L'Apocalypse de Saint-Sever; manuscrit Latin 8878 de la Bibliothèque nationale (XIe siècle). Paris, Éditions de Cluny  ND3361 .R5 M6 Special Coll oversize
Issued in portfolio. This eleventh-century manuscript of the text of the Apocalypse includes the earliest version of the commentary by the eighth-century Spanish monk Beatus. Beatus of Liebana (d.798) wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse, the final book of the New Testament, and it became important throughout Europe. Many copies of Beatus' commentary have survived, suggesting its popularity and influence in the medieval times. The influence of the Spanish Beatus manuscripts is clear in this example, a mid-eleventh century French Beatus The tradition of manuscript illumination which would evolved in Spain in the 10th and 11th centuries was often based on reproducing the commentary on the Book of Revelation. The Beatus text was regarded as a symbol of Christian resistance to the Muslim Arabs who dominated much of the Iberian Peninsula in the early Middle Ages.