1 Translated from the original on folio 263 of volume 47 of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
2 Translated from the original in Spanish Manuscripts, volume 2, number 2, in the Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois.
3 This corresponded exactly with the next agave season which would begin during the month of May.
4 This was an idle boast as Garcés well knew, since the Apaches had a taboo against night battles and there was never any record of such a battle. Later Garcés' letters reveal that at least one of the captured soldiers got away, and that when he escaped the other soldier was alive and well among the Aravaipa Apaches, who lived near the San Pedro River and customarily attacked through Redington pass or the routes south of the Rincons. The present attack up the Santa Cruz River through Tucson was executed by the Pinaleño or Gileno Apaches from farther north, according to Garcés' own indications.
5 Translated from an original document and an early copy on folio 395 of volume 47 of the Provincias Internas section and folios 276 and 277 of volume 18 of the Historia section, Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City
6 Translated from the original in folder 903, box 40, Archivo Franciscano, Biblioteca Naciónal, Mexico City.
7 Tueros' report is from an early copy by a viceregal secretary on folios 325 - 327 in volume 245A of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City. Crespo's is translated from the original on folios 359-361 of volume 247 in the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City. The Crespo report is preceded by the Cieneguilla census, dated December 25, 1773, and signed by Tueros, on folios 350 and 351. According to this census, the Spaniards numbered 786 and the Indians 1500. The heads of Spanish families are listed by name. Since Crespo estimated another 500 Indians at least, the population of Cieneguilla during its first decade of existence might be rounded off at 3000.
8 Translated from the original on folio 164 of volume 88 in the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
9 Translated from the original on four folios in folder 920, box Archivo Franciscano, Biblioteca Naciónal, Mexico City.
10 Not the better-known Babocomari in southeastern Arizona. It was on the headwaters of the Altar River, considerably south of Arivaca.
11 Edited from a rough translation of the original document. The early translation is found in Appendix C of House Executive Document 91 of the Second Session of the 33rd Congress (Washington, D.C., 1857). The original Spanish document was in the Tucson presidia! archive in 1854.
12 Translated from the original on two folios in folder 40 of box 202, Civezza Collection, Antonianum Library, Rome, Italy.
13 These three documents are translated from originals and official copies on folios 1 through 9 in volume 259 of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
14 Translated from the original on folios lo and 11 of volume 259 in the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
15 The royal decree was translated from a fragment of an eighteenth century letter-copybook in the Figueroa Collection at the Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, Arizona. An unsigned, early copy of the Sonora tabulation is in drawer I of file cabinet 3 of the Archivo Histórico del Estado in the library of the University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora.
16 Translated from the original on folios 29 through 31 of volume 259 in the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
17 Translated from the original on folios 527-528 in volume 171 of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City.
18 1San Marcial was and is a settlement in the Mátape River valley about 25 miles northwest of Suaqui.
19 Velderrain brought the general idea expressed here to San Xavier del Bac, as is evident from the present arrangement of church and cemetery at San Xavier Mission.
20 The Lower Pimas along the Suaqui River bore the nickname of Sibubapas.
21 Translated from official copies, made and certified by the viceregal scribe, on folios 94-96 and 147-151 in volume 247 of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City. To present a more vivid picture to the average reader, who is not accustomed to calculating distances in Castilian varas (one vara = 33 inches), the exact vara measurements are rounded off in feet in the translation. Overall measurements, therefore, are within six inches of exactness.
22 Translated from the original in folder 786 of box 35 in the Archivo Franciscano of the Biblioteca Naciónal in Mexico City.
23 The Tucson report that accompanies this and the preceding document (16) from 1792 favor the Kino name of Santa María for the Santa Cruz River. Only during last century did Santa Cruz become the standard name for the river that flows past Tubac and Tucson today.
24 This sentence contains the elements of an explanation of the confusion in the name. In January of 1691, when Kino placed the Pima village at Suamca under the patronage of Santa María, the Santa Cruz presidio did not exist. When the Santa Cruz presidio was founded there in 1788, Santa María Suamca had ceased to exist, destroyed by the Apaches.
25 Translated from the original in folder 819 of box 36, Archivo Franciscano, Biblioteca Naciónal, Mexico City.
26 The game is still played in parts of the Southwest, usually around St. John's Day, June 24. A rooster is buried in the ground with his head sticking out. The players ride past at full tilt and lean over to try to pluck the rooster out of the ground.
27 The quaint Spanish expression used was corriendo en faldillas which might be translated as "flouncing her skirts."
28 Translated from an official transcript of the trial on twenty folios in box #16, Anos 1815-1816, of the Archivo Histórico de la Mitra de Sonora, Cathedral Archives, Hermosillo, Sonora.
29 The battle took place some fifty miles north of Mazatlan.
30 The famous San Xavier mission church was under construction at that time. Martinez could well have been one of the workers.
31This assignment was so common among the presidials of Spanish Arizona at this time that it was usually referred to, in designating the whereabouts of an individual soldier in presidial rosters and service records, simply as "en la costa." In current literature, this abbreviated phrase has been misinterpreted as fighting the Seri Indians along the coast of the Gulf of California. Both Piaxtla and El Rosario are in present-day southern Sinaloa.
32 A large piece of leather that a horseman draped in front of him over the pommel of the saddle to protect himself from the desert thorns.
33 Translated from the original 1817 records in volume 243 of the Provincias Internas section, Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City.
34 The Arvizu document is translated from the original on folios 203-206 of volume 261 of the Provincias Internas section of the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City. The Tucson roster is translated from the original on folios 337-338 of volume 233 of the same section.
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Desert Documentary by Kieran Mccarty - Notes
Tucson, Arizona: Arizona Historical Society, 1976.
© 1976 The Arizona Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.