of Warren Dist., active in support of the Workmens' Loyalty League, Miles Merrill, Pres. Wm. Torken, V.P., Ben McNelly, Secy. 50 Team Captains appointed for the "4th Parade
Tom Armer and Dist. Atty Foster threatened in Globe by 300 strikers.
July 4th.Globe. (Major Chas. M. Burdel)
July 3rd. Armer had wired Senator Ashurst for troops. Ashurst presented the request to the War Dept.
Citizens Protective League, proper name for Bisbee Home Guards. League urging or all workers to return to their jobs.
Mechanics of Copper Queen hold that strike is treasonable and against the Fed. Govt.
July 5th. J.S. Myers and John B. McBride, conciliators, to confer with operators and workers in the copper mine strikes of Arizona.
Globe. 300 armed residents clear streets. "Broad Street". George D. Smith, Sec. of Globe branch, conferred with Campbell.
In Bisbee - "Wobbly stock falls rapidly during day as many miners propose to return to work" Headlines.
July 7th. Hunt's appt. opposed. Telegram to M. A. Smith.
IWW turn efforts on Laundries.
Globe. Hunt as personal representative of Pres. Wilson (July 7th first meeting of Conciliators in Globe)
Globe notes - Lt. Col. Smith - Campbell gave dinner to Col. Smith and staff on July 6th (McBride arrived in Globe July 5th. Hunt following day. Campbell left Globe evening of July 7th.
342 Troopers and Officers in Globe area. 4,000,000 gallons daily from OD mine.
James B. Thompson, principal Wobbly speaker and inciter at Bisbee. A Rabble Rouser and devotee of Marion School of Socialism.
General- P. Elias Calles, was Governor of Sonora at time of Cananea Cons. Copper Co. "shut down" by management. Calles was not notified of action and refused to aid reopening.
Ed. - Bisbee Daily Review, Sat. morning, July 7th "It has been found necessary to send troops to an Arizona mining camp to guarantee order and insure preservation of property. The strikers were in the ascendancy at Globe and therefore incited towards violence and destruction. That is the well known IWW brand. Here in the Warren Dist. loyal citizens and miners organized promptly and have so far maintained as calm and peaceful state of affairs as can be found in any city in the country. Might is Right with strikers at Globe, but Right is Might here at the Warren Dist.
Jerome, July 6th 250 miners failed to report today in the various mines in the Dist. as the result of a strike order issued by the IWW.
The Int. Union of Mill, Mine and Smelter Workers notified its members the strike order was taken without authority and the Union could not recognize it. Every man must decide what to do.
McClusky, organizer of Int. Union said "he had not heard of a single member of his union favoring a strike"
The strike demands of the IWW included the following conditions:- 6 hour day for all underground men; minimum wage of 6.00 per day for all underground workers and 5.00 for all surface men, two men at all drills, at least two men shall work in all places, abolition of sliding scale control system and bonus work, change rooms with hot and cold showers, no armed men employed at any time, no discrimination against Chinamen and abolition of physical examinations
May strike was settled June 3rd. It did not involve the mgr. scale
July 8th, Jerome-Int. Union rejects by vote of 470 to 194 a proposal to submit to the membership a strike vote to join the demands of the IWW. Mine Workers' Union. Moyer opposed to strike. Wm. Haywood, head of IWW coming to Jerome. 50% of miners failed to report to work.
Ray. Runs 5 IWW organizers out of district.
Kingman reports 15 alleged IWW organizers in vicinity, coming from Globe and Bisbee to organize mining camps in Mohave County.
Globe July 7th. Conference at 10:30AM on July 8th. Hunt, McBride, Campbell, Lt. Col. George F. White.
Clifton July 7th. Everything at a standstill awaiting arrival of Joseph F. Myers, conciliator, President John L. Donnelly of the State Fed. of Labor said "the men on strike would accept nothing less than the Miami scale. 6,000 men idle.
July 8th Review - Strike conditions better today than any time since June 27th.
C & A producing about half normal ore tonnage, same as the Copper Queen. Ten days all mines should be in full normal production July 8th Review.
Arizona producing 90,000,000# copper per month. Normal to (28 cents per pound average) less than half.
Unions at Clifton Morenci not affiliated with Int. U. M M S Workers, Moyer advises Campbell.
July 6th Review. Troops arrived in Globe at 9:30 July 5th. Moyer from Denver in accord with action of local welcoming troops into dist.
Hunt receives telegram from Pres. Wilson requesting Hunt to sit as Mediator and Conciliator. Hunt accepts, stating he "will be against the strike, urging the men that this is no time to tie up a great industry upon which the nation is dependent at this time of need"
July 5th. Ajo organizes a Citizens’ and Property Holders' Ass'n and the Workers Loyalty League was formed, a total of 750 men became members of both Ass'ns. They are opposed to IWW organization.
July 6th. Pledge of Loyalty League - We, the undersigned workmen of the Warren Dist., pledge to support the Govt. of the U.S., to protection of their homes from unlawful acts. For these purposes we hereby agree to become members of the Workmens' Loyalty League and in subscribing our names hereto we promise to attend all meetings of the League and to work and fight for our mutual protection. Officers: Pres., Miles Merrill, V.P., W. R. Torken, Secy., Ben McNelly. The League is to cooperate with the Citizens' Protective League of the Warren Dist.
Denver, July 5th. Pres. C. H. Moyer telegraphed Secretary Chas. Tannehill as follows - "This is to officially advise you that acting under the power rested in me by the Constitution of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, I here and do hereby revoke the charter of Bisbee Local no. 106 on the grounds of trickery on the part of said local to the principles of the International."
Moyer stated "The IWW of the World have gained control of our local union at Bisbee and we will revoke the charter within 8 hours. The Clifton strike was not Wobbly led.
July 10th. James H. Chapman, leader of IWW in Globe and spokesman before Mediator's Conference. The I.M.M. & S.W. refused to join the IWW.
Captain Davis requested to go to Ray and investigate conditions there.
Hunt made statement in Conference in which he "regretted the presence of U.S. troops in Globe-Miami Dist.
518 IWW turned out to funeral of a Member’s family-300 Mexicans,198 other
foreigners and Americans. Used no show of force.
July 9th. Miners coming off shift at the UV closed with IWW pickets. Stopped by officers. No one hurt, but feeling intense. The broken picket line was reestablished by a reduced number.
J. H. Chapman formerly resided in Bisbee and was active in the Musicians’ Union and in Foods Council affairs. Is leader in the IWW movement in Globe.
July 10th - Because the IWW strike is of a nation wide movement for the betterment of conditions and the abolition of the Mgr. System, IWW in Globe declare they cannot participate in the Strike Mediation Conference which is being held by representatives of the State and Federal Gov’t., also that settlements in all other camps must be combined.
Campbell leaves (July 9th) for Phoenix. Before departing Campbell instructed Sheriff Armer that miners who were picketing were acting within their Constitutional rights and were not to be molested as long as they kept the peace.
Walter Douglas, Pres. of PD Corp., declared as he was leaving Globe on his special train "There will be no compromise because you cannot compromise a rattlesnake" This goes for both the International unions and the IVW. He said conditions were better in Bisbee but deadlocked at Clifton where the Spaniards from the Anarchial — of Spain controlled and led the way for the IWW organization.
IWW menace in Warren Dist. steadily dying says the Bisbee Daily Review.
Jerome July 10th "The reign of the IWW in Jerome is at an end" said Mayor J. J. Gain as he stood in the Ry yards and watched 2 cattle cars loaded with 67 men, all reputed to be members of the IWW. Taken to Jerome Jct., 27 miles away. Met there by 56 members of the Prescott Home Guard, arresting 9 of them and shipping balance on a Freight train to Needles, Calif., guarded by Deputy Sheriffs and volunteers. Sheriff J. K. Cohenour of Mohawk County waiting to receive the Deportees escorted by 10 Deputies from Jerome (The above appeared in the Daily Review, Bisbee on Wednesday morning. July 11, 1917
County Atty, John F. Ross, in Bisbee looking the situation says "He will enforce the laws against any person that threatens another with violence.
July 12th, 1917 (The Bisbee Daily Review) Headline "All Women and Children keep off streets today"
"Roger S. Culver IWW Agitator"
Review, July 12th
Bisbee, July 12th
Headlines "All women and Children keep off streets today"
Proclamation by Harry C. Wheeler, Sheriff, Cochise County, Arizona
"I have formed a Sheriff's Posse of 1200 men in Bisbee and 1,000 in Douglas, All loyal Americans, for the purpose of arresting on charge of
vagrancy, treason, and of being disturbers of the peace of Cochise County, all the strange men who have immigrated from other parts and sections for the purpose of harassing and intimidating all men who desire to pursue their daily toil. I am continually told of the threats and insults heaped upon the working men of the District by so-called strikers, who are strange to these parts, yet who presume to dictate the manner of life of the people of the District.
Appeals to patriotism do not move them, nor do appeals to reason. At a time when our country needs her every resource, these strangers persist in keeping from her the precious metal production of the entire District.
Today I heard threats to the effect that homes would be destroyed because the heads of families insisted upon the rights as Americans to serve themselves, their families, their country. Other threats are being daily made, men have been assaulted and brutally beaten, and only today I heard the Mayor of Bisbee threatened and his requests ignored.
I therefore call upon all loyal Americans to aid me in peaceably arresting these disturbers of our National and local peace. Let no shot be fired throughout the day unless in necessary self defense, and I hereby give warning that each and every leader of the so-called strikers will be held personally responsible for any injury inflicted upon any of my Deputies while in the performance of their duties as Deputies of my Posse, for whose acts I, in turn, assume full responsibility as Sheriff of the County
All arrested persons will be treated humanely and their cases examined with Justice and Care. I hope no resistance will be made for I desire no bloodshed. However, I am determined, if resistance is made, it shall be quickly and effectively overcome
(Signed) Harry C. Wheeler
Sheriff, Cochise County, Ariz.
In funeral procession, 915 to 1054 counted. Mainly Austrians, Mexicans and professional Wobblies - See other count.
Globe, July 11th. Campbell threatened by Globe IWW for protection of Wobblies deported from Jerome and Mohave County. Campbell wires Sheriff of Mohave County to liberate all men and that they were not to be molested unless they violated some law - all were turned loose
Judge McBride and Hunt report a "deadlock" in negotiation and recommend to Dept. of Labor to let matter ride.
July 13th Review (1200 IWW deported from District by Citizens)
Brig. Genl Parker, Commander the Southern Division. All requests from Governor referred to Parker. Campbell urged that troops be sent to Clifton, Morenci, Bisbee, Jerome, Mohave Co., Humboldt, Ray and Ajo. Governor wired Sheriff Wheeler for a statement of the reasons why the men were deported. The Sheriff at a
late hour had not acknowledged receipt of the inquiry.
Campbell's telegram to President Wilson:-
With not less than 5,000 members of the IWW scattered throughout the State fomenting their propaganda to bring about recognition of their organization, 75 per cent of the metal production of the State is at a standstill, the situation is sufficiently serious to call for federal investigation and firm action. Without state troops at my command, local committees are dependant upon themselves for protection and without Federal assistance we may look for action similar to that at Jerome and Bisbee.
C & A Employee
The only trouble - Deputy O. P. McRae shot and killed by James Brew, an IWW member. Brew was killed by another Deputy.
The Review whose Editorial lauds Sheriff Wheeler on Deportation
"It was the greatest morning's work since a pick was struck in this Canyon" It was a blow at traitors, spies and anarchists that will make the clique trouble everywhere West of the Rocky Mountains.
The marching feet of 3,000 men in Bisbee yesterday sounded the death knell of "wobblyism" and the IWW in Arizona. It was a deportation on a staggering scale. It was Bisbee's answer to the impudent, Arrogant effort of a lawless lot of outcasts to dictate her industrial and business affairs - the greatest Copper City in the World to the blackest and most infamous organization in the World. And long withheld it could only be one kind of an answer - one that would be heard as far as copper is moved between the two oceans.
And for Harry C. Wheeler, the Sheriff of Cochise County, the man who was responsible for and led the drive that resulted in the greatest number of arrests ever made in one day by any Sheriff, high or low, in this country or the old, to him goes the honor and recognition of all who love their homes and respect high-minded courageous officials.
"Bill Cleary?, local attorney, was among those deported. He chose an open work car in which to ride and 64 Wobblies were placed with him for fear he would get lonesome.
July 14th Review
Jerome 13th (Closed shop demand tabled for the duration, also resolution passed "that members of the Union who assisted in the deportation of the IWW from the District" last Thursday "did so as Citizens and not as members of the Union."
July 14th Review - Refugee Stockade at Columbus, N.M. to be at disposition of the IWW, deported from Bisbee (now 1286) temporarily held at Hermos, N.W., 90 miles West of El Paso. Genl. George Bell, Jr., Dist Commander issued orders to Colonel H. G. Sickle in command at Columbus to issue rations until further notice.
Bill Cleary in charge of IWW at Hermos, N.M.
Workmens' Loyalty League issues "entrance cards" to Warren Dist.
A total of 1286 men at Hermos, 312 have Registration cards, and 142 were subscribers to Liberty Loan bonds - mainly 50 to 100 dollar denomination.
They cannot come back to Bisbee becomes a slogan.
Permanent camps established at six points. All newcomers must explain their business and those who were deported on Thursday will not be admitted.
The deportation of IWWs from Bisbee was done with the knowledge and consent of the County Board of Sups.
July 15th Review.
Miami continues to show IWW control. Town Council sympathetic with movement and fails to pass an ordinance to prohibit meetings in the streets. U.S. Cavalry necessary to quell a riot between IWW and local police.
Globe - Councilman P. H. Brouilett, Socialist member of the City Council arrested by a City Policeman to complete quorum for purpose of passing a new ordinance, forbidding incendiary speeches.
J. R. Henderson, President Citizens' Protective League.
M. W. Merrill, President Workmens' Loyalty League.
Business and Professional Members of Citizens' Protective League numbered 156 members
July 15th Review. Very quite
July 16th Review. Very quite
July 16th Globe - Campbell receives a telegram from Organizer Frank Little from Salt Lake City "Understand that the mine owners’ mob will take action at Globe and Miami as was taken at Bisbee" The membership of the IWW is getting tired of the lawless Capitalist Class and will no longer stand for such action. If you as Governor, cannot uphold the law, we will take same into our own hands. Will you act or must we" Campbell's reply- "Am certain no deportation could occur in the Globe-Miami Dist. with the federal troops stationed in that District. I resent your disloyal and untimely threats in view of my earnest efforts to bring law and order and such forces as will maintain same, and further like behavior on your part will be punished to the full extent of my authority."
Pres. Moyer wires Campbell he is advised strike breakers will be brought into Arizona from Montana and that same be prevented. Campbell replied "He knew nothing of any such movement and would oppose such action"
July 18th-Globe. Many miners are leaving the District. Arrests of IWW organizers continue and cause much unrest.
July 19th Review. Outstate miners are coming into the Warren Dist. seeking work.
J. M. Donnelly, Pres. of State Fed. in Dist., guest of Mr. Ross McKay, representative
from Cochise County, left today for Columbus, N. Mex.
July l9th- Passes issued to those entering the Warren Dist. without which no one can enter. The passwords:-
"this is to certify that the undersigned_____(name of person in full) and vouches for him in every particular as being a proper person to pass through the lines of the Warren District as presented by Sheriff Wheeler for the protection and safety of the residents of said District. The letter will bear the signature of the person vouching for the traveler and the seal of the Chamber of Commerce.
Major Burdel, special Military Investigator at Clifton informs headquarters of the Arizona Dist. that Federal Conciliator appt. recently should arrive promptly, otherwise states that these will continue for an indefinite period..
Outside papers comment as follows:-
Boston Transcript- "The Bisbee Teaparty".
Skellings Mining Review- "In the league with the enemies of the U.S."
Arizona Republic-"Broke the back of the IWW". Los Angeles Times- "Traitors at Home, Enemies abroad". Chicago Tribune- "Suppressing the IWW". El Paso Times- "Appeal to the law they scorned" New York World- "Vipers that we raised"
July 19th Review.
Phoenix Gazette- "President will find a way". Calumet (Michigan) Gazette- "The IWW must go". New York Times- "Cochise Sheriff on the right track". Albuquerque Journal- "IWW Anarchists". Arizona Star, Phx. "The Worm Turns"
No adverse included in Review article.
July 20th Review 09
Trial of 68 strikers began today before Judge Pratt. The men are members of both the IWW and Int. M.M.& S. Workers. They include many of the officer of both unions.
Campbell reports that he has advised that all Federal Troops will be withdrawn from Globe and Ray, also detachment of National Guard soldiers at Ajo. Campbell protests.
Phnx. John Donnelly, Pres. of the State Fed. of Labor and a member of the Arizona State Council of Defense (appointed by Gov. Campbell) arrested for taking a shot at Frank O'Leary, member of the Phnx Police Reserve Corps.
July 22nd Review.
21st. Globe warned not to deport IWWs from that District by Gov. Campbell. Troops will remain subject to orders of Brig. Genl. Parker, at San Antonio, Texas.
Campbell advises Major F. M. Johnson, commanding the Home Guards. Johnson replies" no such action contemplated". Int. M.M.& S. vote "not to return to work". Troops break up meeting of 300 miners in Miami.
Five men representing the Workmens' Loyalty League will confer with Governor Monday morning (Sunday issue of Review)
Columbus, N.M., July 21st. Deportees voted today (unanimously) to remain in camp pending further action by the Fed. Govt. This action after an Army Officer had announced they were free to leave whenever they desired. Atty W. B. Cleary advised against their leaving.
July 22nd. "A strict censorship prevailed over the telegraph offices in Douglas and Bisbee on July 11th and July 12th until late on the 12th. Justified as a necessity to make a "good cleanup".
Jerome strike called jointly by the IWW & W. F. M., middle of May. Federal Mediator, John McBride settled same until revised by IWW.
July 24th (Review) Phoenix dateline 7/23. Bisbee and Douglas Protective Leagues explained to Gov. Campbell the solution in Bisbee- "Citizens' Protective League."
Members of Committee- M. W. Merrill, Dr. N. C. Bledsoe, J. C. Curry, Thomas Hughes, G. W. Ludovig of Bisbee, Albert Story of Douglas.
The Committee insisted IWW members would not again be admitted in the Dist. Campbell told Committee "he was fully informed as to what had been done and that notwithstanding their version of the affair, deporting undesirable agitators from the District is not the proper way to handle the situation" He told the Committee he would expect them to abide by the law in the future. The Governor said further that "he is confidant a number of innocent persons had been deported. The Committee left "displeased" for Bisbee,
July 24th. Sheriff Wheeler turned down at the Officers' Reserve Training Camp at the Presidio, San Francisco. Later he joined the Armed Forces and was made Captain.
July 25th. Campbell's telegram to deportees at Columbus, "Acknowledging receipt of your telegram. I have no state funds or state forces at my command. In my opinion, Federal Action only can enforce your demands. The telegram was a demand for transportation and protection back to Bisbee.
July 26th. Plans of the IWW carefully laid (The Christian Science Monitor)
If the tendency among part of the U.S. has been to regard as sporadic, merely, or as unrelated, the recent activities of members of the organization known as the Industrial Workers of the World, it will be sure to come face to face with the realization that the Campaign undertaken by that aggregation is along lines well defined and evidently long considered.
People of the Western sections of the U.S., more particularly in those locations where Mining is the chief Industry, have for several years been more or less familiar with the illegal operations, the intimidating influences, and the open defiances of law, preached and practiced by leaders and followers of
of the Clan. The IWW had its origin soon after the Western Federation of Miners was denounced and outlawed by organized labor. Its membership was recruited largely in the manufacturing centers of the Eastern states, although it was originally as it still remains a confederation of unskilled labor. Neither the leaders of the movement nor its members have any alliance, so far as is known with any recognized labor organization. The boast of the IWW is that it will rule the industry of the world. To accomplish that end it seeks to incite revolution and to overthrow all established institutions. It declares that the working classes and the employing classes, there is nothing in common, "Between these two Classes" it declares, "a struggle must go on until the Workers of the World organize as a class, take possession of the Earth and the machinery of Production and abolish the Wage System" Into this movement the leaders claim that they have blended the teachings and propaganda of Socialism, anarchy, and Syndicalism. The work of destruction is carried on by Leaders and Members, individually and collectively, as the occasion may demand.
Recent activities of the IWW in widely separated sections of the West, appear to indicate quite definitely the present purpose of its leaders. Their ambitions, now that the armed forces of the nation are being mobilized for action outside the country's boundaries, seem to be to bring on a condition of Civil War, with their own organization as a nucleus of all dissident and recalcitrant elements that openly oppose the present war policy.
July 27th. Review. "Vag" roundup is on in Bisbee. Agitators block attempt to end strike at Globe. Joe Cannon, Jr., Tom Lewis and Tom Corra, an Austrian, took away meeting from Citizens' Committee. Soup kitchens started in Miami. Colonel Smith reports that 160 more troops would arrive in the morning.
July 29th. Review. (Conditions in Bisbee and Jerome assuming their normal aspect)
Campbell removes Adj. Genl. Chas. W. Harris for making seditious talks to IWW strikers.
United Verde reduces Light and Water rates in Jerome and Clarkdale.
Tribute to Col. Hornbrook, 20 years in U.S. Army, much in the West.
The Literary Digest of July 28th devotes two pages to Bisbee strikes.
July 28th. Art. in Bisbee Review. "The Time of Greatest Peril to the Warren Dist. is Right Now – Cleaning up goes on - Every road leading into the Dist. stood guard night and day.
July 31st. Telegram from Samuel Gompers to E. N. Francis, President of the Local Chauffeurs' Union Re their joining the Citizens' Protective League. Quote-
Gomper's reply- "Telegram received. The right of the workers of Bisbee or elsewhere to organize or form any bonafide organization for the protection and promotion of their interests and rights is not only lawful but commendable. The workers of Bisbee should repudiate any organization that pursues an unlawful cause or has improper or un-American aims. At the same time all should insist upon the right to extol the field of opportunity and influence of the furtherance of the workers and aid in promoting general welfare"
July 31, Fred H. Moore, Atty for So. A. identified with the IWW visited the Warren Dist. for 6 hours, then left for Columbus, N.M. He carried letters to Mayor Erickson and Sheriff Wheeler from Gov. Campbell.
Campbell protests the deportation of Moore from Bisbee by the Investigating Committee. Lead in paper. "Atty for IWW leaves in a hurry."-
Globe strikes still going on. Hunt and McBride still acting as Conciliators.
August 1st. Review. IWW threaten nation with strike of Miners, harvest hands, and lumbermen "unless IWW members are returned to their homes in the Warren Dist., Ariz. "This will mean a walkout of 200,000 men says W. D. Haywood, Sec. IWW to President Wilson. This move was precipitated by the deportation of Atty Fred H. Moore, his Attorney.
Gallup, N.M. 7/31 (The Council of Defense) Deported 32 men
Aug. 2nd, Butte, Mont. Frank H. Little lynched and hanged. Little arrived in Butte three weeks ago (from Jerome, Ariz.) 7 men with lynching party. Little was with IWW movement since its organization. Card pinned to Little's underpants- "Others take notice. First and last warning. 3-5-77 L.D.C.S.S., M.T."
The numerals were the old sign of the Vigilantes of Montana.
IWW MARCHING SONG
To tune of "Onward Christian Soldiers"-
"Onward Christian soldiers, rip and tear and smite.
Let the gentle Jesus bless your dynamite.
Smash the doors of every home, pretty maidens seize.
Use your might and social right to treat her as you please"
Globe, Aug. 1st. Lt. Col. George P. White issues proclamation to protect any person desirous of returning to work.
Little said in a Butte speech, addressing Campbell- "Governor, I don’t give a damn what your country is fighting for, I am fighting for the solidarity of Labor. Campbell states this statement is substantially correct.
Little was both shot and hanged.
Ed. in Bisbee Daily Review of Aug. 2nd. Referring to Atty Moore, He had a letter
from the Governor which signified nothing to the Committee.
Aug. 3 IWW delegates from Columbus accompanied by Atty Moore in conference with Governor Campbell.
Globe Judge McBride in a public address advises that the Demands of the Wobblies no longer merit consideration.
Mine Managers refuse to confer with Gov. Hunt.
Aug. 4 Review. Phx. Aug. 3rd. Ben Webb, Richard Denning and Atty Moore, Atty Genl Wiley E. Jones directed to investigate conditions in the Warren Dist. Martial Law requested by Moore et al awaiting report of Atty Genl
Webb, member of IWW, ex-con, told the Gov. that of the men at Columbus, 60% were IWW, 30% A. F. of L. and 10% sympathizers.
Editorial, Bisbee Daily Review, Aug.4th
"After cursing Governor Campbell with unction and fervor ever since he came into the public eye, the IWW are now using his ante-rooms for a State Headquarters. Funny, what a difference just a few months make
Adv. Business Men and Firms-Non-Members of Citizens' Protective League - 42 firms in Bisbee opposed to purposes of the Citizens' Protective League.
Aug.7 O D Mines start up again. Geo. R. Hill. President of the Loyalty League.
Gov. Hunt joins Secy. Smith and Organizer J. D. Cannon on the Picket Line here today at the O D Mine. Approx. 50 pickets on duty today.
Loyalty League of America organized in Phoenix - Statewide organization. Avowed purpose "to exterminate the IWW"
Miles Merrill, Pres. Bisbee.
George Hill, V.P. Globe
S. A. Applewhite. Secy. Douglas
Chas. A. McDonald, Treas. Bisbee
Notes from a Thesis for M. A. in History by Annie M. Cox, dated 8/2/38 and in Library of U. of A. E9791
Western Vigilantes usually had a secret sign of numerals to warn undesirable characters to leave the community (See sign on Frank H. Little's body, being a Butte, Mont. sign.
The sign at Bisbee in the early rough, tough days was (45-60) drawn from the cartridge and load of a popular Rifle of the day.
Chiricahua War Chief Geronimo. Geronimo surrendered to Genl Nelson A. Miles on Sept.5, 1886.
[end p. 56]
Get names of President’s Mediation Commission, W. B. Wilson, Secy. of Labor, Chairman, Felix Frankfurter and others.
Note. Robt. W. Bruce in Newport Evening Post. Critical article on Bisbee deportation.
"The truth about Bisbee" by Samuel Moore. A manuscript in U. of A. Library.
Organized Labor in Bisbee area, by Annie M. Cox, for thesis for M.A. (U. of A. Library) An attempt to organize Dist. In 1903 by Western Fed. Of Miners failed. Another effort in 1906 by a referendum vote of 5 to 1. Strike in 1907 failed but a local of the W. F. of A. Miners was organized. Other craft unions were organized in 1909.
In 1916 local Cooks and Waiters Union no. 380 called a strike in the English kitchen operated by Wm. A. Traux and son. This strike led to the famous case of Traux vs Carrigan, U.S. 66 eventuating in a U.S. Supreme Court restraining the Union from interfering with Traux restaurant business and reversing the action of the Supreme Court of Arizona. The opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court was re-written by Chief Justice Wm. H. Taft. Later this opinion and holding was reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court.
On June 26th, 1917, a strike was called to begin the following day. 2,000 of the 4,500 employees of the P D Corp, Copper Queen Branch, The Cal. & Ariz. M. Co. and Demands—(1) Abolition of physical examination (claimed by strikers this examination was used as a basis of blacklisting) (2) 2 men on all machines. (3) Abolition of blasting during working shifts. (4) Abolition of all bonus and control work. (5) Abolition of the sliding scale of wages (Butte system) and the substitution of a flat minimum wage of 6.00 per shift for all underground workers and a minimum of 5.50 per shift above ground. (6) and no discrimination against members of labor organization.
The Mining Companies refused to grant these demands- "Claiming they were inimical to good government in time of peace and treasonable in time of War. G.W. Downell, General Manager of the Copper Queen, John C. Greenway, G. M. of C and A., L. C. Shattuck, G. M. of Shattuck, Arizona M. Co. also refused to meet with the grievance committee representing the strikers.
The strike was headed by the IWW. Charles H. Moyer President of the Int. Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, declined any authority or responsibility for the strike. Moyer claimed the IWW were endeavoring to discredit the Int. M. M. & S. co. by calling their followers on strike in Copper Queen where the latter were organized and the practice of "direct action and sabotage" and their false statements and poisonous works had created such dissension among members of many of their local organizations as to entirely destroy them. In that case the strike was not so distinctly a conflict between
[end p. 57]
labor and capital as a conflict between two rival labor organizations.
Sheriff Wheeler to Gov. Campbell requested aid of Federal Troops "To prevent bloodshed and the closing of the great copper industry now so valuable to the United States Govt.
Campbell requested of the Secy. of War for an immediate investigation of the situation in Bisbee by a Regular Army Officer in order to ascertain the need of troops. The Governor’s recommendation was followed and Col. J. J. Hornbrook was assigned to that duty. He reported on June 30 and July 2nd that the solution did not warrant troops, and if it did that a squadron of Cavalry was stationed but a few miles away and was ready for service at a moment’s notice."
The strikers were not rioting or engaging in violence of any sort, but were threatening to do so.
Deportation formally decided at a meeting of Citizens on the night of July 11th, 1917 and was participated in by the Managers and other officers of the Mining Companies. The Manager of the Copper Queen had given an interview to the press, claiming the "Strikers in Bisbee and other Copper Camps of Arizona as "pro-German in origin and advocated deportation as a patriotic remedy.
The manager of the C & A was then an officer in the United States Army addressed the meeting, conveying the idea that the deportation that was about to be carried out with the knowledge and consent of the S. S. Govt. "Note" This was the then Major J. C. Greenway and I believe he was sincere, as Colonel Hornbrook was on the job at all times. It was also stated that those deported would be taken charge of by the U.S. at Columbus, N. Mex.
To avoid interference of the deportation leaders said nothing to the U.S. Army, U.S. Attorney for Arizona or to officers of the State and County. No communication to the Governor. One of the Mine Managers frankly declared before a member of Presidents Mediation Commission, that the Governor was not consulted because if the plans of the operations had been known in advance, the Governor with the aid of the Federal Gov’t. would have undoubtedly blocked them.
Censorship was placed over all local telephone and telegraph lines. An officer of the Copper Queen put this into effect. – Captain Hodgeston
[end p. 58]
Orson F. McRae, shift boss of the Copper Queen killed by James Brew, who in turn was shot and killed by McRae’s companions. An army census taken at Columbus revealed the fact that of the deported men, 433 were married, 199 native born Americans, 468 were citizens and 472 registered under the Draft Law.
The El Paso & S. W. Railroad, had especially provided 24 cattle and box cars for the movement.
When train arrived at Columbus the authorities there refused to permit those in charge of the deportation to leave the men there, and the train moved them back to Hermanos, N.M. They remained there "on their own" for two days and then taken over by the Fed. Govt. and transported to Columbus, N.M. and placed in stockades heretofore built for Mexican refugees during the various Border Raids. They remained there (many of them) until the middle of Sept.
The Bisbee Vigilance Committee usurped the function of the local court until late in August. This committee continued to deport a goodly number of "undesirables"
Two months after the deportation the President’s Mediation Com. Headed by Secy of Labor Wm B. Wilson investigated the Bisbee deportation.
This Commission held that the burden of responsibility for acts of violence which attended the strike in Bisbee and the deportation was upon the Mining companies themselves.
Kidnapping charges against Sheriff Wheeler, then serving as a Captain in the aviation service of the American Expeditionary Forces, had left Bisbee for the Army shortly after the deportation of the strikers.
The Dist. Atty. on account of the popularity of Wheeler in Cochise County decided to quash the indictment against Wheeler, use him as a witness against deputies who took part in the deportation. Harry M. Martin, one of the deputies was indicted and tried in the Cochise County Sup. Court. Wheeler on stand for three days took upon himself, the entire responsibility for the deprotation on July 12, 1917 of 1186 miners. Trial lasted three months Martin acquitted by a Jury, on the ground that he had acted in accordance with "the law of necessity". The prosecution of all other defendants was dismissed.
Judge Samuel J. Pattee, of Pima County presided at the trial. According to his instructions to the Jury: "The deportation would have been, under ordinary
[end p. 59]
conditions, a clear violation of the law of the State of Arizona forbidding kidnapping, and no member of the Posse could have excused on the ground that he was acting under orders of the Sheriff, since the Sheriff himself had no right to violate that law. The Defendants could not plead the necessity of self defense, since the strikers had not attacked anybody. But, Judge Pattee said the action might be excused on the ground of the "Law of Necessity" the essence of which was, "that it protects a man in his invasion of the rights of others when his fear of his own safety or welfare is great enough to force him to a drastic step, and his fear does not have to be a fear of really existent dangers but only apparent danger is compelling as to be real to him who views it."
On May 18th 1918 action was brought in the Federal Court at Tucson against 25 prominent men of Bisbee, viz. Walter Douglas, who was in Bisbee at the time, Sheriff Wheeler, George Wilcox, Roe, Merrill, Sherman, Cunningham, Allison, Watkins, Shattuck, Brophy, Tovrea, Hunt, Garron, Johnson, Bledsoe, Hodgson, Howe, Sims, Snodgrass, Dowell, Stout and Wooten.
It ended when Federal Judge William Morrow sustained a demurrer filed for the Defendants, saying that the offense, if any should be presented in the State and not in Federal Courts, hence no Federal Law had been violated.
The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court which affirmed the decision of Judge Morrow.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes declaring "The premise upon which the proposition rests in State Action and matter which, not being here involved, are not disturbed. U.S. 65. U.S. vs Wheeler.
[end p. 60]
In as much as the Deportation of 1200 men from the Warren Mining Dist. Located in Cochise County. Arizona was the largest deportation in members ever effected in the United States and caused the greatest interest both in Arizona and abroad. A chapter should be devoted to the causes leading up to the event: -
In 1917 the Warren District was the second largest producer of Copper in Arizona, the principal producers being the Copper Queen Copper Co, a subsidiary of the Phelps-Dodge Corporation, having far flung mining interests, the Calumet and Arizona Copper Co, the Shattuck-Denn and a number of smaller independent copper producers.
The District was always what is known as an "Open Camp", that is the various Unions affiliated with the A. F. of L. having Locals in the District held no controls with the Copper Operations. The wages paid were as high or higher than in any District in the State, working conditions were good and living conditions better than in most Copper Camps. No strike of any consequence had ever been called in the post. Bisbee had the reputation of being the "best camp in which to work in the entire state."
The principal organizers of the I. W. W. and recognized as its International representatives was one J. H. Chapman who resided in Bisbee for sometime before the general strikes were called in Arizona. He was a member of the Musicians Union and very active in the local Trades Council of the A. F. of L. His purpose was to sew the seeds of unrest and preach the Gospel of One Big Union as the panacea to organized labors future success in combating the Capitalist system and at the same time obtain Members to the I. W. W. both from members of the A. F. of L. and others. He was particularly successful with the Alien Workmen, Austrians, and Mexicans. These "boring from within tactics" on the Int. U.M.M. & Smelter workers affiliated with the A. F. of L. bore fruit, so much so that when the Bisbee strike was called June 27th he and his followers had taken over the offices of the Int. U. M.M. & Smelter workers. Many of the members of this Union had joined the I. W. W. When this "take over" was complete and came to the notice of Chas. H. Moyer then in Denver Colorado he wired Secretary Chas Tannebill of the Int. Union M.M. & Smelter workers as follows: "This is to officially advise you that acting under the power vested in me by the Constitution of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers I have and do hereby revoke the Charter of Bisbee local No. 106 on the grounds of violation of the Constitution on the part of said local and satisfactory proof of treachery on the part said Local to the principles of the International"
[end p. 61]
June 30th 1917
Jerome Strike called May 24, 1917. John McBride, Dept. of Labor Conciliator at Jerome during strike. Rob’t E. Tally, Supt. Chas. W. Clark, G. M. Miami Scale = 5.25 for underground workers.
June 1st, 1917
Genaro Mayagoitia & Jim Evans, employees at the UV Mine by W. N. Teery a UV Guard, who was wounded in the shooting Teery and Horace Harrison. Hornbrook of the U.S. Cavalry (Guards killing each other in the dark.
Name – Metal Mine Workers Industrial Union No. 800, a subsidiary Union of the I. W. W.
Miami Mines Union will formally present a number of demands to the Inspiration and Miami Copper Companies next Thursday. "No wage question. The demands framed two weeks ago provide for Permission of Organizers to go on the Co.’s properties, equal representation on the Hospital Board, grievance committee to be elected by the Unions, a guarantee against union men and the discharge of all men who oppose the Union.
Geo. D. Smith, Secy of the Globe Miami Union refused to announce date of impending strike in the Globe-Miami Dist. Effecting 7000 men. Becket, GM of O.D. refuses to meet with Grievance Com. oppt. By Union