2. WHITE MOUNTAIN REGION.


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Forestdale—Interior Sawmill—Linden—Showlow—Shumway.

2.1. FORESTDALE.

On the White Mountain Apache Reserve, southeast of Showlow some 10 miles, and a few miles east of Pinetop, near the headwaters of a creek rising in the Mogollon Mesa, is a remarkable ruined pueblo, which, from its great extent, must have been an important center of population in early days. (Plate 2.) The Apaches call the place “Tun das tusa” (water spread out), from the many springs forming marshy areas. The locality is called Forestdale from the creek of that name. Years ago Mormons made a settlement here, but the Apaches drove them away, burning their buildings except the church, which still remains, surrounded with great pines. The ruin was brought to notice by Bandelier, who hastily examined it in 1883. 1

The country slopes strongly to the south from the Mogollon rim, and the streams drain into the Upper Salt River, which flows approximately 25 miles to the south. This portion of the White Mountain Apache Reservation is rugged, the streams often canyoned and again running through pleasant valleys, with meadows and Indian cornfields. The primitive forest of great pine trees covers the country; grass is abundant, and wild flowers bloom in profusion, giving one an idea of the “Tierra despoblada” as it appeared to Coronado and his followers when they passed through this region in 1540.

The problems of food, water, wood, clay, and stone which were so difficult to most tribes in other portions of the Pueblo region presented no such complexity to the ancients of Forestdale. Most of these good things were near at hand in greater degree than at the


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neighboring pueblo of Linden; wood was rather a burden, cold, clear water welled beneath their town walls, the rich cornfields required no irrigation, the forest was full of game; manzanita berries and the sweet mescal agave were plentiful. It is not surprising, therefore, that in this favoring environment pueblos of large size were developed; the cause for wonder is that in this region the pueblo dwellers have not persisted to our day.

Tundastusa ruin (Plates 3 and 4) is located on a low elevation between two washes coming into Forestdale Creek from the north, on land claimed by Skidi, a prominent Apache, who has his cornfields near the mouth of the washes where there are springs.

At the highest point is a circular acropolis 160 feet in diameter, giving the area of 1 acre, the walls 2 feet thick and 8 feet 2 inches from the surface to the foundation course, the circle cut up into rooms by narrower walls. At intervals down the slope below the acropolis toward the creek and wash are five or more walls, forming segments of circles concentric with the acropolis circle. Across these segments run radiating lines, showing from a distance as windrows of stone from the fallen buildings. The only plaza in this section of the ruins is a small one on the southeast side. Attached to the acropolis on the west are quadrangular house masses, the general ground plan being irregular or stepped and extending down the slope. Beyond this section of the pueblo to the west is a long L, two rooms deep, containing 104 rooms. On the inner side of the north limit of the L is a parallel row of houses, also two rooms deep. These house rows thus flank two sides of a plaza 1 acre in area, and bounded on the south by a low wall. At the cast end of the inner house row a sunken depression 25 feet square probably indicates a kiva, though excavation revealed nothing. (Plate 5.) A curved wing wall closes the opening between the acropolis and the detached quadrangular ruin. This portion of the Forestdale ruin is easily traced. The ruin is estimated to show 300 rooms on the ground floor and perhaps originally contained 1,000 rooms. In area, it covers 7 acres, and its present appearance is that of chaotic heaps of earth and stone, with no walls standing above the surface. (Plate 6.) There are no trees on the ruin. The plan of Forestdale ruin shows three house masses, which strike one immediately as having been constructed at different times. There is no doubt on this point concerning the rectangular ruin some distance to the west; but in order to determine the relation of the house mass attached to the circular ruin the walls at the junction were cleared and it was found that the wall abutting the acropolis rested on 3 feet of rubbish, which had accumulated from the older pueblo. The walls of the middle pueblo are likewise of inferior masonry, not as good as that of the rectangular house mass. It is apparent that the circular ruin is older and formed the nucleus of subsequent accretions. As has been stated,


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the artifacts noted in the débris are uniform for the whole site. It must be said, however, that no cemeteries were discovered in connection with either of the rectangular house masses. It seems probable that since all present pueblos are made up of aggregations of clan units, we see in Forestdale an ancient evidence of this fact, which may also explain the occurrence of two modes of burial.

The material used in building is sandstone brought from the ledges cropping out along the little creek close at hand. The blocks of stone are larger and more uniform in dimension than is usual in the pueblos of the Southwest. In general the stones were of convenient size for carrying by one man, but larger stones were used in the circular walls. One measuring 3 by 2 by 2 feet and weighing probably 1,000 pounds was observed set in the wall at the height of 5 feet. As it is not possible for men to lift a stone to this height by muscular effort, it is probable that it was rolled to position on an earth embankment or a skid of poles. It will be perceived that men who could construct a circle with an accuracy that is comparable only with the work of men possessing instruments of precision would also show skill in masonry. In the course of the excavation the exterior of the acropolis wall was exposed for a length of 164 feet, showing masonry that excites admiration and surprise. (Plate 7.) Like all cyclopean construction, of which this wall is a type, the stones are rough bedded and not coursed. The wall is laid up with judgment, the joints broken, and large stones the width of the wall form headers. Occasionally a series of large stones forms what appears to be an attempt at a course. The stone are quarry faced, and projections beyond the line have been pecked away and a few petroglyphs cut on some of the stones. Some of the building blocks scattered over the ruin have fret and key designs pecked on the surface. The walls of the room interiors have in a number of cases where such walls were seen been carefully surfaced with the pecking hammer and the chinks set with small stones. Other rooms have been plastered with red clay; low doorways formed a means of communication between the rooms. In excavating the circular wall a very narrow entrance was found leading through it at the northeast.

As usual in the southwest, Forestdale is one of a group of pueblos, a member of which lies a few hundred feet to the northwest on the edge of the bluff. Another very large ruin is about one-half mile away on the line of the valley; a third, comparatively small, stands on the bank of the creek half a mile up the valley, and still another small ruin is on a sandstone cliff on the left bank. No detached houses were observed, nor were altars, shrines, or fire boxes noticed. The surface of Forestdale ruin shows traces of modern occupation, such as remains of foundations of Mormon houses, shallow basins marking the location of Apache wickiups, while on the acropolis circles of stones mark the


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rifle pits thrown up during intertribal warfare among the Apaches some years ago. (See Plate 6.)

The débris surrounding the walls and obliterating the rooms is enormous in mass, greater than that surrounding any ruin in the Southwest known to the writer. This débris consists of ashes and charcoal mixed with bones, pottery, fragments, etc., which has altered the contour of the land around the pueblo to a marked degree. Pottery fragments are relatively fewer than in most other ruins, while bones of animals are quite frequent.

One cemetery lies on the east hillside, where a sandstone ledge crops out above the spring. This cemetery had been rifled by Skidi and others. The pottery secured by Skidi, he says, was sold to Mr. Schott, formerly agent at Apache. It is evident that burials were made at length in this cemetery, but the pottery, judging from the fragments, does not differ from that scattered over the ruin. There was no opportunity to ascertain whether cinerary burials occurred in this cemetery, but it was gathered from Skidi that such burials had been uncovered.

The collection secured by the Museum-Gates expedition at Forestdale was taken from a burial place along the free portion of the circular wall of the acropolis, marked in the plan. (Plate 3.) The burials here were from 5 to 8 feet, 2 inches below the present surface, and directly against the wall. Two varieties of interment were also encountered here, namely, a few bodies flexed and placed against the wall; the majority burned and placed in gray vases, which were luted with clay, stopped with a stone, or covered with an upturned bowl. A remarkable fact connected with the interments of this class is that the vases are usually set on the bones of an infant. No explanation derived from historical or present observances of any of the pueblo tribes can be given of this strange custom, which appears to have been of sacrificial character. It may also be said here that this is the most northerly occurrence of incineration that has yet come to notice. Fragments of a paho, painted green, were found on the ashes in one of these vases and a very much corroded mass of copper, which appears to have been a bell. Among the calcined bones were fragments of awls, showing that possessions were burned with the body. The ashes of a young person were inclosed in a bird-form vase. (Plate 8, fig. 1.) The flexed burials contained pottery, according to the general custom, the ware being red. Quantities of fragments of red bowls were thrown out of this excavation, and some fragments of cooking vessels in rugose ware, having wide, flaring rims, were seen.

The Forestdale pottery is red and gray in color, the red preponderating. It is found that the paste of both varieties is the same, the red ware being secured by covering the gray paste with a slip of yellow ocher burning to red color. The red ware is found in form of bowls, dippers, and small articles; the decoration geometric rain clouds and


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terraced figures; the volute and key frets are missing. Several small objects of the highest artistic importance were collected. These comprise a paint cup of oblong shape (Plate 9, fig. 1), a handled vase, a small bowl, and a double bowl (Plate 9, fig. 2) of bright and lively red color; the designs geometric in black enamel, outlined with white and sometimes with black over a white ground.

The unique vessel formed by joining two bowls is remarkably attractive, even though broken. The potter has lavished on this object her highest skill, and the result is an achievement in polychrome ware which probably marks the highest attainment in ceramic art from the Southwest. We may follow the construction of this vessel with a view of explaining the processes involved. The potter formed two bowls of selected clay and joined them while “green” by a short neck connecting the rims. She then washed the vessel with fine yellow ocher and finished the surface With a smoothing stone. The interior of one of the bowls was washed with cream-colored kaolin and also smoothed with the stone. Having prepared her pigment for the black enamel, the basis of which is iron ore, but the secret of its mixing, whether with alkaline salts or resin, is lost, she skillfully laid on the interior of one of the bowls a geometric design and on the exterior rims of both various geometric frets, outlining the latter designs with stripes of pure kaolin. The interior of the second bowl required the preparation of a second color, which should burn to soft gray and melt into the background. The vessel was then fired, care being taken to prevent uneven firing and smoke blemishes. The result shows a knowledge on the part of the potter of materials, manipulations, and processes, from the selection of the clay to the last stages of firing, and a highly developed artistic sense in form and color that command our respect and admiration. That similar feelings toward the skillful potter were entertained among ancients of the Southwest is shown by a series of objects taken from a grave at Four Mile by the Fewkes party in 1897. Carefully placed in this grave were all the implements of the potter's craft, concave dishes, representing the beginning of the wheel in which the ware was set during manufacture, smoothing stones, a stone slab, and a mulling stone and grinder. Securely laid in a large, well-made cooking vessel, on a bed of pine twigs, were various kinds of clay and paints. Gourd formers and brushes of yucca strips, if any such were buried, had decayed. With these objects were specimens of excellent pottery. The purpose of this disposition seems clearly to furnish this venerated potter the implements with which she might continue her art for the benefit of the spiritual beings in the under heaven.

One piece of ware of the Gila type (Plate 10, fig. 1) and several fragments were all the examples of this type found at Forestdale. It is evident that the ruins on the north slope of the White Mountains


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show strong Gila influence and are little related to the remains on the Salt River. One fragment of yellow ware with black and light-red ornamentation was picked up. The black on the specimen is thick and enamel-like. But one fragment showing white painting over a rugose surface rewarded the most careful search. Some fragments of ware resembling that of Four Mile have portions of designs of human figures in white kaolin. Symbolic designs are infrequent, birds, bear tracks, and a face on a red dipper comprising all such figures noted.

Gray ware.—Shards of gray ware are rare in the débris at Forestdale, so that the number of vessels found was to some extent unexpected. The comparatively small number of shards may be due to surface conditions, as in this region the ground is held by plants and moisture, while on the plains the prevalence of shards may be due to winnowing of several feet of soil by erosive agencies. The greater number of pieces of gray ware were vases of globular form (Plate 11, figs. 1 and 2), or of bird form containing incinerated bones (see Plate 8, fig. 1). None of the vases have handles as those from Linden and Showlow; one urn has an animal handle, several of which, broken from vessels, were taken from the débris. A few small bowls of gray ware were also taken out. (Plate 8, fig. 2.) A portion of a gray vessel bearing in relief apparently a snake, is an example of a class of decoration very rare in the pueblo region, but prevalent in Mexico and found sparingly on the Gila River. The bird-shaped vessels are more conventional in treatment than those found north of the divide in the drainage of the Little Colorado. Some figurines of animals in pottery, perhaps fetiches, occur at Forestdale. They are rudely executed and without decoration. A dipper with rattle handle came from this ruin. Rugose cooking vessels are few in number and of small size. Roundels of reground pottery are frequent; one such piece may have been a spindle whorl.

Stone.—The absence of metates from the surface, coupled with the presence of broken manos, was remarked at Forestdale, and it was learned that the former were carried off by Indians who make use of them around their camps, only working out a metate if an ancient one can not be secured. The Apaches also collect hammers and other stone implements from the ruins, which in many cases explains the paucity of such relics on ruins visited by them. While excavations brought to light metates, no axes and few hammers appeared, and arrowheads were infrequent. Chert flakes formed into scrapers and knives were numerous, one scraper chipped and ground being specially noteworthy. Chips of black and white obsidian and an occasional scraper of this material were noticed. A small boring implement of red chert is figured. (Plate 12, fig. 4.) A small paint pestle with traces of copper pigment on the rubbing end may be mentioned.


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Pottery polishing stones, an arrow smoothing stone of Gila type, and a stone resembling a fetich (Plate 12, fig. 2) were taken out. The stone last mentioned has been carefully worked from a dark, greenish-blue rock much prized by the ancient people of the Upper Gila, numerous specimens having been found in Pueblo Viejo Valley 2 where the material appears to occur in situ. Sporadic examples of objects cut from this stone are found north of the mountains, and one specimen was collected by Mrs. M. C. Stevenson at the Hopi villages. A small tablet of sandstone, having a design in black on one face, was excavated from this ruin. No conjecture is ventured as to the purport of the plan on the tablet, except to say that the ancients at Forestdale evidently drew circles as well as built them.

Shell.—Shell appears to have been little used at Forestdale, only a few pieces, consisting of wristlets and pendants, rewarding the searcher. The mountain pueblos are generally poor in shell, probably because they were off the routes of primitive commerce, or they may have had little to trade. Pueblos in passes through the mountains, as at Chaves Pass, must have been more in touch with aboriginal commerce, and in this case abundance of shell was found.

Bone.—The people of Forestdale made great use of bone. The most numerous bone objects were awls of various sizes and descriptions, with points at either end, with an eye like a needle (Plate 13, fig. 4), or merely pointed splinters of bone. One specimen has a figure like the letter X engraved on the sides, as seen on the ceremonial ax found at Chevlon. 3 This was the only instance of ornamentation on bone observed. Cups formed by sawing off elk femurs near the ends are common, as at Pottery Hill. It has been suggested that these cups are rejects after the shaft of the femur was cut up into rings. The absence of such rings from the collection, and the finish of the lip of the cups, would seem to offer an objection to this theory, but the use of the cups is unknown. Rings cut from femurs apparently for the finger have been found at Chaves Pass. Wedges of bone and antler, numerous knives of deer rib, hide scrapers worked from deer pelvis, bone tubes, a bone with holes drilled through it (thought to be an arrow wrench), an ornament of antler in form of a bear's claw, and bones used in flint working were collected. (Plate 13.) The lower jaw of a deer from this ruin, with bands of red painted diagonally across it, is an interesting object.

Fragments of decayed wood were taken from the excavations, but it was not possible to ascertain whether they were worked. No cord or fabric of any description was encountered.

A large number of bones of animals were collected from the débris,


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where they occurred in great numbers. These have been ascertained by Mr. F. A. Lucas to belong to the elk, deer, antelope, dog, gray fox, mountain lion, wild-cat, beaver, turkey, and eagle.

It is apparent from the number of bones of animals that the Forestdale tribe were to a great extent meat eaters, and hence must have been hunters. The dog and possibly the turkey were domesticated. It would be interesting to connect the meat diet of the Forestdale people with their achievements as builders, but such theories must be advanced with hesitation.

Unfortunately, during the course of this exploration very few skeletons were encountered, and in these cases the bones were extremely decayed, so that no crania could be secured. From the fragmentary bones thrown out by the vandals who sacked the east cemetery it is obvious that adequate somatological material could have been acquired here. This is another example of the destruction of valuable scientific evidence by careless and unskilled hands.

The pottery of Forestdale bears a closer relation to that of Pinedale, north of the Mogollon Divide, than to any other ancient pueblo known to the writer. The bright red ware with black on white decoration is also found in a number of ruins along the mountains from Chaves Pass to Pinedale, reaching to within 40 miles of the Little Colorado and associated at Chaves Pass and Four Mile with yellow ware. The gray vases are not duplicated north of the divide; they will be found to belong to the Salt River Valley in all probability. The practice of incinerating the dead separates the ruin from any yet examined in the Little Colorado drainage.

On the whole, the Forestdale ruin is only one of perhaps a number along the head streams of Salt River, which is on the natural migration line from the south by which the Indians led Coronado to Cíbola. In the absence of information concerning the ruins it is not possible at present to make any approximate statement as to them. Forestdale may have been the stopping place of an important section of the southern element which tradition has it went to form the Zuñi or it may mark a southern extension of the Zuñi. The cremation of the dead also tallies with the Zuñi tradition that formerly they practiced the same custom. 4 The burial against the house walls also reminds one of the Zuñi expression, “We bury our dead beneath the ladders.”

The plans of the old Zuñi ruins, figured by Mindeleff in the Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology show that Nutria is a circular pueblo and that Pescado, so far as the ancient plan can be traced, approached a circular outline. Kintiel, which is a Zuñi ruin, and several of the ruins of the Canyon Butte group north of the Petrified Forest are of this type.


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Zuñi archeology still awaits an explorer who will do as much for it as has Fewkes for the Hopi. A vast and untouched field lies south of Zuñi, and complex migration problems cluster around the headwaters of the Gila, Salt, and Little Colorado rivers. In much of this region, on account of the work of untrained explorers and curio hunters, it is too late to do more than secure what they have left or to trace the material to private or museum collections for the purpose of study.

2.2. INTERIOR SAWMILL.

Leaving Forestdale a reconnissance was made to Fort Apache, following the road south from Cooleys. A cave in a lava bed near Interior Sawmill was examined, but no evidence of occupation found. A short distance from the Interior Sawmill a small pueblo yielded on excavation a few pieces of gray ware, a large flaring bowl in fine coiling, a stone hammer (Plate 14, fig. 1), a bone tool splendidly engraved (Plate 14, fig. 2), and a skull. Farther south along White Mountain River a number of rectangular pueblos were seen, but no excavations made. From the surface relics these ruins appear to be poor and the pottery, gray, red, and coiled, of inferior quality. Having secured photographs and ethnological data from the Apaches and made botanical collections, the party returned north, excavating for half a day at Snowflake, where a small ruin yielded a few pieces of gray and red ware and a skeleton.

2.3. LINDEN.

Near Linden, Navajo County, Arizona, some 45 miles south of Holbrook, there is a large ruin, locally called Pottery Hill, lying on the north side of the watershed near the divide between the Salt and Little Colorado rivers. This part of the White Mountain Plateau presents a series of beautiful park-like expanses between low ridges, well grassed and studded with large pines and clumps of stunted oaks. At this elevation in the White Mountains the humidity is sufficient in favorable seasons to admit of dry farming. Stock raising and dairying is the main occupation of the people. The soil, formed by the decomposition of carboniferous sandstone, limestone, and shales is fairly rich. Vegetation is abundant; after the summer rains and the melting of the snow in spring myriads of flowers appear.

It will be seen that the environment would be favorable to the maintenance of the prehistoric people who lived here, furnishing wood for fuel and construction, useful plants, clay for the potter, and stone for the builder. Game abounded and wild bees yielded honey. In this locality, however, there are no springs, the water sinking and necessitating at present its impounding in ravines. A few wells have been dug at Linden, but the water is scanty and unpalatable.

The ruins (Plate 15) are situated on a ridge bounding the southern


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side of one of these parks. The main site covers the lower end of the ridge lying with its longer axis north and south. On the east the ruin slopes down to the valley by a series of terraces and on the west to a shallow draw. Its outline is oval, measuring 228 feet in length by 150 feet in width. The cemeteries lie to the east and to the west of the pueblo and to the northwest is a shrine among the rocks, consisting of a pile of fossils and iron concretions of peculiar shapes.

Detached rectangular ruins occur at intervals in the juniper and pinyon woods at the northwest along the margin of the gradually ascending ridge extending perhaps 1,500 feet. Aged junipers grow in these ruins and the remaining building stones show extreme weathering. No trees except some young junipers grow on Pottery Hill, giving the impression that this ruin was occupied at a later period than the others in the vicinity.

Another interesting ruin of the Linden group, lying in the forest 2 miles west of Pottery Hill, shows a rectangular plan 45 by 72 feet, containing 12 rooms, and adjoining is a circular-house plan 65 feet in diameter, having a passage through the wall to the central court. (Plates 16 and 17.) There was little débris, and excavations were without results. Stumps of pine trees that had matured and decayed were found in place in the rooms. The plan of the ruin is instructive when compared with that of Forestdale, which also presents circular and rectangular features.

No walls are standing in the Pottery Hill ruin, and heaps of sandstone blocks from the houses, interspersed with fragments of pottery and broken implements, cover the surface. A reconstruction of the pueblo would show a long line of houses perhaps two stories in height, facing both ways, on the slopes of the hill, and below this successive rows of houses, forming terraces. To the east there were three or four terraces and to the west one or two. No detached houses or fire boxes were observed. Such walls as were uncovered during excavation were formed of oblong blocks of rough-faced sandstone laid with little skill. The débris of house refuse is enough to show lengthy occupation of the site.

The principal cemetery is in the débris on the west side of the pueblo some distance from the walls. Most of the graves had been rifled during the summer of 1900 by dealers in curios from Pinedale, but more systematic excavation brought to light a number of specimens. Owing to the strong nature of the soil few pieces of pottery were taken out unbroken.

A feature concerning the deposit of the dead in the graves at Linden such as the packing of stones and clay around the body, especially near the head, leads one to suppose that the device was to prevent burrowing animals from entering the sepultures. This mode of burial accounts for the destruction of the pottery when the earth sank and


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packed in the graves. The burials were at length with no regard to the points of the compass, and no stakes were placed over the bodies as at Chaves Pass, nor were stone slabs found as in the ruins along the Little Colorado River. No traces of matting or other textiles were observed. The skeletons were mostly decayed beyond preservation. Bones of elk, deer, antelopes, turkey, and of small mammals and birds were numerous.

In the undisturbed cemetery, to the east similar conditions obtained, but the majority of the specimens came from this point. A burial here was noteworthy in that two bodies were interred together, the skeleton of one is in fair condition, the other merely vertebræ, ribs, and scapulæ. The place where the skull should have been found was covered with an inverted bowl containing ashes, and no fragments of the skull were present. As a rule the pottery was deposited near the head; when a number of pieces were found they were laid along the body. In one grave as many as 12 pieces had been buried. No pahos or fetishes were found in the graves.

The finds at Linden include some interesting specimens of pottery of several classes. Gray ware is represented here principally by gray vases with spherical body and tubular neck, having a curved handle from the rim to the body (Plate 18, figs. 1–3); cups with handles; bowls with close zigzag ornamentation covering the interior (Plate 19, fig. 1), and canteens of good form and ornamentation (Plate 18, fig. 4). The bowl of fine gray ware delicately coiled on the exterior, and with a well-designed fret pattern forming a band around the interior wall, is a remarkable and unique specimen (Plate 18, fig. 5), no rugose vessel of the gray ware having been hitherto described to the best of my knowledge.

Another noteworthy specimen is a gray bowl with interior ornamentation of human and animal figures. (Plate 19, fig. 2.) Around the side of the vessel a herd of deer run in single file below a grotesquely drawn human figure in attitude of surprise, and in the bottom of the bowl is drawn a large mountain lion. Apparently there is no symbolism involved in the design. The intention of the artist evidently was to portray in a realistic manner some actual occurrence, probably the encountering of a herd of deer pursued by a mountain lion. Fragments of pottery showing portions of composition have been picked up on ruins along the north slopes of the White and Mogollon mountains, indicating the use of such designs, but whole specimens are exceedingly rare. The bowl in question was in many fragments when found.

Some bowls of coarse red ware with interior geometric ornamentation were taken out at Linden. They resemble those of Showlow and other ruins yielding gray ware. One well-made bowl (Plate 20, fig. 2) has straight sides, and on the exterior is a stepped design with white


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border. The interior is undecorated. The edge bears black dots, a feature often noted in the ware of the mountain ruins.

Small cooking pots of coiled ware and small coiled vases occur at Linden. Great quantities of fragments of large flaring bowls with polished black interior and rugose exterior bearing volutes and grecques in white lay around the skeletons. Often five or six of these large bowls were nested in a grave, and, as may be imagined, the sinking and packing of rocky soil upon them produced such havoc that it was not possible to save fragments enough to reconstruct a specimen of what was evidently beautiful ware. A small globose bowl of this type was preserved intact. (Plate 20, fig. 1.) Among the small pottery objects from Linden are reground disks and small dippers. Fragments of vases and bowls with birds and the widespread four bird convention and a fragment of gray ware in form of a mountain sheep's head were picked up. A red bowl with the two joined bird symbol on the interior must also be noticed.

Rude axes and hammers, a fragment of an arrow-smoother of Gila type, a chipped chert implement resembling a pick, a flint chisel chipped and ground, a pitted stone, pottery smoothers, arrowheads, and flint and obsidian knives comprise the collection of stone implements from Linden. Ornaments of stone were a few large beads, disks, and tablets of red stone. Two cylindrical sections of fibrous selenite of unknown use were found in a grave. The stones front the shrine were iron concretions in form of cups, spheres, and odd shapes resembling birds, etc., fragments of red jasper, and a mass of fossil coral (Syringopora multattenuata). This was the only fossil observed; on the hill above a vein of Carboniferous limestone made up of fossils was seen and a number of specimens were collected.

Shell is very scarce at Linden; the objects of this material taken out were fragments of bracelets of pectunculus and a spiral shell ornament, Turitella tigrina, from the Gulf of California.

Bone was more frequent, consisting of awls, leather-working tools, scrapers, flint-working tools, punches, and other implements of antler. A number of antlers were taken from the excavations. Cups of elk and deer femurs similar to those found at Forestdale occur at Linden.

No fragments or traces of fibers or textiles were encountered.

The collection of bones of animals turned up during the excavation is found by Mr. F. A. Lucas to include the following: Antelope, elk, dog, jack rabbit, and turkey. But one complete human skeleton could be saved, the bones in most of the interments being in fragmentary condition.

Linden presents points of similarity with the Huning ruin at Showlow, best characterized by the rugose ware with white decoration, a type to which attention was first called by Bandelier in 1883. The range of this type is not clearly defined as yet, but the explorations of


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the season of 1901 give localities at McDonald's Canyon and the Petrified Forest (see pp. 305, 314). One specimen each from Four Mile and Chevlon are figured by Dr. Fewkes. 5 It must be said, however, that the occurrence seems to be sporadic at the sites mentioned and that the locality of greatest prevalence so far as known is at Linden. There is no doubt that this ware belongs on the northern slope of the White Mountains.

2.4. SHOWLOW.

A large ruin on the ranch of Mr. Henry Huning, at Showlow, was worked by the Museum-Gates expedition for a few days beginning July 12. Mr. Huning informs the writer that the ruin was examined by Mr. A. F. Bandelier some years ago. 6 The pueblo is located on a rock table a few feet above the level of Showlow Creek, which irrigates the wide and fertile valley forming part of the Huning ranch. The layer of débris is thin; hence the plan of this ruin is somewhat easy to make out. (Plate 21.) Much of the stone has been removed for buildings, and during this process a room at the south end of the pueblo was found to contain a large amount of charred corn, beans, etc. The cemetery was located on the east side in front of one of the piers; there were few interments, and only a small collection was secured.

The pottery is of red and gray, the latter presenting some rather good pieces, a dipper with rattle handle being noteworthy. The red ware is not fine and the decoration not well executed. Rugose bowls with volutes of white were frequent, though in fragmentary condition. Bone awls and a worked deer femur were found. Notched flints, a stone ax, an arrow smoother, scrapers, arrowheads of obsidian, and a large chipped flint leaf form comprised the relics in stone. A bit of the clay as rolled out by the potter in the process of coiling a vessel was taken from the débris.

The scarcity of potshards on the surface of this denuded ruin was remarked, and reminded one of the absence of such relics from the Zuñi ruins, where the shards have been picked up by the modern potters to be incorporated, after pulverization, with the clay for vessels. One perfect skeleton was secured. Bones of dog, two species of rabbits, turkey, and deer were collected.

The Huning ruin is a good example of the rectangular pueblo, showing considerable skill in laying out a village. The masonry exposed during the excavations is good; the material is of blocks of Carboniferous sandstone.

It seems probable that the pueblo was inhabited only for a short time. The artifacts resemble those excavated at Linden, some 8 miles to the northwest.


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2.5. SHUMWAY.

Near the town of Shumway, 40 miles south of Holbrook, on the banks of Silver Creek, a ruin of some importance was hastily examined while the party was on the way north from Showlow. The ruin consists of a long house group, two rooms deep, and a parallel house group having a wing at right angles at one end, and between these groups is a plaza (Plate 22). The rear house mass forms a high mound of débris from the two stories of this part. The cemetery lies in a sand bank near the walls of the front row of the houses, facing the creek. The graves had been rifled the summer before by a “pottery digger,” who sold his ill-gotten gains at Holbrook. It is presumed that the specimens are in a collection purchased at Holbrook in 1901 by the Free Museum of Science and Art of Philadelphia. A number of fragments, sufficient to show the quality and character of the pottery, were picked up on the excavations. The pottery is fine yellow and red, and the decoration is like that of the ancient Hopi pottery. The fragments show that symbolic designs were common on the interior of the bowls.


Notes

1. Final Report, etc., 1880 to 1885. Papers of the Archælogical Institute of America, Cambridge, 1892, Pt. 2, p.400.

2. J. Walter Fewkes, Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1897, pl. XVII.

3. Idem., 1896, pl. XLVII.

4. Cushing. Zuñi Creation Myths, Thirteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 336.

5. Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1897, pl. II; idem, 1896, pl. XLII.

6. Papers, Archæological Institute of America, IV, Pt. 2, p. 393.

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