3. LITTLE COLORADO VALLEY.
On the day of my arrival at Holbrook some Mexicans brought in 58 pieces of excellent pottery from ruins 22 miles southwest of that place, in McDonalds Canyon. (See general map.) It was ascertained that there were a number of ruins perhaps worthy of examination in the locality whence the specimens came. Hiring a small force of laborers and getting together a camping outfit, on May 4 we camped by the ruins, 11 miles from nearest water.
McDonalds Canyon is the name for quite a scope of country among the ascending Carboniferous ridges flanking the White Mountain Plateau. The dry wash leading into the Little Colorado, between Holbrook and St. Joseph, which heads back in the mountains, has numerous branches, so that the country is broken by canyons of no great depth, sometimes expanding into wide, level barrancas, becoming in wet seasons lakes. The ridges, deeply covered with yellow sand and clothed with junipers, present a most desolate aspect. The environment is hostile as to food and water, as the party experienced. In the seasons when rain falls, water is impounded in the natural tanks, but does not last long under the extreme evaporation at this altitude—5,400 feet. In one case a stone wall had been thrown across a canyon for the purpose of impounding water, a piece of engineering rare in this portion.
The ruins, five in number, are located on sandy ridges from 1 to 2 miles apart. They exist as inconspicuous elevations and are very difficult to find amidst the maze of ridges. All the ruins of the group are rectangular in plan, the rows of houses surrounding a plaza the entrance to which is from the east. There were no detached houses. The largest ruin is typical of the group (Plate23) . It evidently had a two-story house of large dimensions at the northeast corner. Judging by the amount of débris, the other houses of the village were one story in height. A circle of stones lies to the southwest.
The house-building material is coarse yellow Carboniferous sandstone laid in gypsum, which is abundant in the formations of this region. Smooth floors of the same material and slab floors were observed in some of the rooms. Beneath the corner of the high house of Ruin 1 a number of small white quartz concretions had been placed, apparently in dedication of the structure.
The débris is sufficient to indicate the occupation of these villages for a somewhat extended period, perhaps two generations. Bones of antelope, deer, dog, wildcat, and rabbit were found in the débris.
The cemeteries lie to the northeast of the village, close to the walls, and contained numerous interments at a moderate depth, the bodies laid at full length, generally to face the east. The grave of a child containing several mortuary vessels was found under the floor of a house. No grave slabs were discovered, and the burials near the walls were poor in pottery. The character of the soil is such that no incrustation of mineral matter was deposited, so that the specimens came out in unusually good condition. Twenty-three crania and portions of skeletons were collected. Though these ruins had been sacked, I was able during part of three days to collect over 100 specimens, many of which had been left as unimportant by the workmen, who only seek the marketable pottery and trinkets.
By good fortune the Bureau of American Ethnology was able to purchase from H. H. Scorse the valuable pottery previously collected here and from two other localities north of Holbrook. Thanks to this these specimens now in the National Museum supplement those collected by the writer and will be described with them in the following pages.
Seventy per cent of the ware at McDonalds Canyon is black and white, the “gray ware” so widespread in the Pueblo region, and the remainder is of red and coiled ware. The gray pottery from McDonalds Canyon presents some of the finest specimens of this ware in existence. The bowls are large and perfect and the decoration forceful, showing the touch of a master hand. The largest bowl (Plate 24, fig. 2) has a(Plate 24, fig, 1), also ovate in outline, has a series of frets of derivative bird forms and lines of hour-glass figures which are also a conventionalized form of two birds placed feet together with heads in opposite direction. The design is arranged in four wedge-shaped areas leaving a square field in the bottom of the bowl. This bowl is 13 inches in longest diameter and 5¾ inches deep. Another bowl (Plate 25, fig. 2) of large size bears on the interior a bold and striking design of interlocking hooks arising from pyramidal bases. These are birds and the effect is to produce a running key pattern outlined in black. The design, like that of Plate 24, fig. 1, if in four wedge-shaped sections outlining a square field in the bottom of the vessel. The color used is a rich, glossy black; the specimen is fresh and in perfect condition (diameter, 11½ inches; height, 6 inches). Still another large bowl (Plate 25, fig. 1) from this group of ruins belongs with similar specimens from the north. Almost identical pieces were found at Scorse Ranch (see p. 308), and W. H. Holmes figures one from Tusayan. 1 It is more than probable that this splendid bowl was secured by barter from the people of lower Le Roux Wash. The arrangement of the design is like that of the last-described bowl and the outline is more symmetrical. Several other gray bowls show resourcefulness and manual skill in decoration that mark all the specimens from this locality. Gray vases of good form, with handles, are next in frequency after the bowls. These comprise the list of forms in gray ware. The vases are of different sizes from very small to those holding upward of a quart. The small vases are as carefully decorated as the larger and it is probable that they are connected with ceremonial usuages as the little sacred water vases of the Hopi.
Attention may be called to a vase of excellent form and decoration. (Plate 26, fig. 2.) The design is made up of horizontal bands inclosing two running scrolls; the motive, birds with interlocking beaks. Four groups of four vertical lines are arranged on the rim, resembling the Pueblo rain symbol. The black pigment has remarkable luster, unlike that of any specimen known to the writer. A vase, probably of idealized bird form, was taken from these ruins. (Plate 26, fig. 1.) The surface design in red-brown has become obscured by weathering, but enough remains to show that it represents feathers.
The red ware consists principally of small bowls and dippers of friable paste. The surface is polished and decorated with geometric designs. The small canteen (Plate 29, fig. 1) is a beautiful object from(Plate 29, fig. 2) is also an attractive object. With the red ware may be classed bowls of rugose ware with polished black interior (Plates 27 and 28, figs. 1 and 2) and a geometrical decoration in white over the rough exterior. The design reminds one of those on basketry and, taken with the rugose surface, is suggestive of the origin of this type of ware. A number of rough cooking pots of coiled ware, usually rather small, are in the collection from these ruins.
It was noticed that worked stone axes and hammers are absent from the McDonalds Canyon ruins, their place being filled by spalled quartzite bowlders and cylindrical battering hammers of quartzite and jasper. One bowlder of natural form has two finger holes pecked on opposite sides. Pottery polishing stones, chert arrowheads, and knives are somewhat common. Flat metates and manos were present.
A pectunculus shell carved in the shape of a frog and bearing evidence of having been once incrusted with mosaic was found. Such specimens are rare. Dr. Fewkes figures an incrusted shell frog from Chaves Pass 2 and a plain carving from Chevlon. 3 A few beads of shell or stone were collected at McDonalds Canyon.
The crania nearly all show the flattening of the occiput so common in the Pueblo region. From the somatological series procured at McDonalds Canyon it will be possible to make a contribution to the affiliations of the inhabitants of these pueblos.
In September, after the close of the Museum-Gates expedition, the writer spent some time in examining and mapping two groups of undescribed ruins north of Holbrook on the Le Roux and Cottonwood washes at the Scorse Ranch and near Biddahoochee, respectively.
Le Roux Wash extends southwest from the Navajo Reserve, near the New Mexico line, about 100 miles to the Little Colorado at Holbrook, Arizona. There are two branches, one called Pueblo Colorado Wash, heading on the 8,000-foot contour near Zilh Tusayan Butte, and the other heading northeast of Old Fort Defiance. The valley is wide and sandy, and on account of the large drainage area the water from
Along this migration route the gray and red ware in northern forms of the San Juan have been carried south and west to the Little Colorado far into Tusayan. It is probable also that the migrations extended into the White Mountain plateau and are responsible for some of the sites furnishing gray and red ware, as at McDonalds Canyon. It must be said, however, that the characteristic San Juan forms thin out in the western part of the White Mountain region, while on the lower Le Roux they exist in entirety.
The Scorse Ranch ruins lie on the south side of the Le Roux Wash, in the broken country along the north flanks of the Holbrook mesa, at a distance of from 16 to 20 miles north of Holbrook. (Plate 30.) They extend from the “X” Ranch to the Scorse Ranch, a distance of about 4 miles. Small sites are also found at the level of the valley, but it will be seen that the larger pueblos were hidden in the hills, where there is building material at hand. Small house ruins are found near the base of the X Ranch Butte. This strangely formed mass of black lava has nests of predatory birds on its summit, and the house sites may have some connection with eagle ownership or they may have been field houses. The bed of Le Roux Wash always contains water, which may be had by digging a few feet below the surface. Wood is scarce; a few cottonwoods growing along the wash and a small clump of junipers on the mesa form the only trees to be seen. Desert vegetation, such as “rabbit brush,” Bigelovia graveolens, Atriplex argentea, etc., is relatively abundant and furnishes fuel to those who camp there. Clay is plentiful, and stone exists near the top of the mesa, where deposits of Triassic fossils and petrified wood were seen, one pueblo having been built of the last-mentioned material.
The ruins are rectangular, displaying no characteristics of plan worthy of remark. No walls stand above the surface, and the condition of the sites gives one the impression that the pueblos have been abandoned a long time. In general the pueblos face the valley without uniformity as to orientation, nor do the cemeteries appear to have
It is not possible to go into detail concerning the method of burial practiced in these ruins, as the cemeteries had been rifled. From observation of the excavations it was gathered that burial slabs were used, that the ground is full of charcoal and ashes, and that some of the skeletons were well preserved. My guide, who had worked the ruins, informed me that almost no shell, turquoise, or beads were present.
A portion of the specimens went to the Wattron collection, purchased by the Field Columbian Museum of Chicago, and the subsequent collections were, on the writer's recommendation, purchased by the Bureau of Ethnology. On this interesting collection the description of the artifacts of the Le Roux Wash ruins is based.
The Scorse Ranch collection numbers 175 pieces of pottery. Of these 43 per cent are of gray ware, 20 per cent undecorated brown ware with polished black interior, 18 per cent coiled cooking pots and coiled vases, and 14 per cent of red ware. The remaining per cent consist of a few miscellaneous pieces not classified.
The forms of gray ware in order of prevalence are: Vases with handles (41); bowls (23); globose vases (7); canteens (5); bird-form vessels (4); cups and dippers, of which there is 1 each. The brown ware with polished interior is: In the form of bowls (26); dippers (5); cups (1); and vases (1). The red ware: Bowls (12); vases (5); jars (4); cups (1); globose vases (1). The coiled ware consists principally of cooking pots, and with this class are a number of small, finely boiled vases of ceremonial use. One fine bowl of red ware with rugose surface was found.
Gray ware.—The texture of the gray ware is coarse, and in some cases the paste is so dark that it has been necessary to cover the vessels with white slip. The surface is roughly finished, and the marks of the smoothing tools are easily seen. The color used in decoration is black.
The variety of forms in gray ware is in keeping with the abundance of this class. The handled vases show considerable diversity in shape, from a simple bottle form to the typical vase form with neck and shoulder. (Plate 31, figs. 1–6.) Some of the vases resemble rude pitchers. In size these vessels range from 2 to 10½ inches in height. The rounded bottoms and heavy handle at the neck render these vessels unstable like the ancient tumblers.
Another purely northern form is the globular bowl. (Plate 32, fig. 6.) These are usually in gray ware, but sometimes in plain red. The(Plate 32, fig. 5.) They are small to be used for carrying water compared with the canteens in use at present. This form, which is of rather wide distribution, is found in the ruins of the gray and red type in the White Mountains, as well as on the Rio San Juan.
The bowls of gray ware range from crude specimens with flat bottom, straight flaring sides and simple decoration, to those displaying a degree of taste. One of the more interesting bowls has a remarkable design of unknown meaning. (Plate 34, fig. 2.) Another shallow bowl has a decoration representing a horned snake with two heads. (Plate 34, fig. 1.) The design on a third bowl consists of two bands of the bird pattern in waved lines. (Plate 33, fig. 1.) This pattern is found at McDonalds Canyon. (P. 304.) A bowl with precisely drawn decoration shows bird figures in an extreme stage of conventionalization. (Plate 33, fig. 2). This bowl apparently has been intentionally bent into its present shape; other bowls so bent have been found in the White Mountain region. A small bowl from this location is the only one having decoration in brown pigment. The vessel is in good condition and resembles Zuñi work. Another bowl has a design in the center of the field in the bottom formed of crossed lines over concentric circles. This is the only vessel from these ruins bearing symbolism in this manner.
This collection has a number of bird forms in gray ware. (Plate 32.) One very good specimen (Plate 32, fig. 1) has a loop at the tail of the bird for the passage of a cord; the head of the bird is missing and with this portion the other loop. The arrangement of the decoration into several fields is a conventionalization of the bird topography. The small vase (Plate 32, fig. 4) is interesting as showing both bird form and surface decoration of bird elements. A small rude vase of bird form has a decoration of feathers around the neck. (Plate 31, fig. 3.) Another undecorated vase is closer to the bird form and bears wings in relief on the sides. (Plate 32, fig. 2.)
The red ware consists mainly of soft earthenware bowls with polished surface and geometric line decoration on the interior. (Plate 35, fig. 1.) The bowls of harder paste have exterior decoration in white (Plate 35, figs. 2 and 3) like those of Canyon Butte (see Plate 47). So far as known at present, the distribution of this type of decoration is coincident with the range of tribes of Zuñi culture. Thus, specimens have appeared at Kintiel, Navaho Springs, Petrified Forest, Scorse(Plate 36, fig. 1) is noteworthy as is a specimen ornamented with concentric marks made with the finger nail (Plate 36, fig. 3). The handled vases (Plate 36, figs. 4 and 5) in red resemble similar gray forms. One of these is covered with red slip over gray paste. Great taste was displayed in coiling. (Plate 36, fig. 2.)
Some stone hammers grooved for the reception of a handle and a few basalt axes of good form and elegant finish (Plate 37, figs. 1 and 2), are in the collection. The implements of chert are leaf-shape knives, arrowheads, and drills. There are mortars with pestles of coarse sandstone and lava. (Plate 37, fig. 3.) A well-worked stone ball and two tubular pipes of lava (Plate 52, figs. 1 and 2) were taken from these ruins. But one object of shell, a valve of a claim, is included in the collection.
The pottery from Le Roux Wash has a crude appearance, due to lack of finish and skill in decoration. Without doubt there was an attempt to execute forms of some complexity and difficulty, but the result is rarely praiseworthy.
This group of four ruins lies close to the northern escarpment of the chief basin of the Petrified Forest, at the source of a wash flowing southwest and entering the Little Colorado at Woodruff (see map, Plate 38) . The country is high and rolling, sloping west and south from the rim of the Puerco Valley, which stands about 2 miles north of the ruins. The ridges are of tinted Triassic marls covered with wind-drifted sand, and sometimes sandstone ledges bearing a few stunted junipers crop out.
On May 9, when camp was made on the ruins, the country was well grassed and numerous desert plants had sprung up after seasonable rains, but no water was to be had nearer than the well in the wash at the “Jim Camp,” in the Petrified Forest, about 2½ miles away. There are no springs in this region, the water sinking quickly and flowing in underground streams.
It is probable that the people inhabiting these pueblos in former times impounded water in tanks in the marl which underlies this region. Sagebrush is the only available firewood, the few junipers being inaccessible along the rocky mesa sides.
In great contrast with the basins of the Petrified Forest the neighborhood of the ruins shows few evidences of erosion; hence the pueblos have been little disturbed and appear as low, weed-grown mounds strewn
All the Canyon Butte Wash ruins face the east, the houses at the back of the pueblos having been two or more stories in height. The plan of the ruin varies; one is semicircular, another is ovate, another is rectangular, with one rounded or stepped corner; the remaining one is rectangular. The materials are small slabs of Triassic sandstone laid in mud, and the masonry shows little skill in breaking joints and tying corners. The exterior walls are 10 inches thick; the walls between the rooms 7 inches thick; the floors of stone slabs; the rear wall was plain and perhaps without openings. The rooms average about 7 by 10 feet in floor area, a size rarely departed from in the Pueblo region.
The cemeteries are northeast of the village at a short distance from the house walls. The dead were laid to face the same point of compass and covered with slabs of sandstone placed slanting over the body at a depth of from 2 to 7 feet. Detached house sites, altars, fire boxes, etc., were observed near the ruins. The débris of house refuse is considerable in amount, and yields bones of the rabbit, dog, turkey, rodènts, and antelope.
Ruin No. 1 (Plate 39), the most important of the group, is semi-circular in outline, two rooms deep, the mound standing high at the back, indicating a terrace story. In the center of the court, near the house walls, is a depression about 20 feet in diameter. There are also traces of constructions in the court, which slopes down to the opening. To the northeast, in a low elliptic mound of house refuse is the cemetery. Near the southeast end of this mound is a flat circular area having a heap of concretions and stones of odd and suggestive shapes and colors. Some of the stones are worked cylinders and spheres. Numerous tubular pipes of lava were scattered among
The distribution of interments in the cemetery brings out the fact that the area at the end of the mound due northeast of the pueblo contained the remains of the well-to-do members of the tribe placed deep in the ground and surrounded with valuable things, while on the outskirts the poor were buried in shallow earth without slabs and with only a broken vessel or a fragment beside them, the part standing for the whole. An interment in the favored spot may be described as typical of a burial of the better class. After removing the surface soil, clean earth was encountered intentionally mixed with fragments of charcoal. This earth was quite dry and solid and, had not charcoal been present, might have seemed unfavorable. At 6 feet upright stone slabs were encountered, and these being disengaged and lifted out were found to cover a rectangular cist, at 7 feet, cut out in the side wall of the excavation, and the marks of a wedge-pointed tool, probably a digging stick, were preserved in the hard white marl. The cist contained a skeleton at length, and with it were hundreds of small beads of calcite and olivella shells, a shell bracelet, a bone awl, fragments of pahos and matting, and nine pieces of pottery, some of them remarkably fine and unique as to decoration. (See Plates 48, 49.) Fragments of eagle eggshells were also taken from this grave. In another burial a rod of wood extended the whole length of the grave. The wood was decayed, but the object was evidently a bow. In the cemetery awls of bone, spherical hammers of chalcedony, arrow-shaft smoothers, and smoothing stones were encountered. Metates were few in number. The absence of worked stone axes and the scarcity of arrowheads was notable. Beads and ornaments of stone and shell, iron and copper paint were common. Corn, squash seed, fragments of matting, coiled basketry, and cord, the latter apparently of yucca fiber knotted, were secured from ruin No. 1. An interesting tablet of sandstone, having a rain-cloud design in black drawn across the face, was excavated from the cemetery. Such tablets are rare. (Plate 42, fig. 2.) The pipes or “cloud blowers,” twelve in number, from the shrine are fine examples of stonework. (See Plate 52, figs. 7–9.) An awl made of hard, dark wood with carved head, from this cemetery, is unlike any other known to the writer. From a grave near the concretion shrine the skull of a dog was taken. The pottery, which was abundant in this ruin, will be considered with the finds from the whole group further on, as will also the osteological remains.
Ruin No. 2.—Two hundred yards southwest of No. 1 is a small rectangular ruin (Plate 40) facing a little south of east, the mound higher on the west. The stone is gray Triassic sandstone brought from buttes 2 miles distant, and the masonry is similar to that of No. 1. The cemetery is on the east side and is small. A few graves exist on the bank of the wash to the west. The graves are deep, the ground rocky, and little pottery was placed with the dead. The ware is identical with that from other ruins of this group. A necklace of graded pectunculus shells with carved pendants was taken out. Chalcedony hammers, smoothing stones, a small mortar of red granite, and grinding stones were picked up on the surface. A fire box was located in the corner of the rectangular court. Seventy-five feet from the ruin is an altar located on a sand ridge. It consists of two bowlders set together near a section of fossil wood, Auricaryoxylon arizonicum Knowlton, brought from the neighboring forest. One bowlder is of red granite, 16 inches in diameter, and the other a spherule of dark sandstone, 9 inches in diameter. 4
Ruin No. 3.—Second in importance and in some ways more interesting than the others of the group is ruin No. 3, located on a rocky escarpment above a basin several hundred feet deep, excavated in the red marl. The ruin occupies a prominent position on a level rock platform, and the mound is better defined and stands higher than that of the other villages. A few junipers grow on the edge of the cliff, and on the mesa may be seen the Cowania, Lycium, and other plants familiar around the mesas of Tusayan. The ruin is oval in general outline, the north end approaches a half circle, the west side is straight, the south end is rounded, while the west wall runs in a northeasterly direction (Plate 41). The highest point is about 12 feet at the center of the mound, and another elevation at the north end of the mound is 7 feet above the base. These elevations mark the location of the highest rooms of the pueblo when it was in repair. From the shape of the ruins it appears that the village was pyramidal, the cross section at the highest point showing nine rooms. On the northwest a portion of the walls seems to have fallen en masse and lies buried in the ground giving the appearance of a pavement. At several points the walls may be traced. No detached houses or shrines were observed. The rocks below the edge of the mesa were examined for pictographs without success. If such existed formerly they were weathered out.
The cemetery lies to the northeast of the pueblo, where the soil composed of house refuse is thick. The burials were under sandstone slabs, as in the other cemeteries. It must be mentioned that oceasional slabs were encountered in these ruins having circular holes several inches in diameter cut through them. A remarkable discovery was made in the cemetery of this ruin. In the midst of the burials
Near this ossuary was unearthed the skeleton of a priest, and with him a remarkable collection of the implements of his profession, consisting of polished translucent conoids and plates of worked chalcedony, cylinders of hæmatite, tablets of lignite, fossils, crystals, concretions, minerals, paints, bone plates and tubes, awls, a flint knife, a small paint pestle, the remains of a bow, etc. (Plate 43.)
This find is important, as it shows a class of articles connected with the cult of the Zuñi Indians. 5
Ruin No. 4 is located on a sand ridge between Nos. 1 and 3. It is rectangular in plan with a cross wall dividing it into two courts, and in the center of each court there is a depression. The south end of the ruin is stepped, giving this part a rounded outline. (Plate 44.) A corner room 10 feet square was cleared out and the walls exposed, showing masonry of inferior character. The west side of the mound is high, a feature noted in other ruins of this group. To the north and southeast are small house plans. Excavation in the cemetery to the east-northeast of the pueblo brought to light no features of difference from the other pueblos. A small number of pieces of pottery, worked stones, beads, etc., and some skeletons were taken out.
1. Artifacts—Pottery.—Red ware preponderates in the Canyon Butte ruins and gray rarely occurs, only seven pieces all told coming out, so that the group must be classified with those furnishing red ware exclusively. To this class belong the other ruins on the Petrified Forest Reserve, the neighboring ruins at Adamana, and the Milky Hollow, with the exception of Stone Axe and Metate sites.
For convenience of treatment the red ware may be divided into three kinds, namely,
. The rugose ware comprises coiled vessels, on the exterior of which the coiling has a decorative treatment; 6 that is,
2. Plain ware.—This ware, entirely in the form of bowls, offers little variety. The interior of the vessels is black and the exterior red, the surface showing the application of the polishing stone. These bowls are numerous and are from medium to small size. One small bowl is decorated on the exterior with three horizontal lines. A number of like bowls have a small pit in the center of the bottom, and it is surmised that these holes were to socket the lower end of a spindle. Such bowls are used in Mexico at present for this purpose. 7
3. Decorated.—A striking series of bright red bowls was secured in these ruins. These bowls are very large, are decorated on the exterior rim with frets in white (see Plates 46 and 47) and on the interior with geometric patterns, with which are incorporated conventional symbols. The stepped rain cloud forms the burden of the designs, involving rain, hail, birds, stars, etc., and perhaps corn, the two latter occupying panels surrounded by the geometric designs. One bowl shows an interesting pattern, in which the artist seems to have broken away from the traditions and produced a design of exceptional character (Plate 47, fig. 2). Two unique and beautiful bowls from a cist burial in ruin 1 merit especial attention (Plates 48 and 49). The exterior is yellow, on which an ingenious meander pattern in red is traced; the interior is of a deep, rich red, having a repeating fret pattern inclosed with bands of narrow horizontal lines, cross-hatched at intervals, painted in black on the surface; the bottom as in the other bowls left plain. The smaller bowl has the conventional symbol of four birds on the angles of a square.
A few pieces of red ware with white slipped interior, on which the design is painted in black occur here (Plate 61, fig. 2). Some have white rim decoration and in others the rim is plain. These pieces are of the Gila type described from Stone Axe ruin, and are perhaps imitations of the Gila ware.
The paste of the finer red ware is of selected clay firing to a brownish yellow color. This was covered with a thick slip of red; the natural color of the paste is seen on the exterior of the bowls figured in Plate 48. The paste of the rugose vessels and plain red bowls is coarse, firing to dark gray on fractured edges. Most of the bowls are slipped with red, as not many clays give a good body color. The paste shows no admixture of pulverized fragments of pottery as does that of Zuñi, nothing more appearing than small pebbles, etc., which were impurities in the clay.
4. Gray ware.—From a cist grave in ruin 1 is a large deep gray bowl with striking ornamentation on the interior (Plate 50, fig. 2). The ornamentation and deep form of this bowl are unusual, the hatching of the design is like Zuñi. There is no exterior decoration. The paste is granular with small quartz pebbles. The vessel has been slipped with kaolin, and this process has been carried out on the other vessels for the reason that a better finish and whiter ware may be secured by clay lævigated of coarse particles in water, forming slip or wash. Another gray bowl of thin ware with paste similar to the one just described is an excellent example of the highest skill of the potter (Plate 50, fig. 1). The pattern is a fret formed of small trapezoids produced by crossing diagonally accurately drawn lines, giving the effect of mosaic. On the field in the bottom of the bowl is painted with great skill a frog. The frog is a symbol of water and its symbolic use is widely diffused in the Pueblo region, carved in shell, formed in clay, worked in turquoise mosaic or painted on pottery. The treatment of the frog on this bowl is similar to that on the ware of the Navajo Springs region, of which an example was collected at Kintiel, an ancient Zuñi ruin 32 miles north of Navaho Springs, in 1896, by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes and the writer.
Mention should be made of a bowl with handle, a large dipper with rattle handle having a swastika on the interior of the bowl surrounded with a wedge design and a small oblong vessel with square orifice, at the four angles of which holes are drilled for the cords, terminating in feathers, which are tied to certain ceremonial vessels of the Zuñi and Hopi. 8
The presence in modern pueblos of articles of pottery, basketry, etc., a long distance from their place of origin is often noted and is due to the primitive commerce that has been carried on from time immemorial among the pueblo tribes. Necessarily from the perishable nature of many of the articles of trade, excavations in the ruins do not often yield instances of interchange. An interesting example was, however, secured in the Canyon Butte ruins in shape of a handled vase of gray ware with white decoration in brown on the body and(Plate 51, fig. 1). On bringing the vase to Washington and comparing it with a specimen in the National Museum from St. Johns (Plate 51, fig. 2), the pieces are found to be similar in every respect, so that it could be affirmed that the same potter made them and that subsequently they are separated 60 miles. A modern vessel from Zuñi (Plate 51, fig. 3), shows relationship to the vases described.
The skeletons in the cemeteries of the Canyon Butte ruins were found to be in a poor state of preservation, so that only a few crania and skeletons could be secured. From a cursory examination of the bones it would seem that the people differed little, if any, from the brachycephalic, short-statured inhabitants of the Pueblo region. The material will be studied by an expert and the results presented in a monograph.
About 2½ miles north of the Canyon Butte group, near a high point on the rim of the Puerco, was found a stone box set in the ground filled with a cement of puddled earth, mixed with charcoal and ashes, enveloping the bones of young turkeys. This seems to be a shrine, and is the only one of the kind known to the writer, and may afford a clew to the purpose of some of the similar isolated boxes which are of frequent occurrence in the pueblo region. These, however, may be eagle shrines near the nesting places of the birds of prey, so important in Pueblo cults, which are visited at present by the Hopi, the clans laying claim to the eagles of the localities where they settled during their migrations. 9 A shrine of this character was discovered at Biddahoochee by the writer in 1901. The offerings were water in a ceremonial vase, food, and prayer sticks placed under a shelving rock near a lava-capped butte. The eagles of this locality are claimed by the Lizard clan. While the turkey is a venerated bird, it does not have the high rank accorded to the eagle. The obvious arrangement of the shrine on the Puerco rim may have had to do with a desire or prayer for the increase of turkeys.
The ancient pipe of the Pueblos is tubular, 10 worked of pottery or stone, the favorite material being vesicular lava. Pipes of lava are abundant in the triangle between the Puerco and Little Colorado rivers, just within the boundary of the range of clans of Zuñi culture, and from their abundance this seems to be the type region. Tubular pottery pipes, and occasionally one of stone, occur sparingly in the(Plate 52, fig. 8); a number show an hour-glass section, caused by boring from either end, and in some the tube is smoothly bored. Forms of these pipes are shown in Plate 52, figs. 7, 8, and 9; figs. 1 and 2 are from Scorse Ranch. An interesting specimen from the Milky Wash ruin shows the application of a bone stem to a small lava pipe bowl (Plate 52, fig. 3). The stem fits snugly against a septum of baked clay inside the bore, and forms the bottom of the bowl, which has been cut out as in fig. 8. Attention is particularly called to this feature, as the use of a stem with the ancient stone tubular pipe has not before been noted.
Another specimen of unique form is from the Metate ruin (Plate 52, fig.6). The material is of the fine-grained reddish sandstone of the region. The lower end of the pipe has been worked out as a stem or for the securing of a wooden stem, as in the pipes of the Hupa Indians of California.
The Tusayan pottery pipes, from their material, offer much more latitude in construction and ornament than those of lava, the latter sometimes showing a pit-shape depression or a row of such pits as decoration. In general these pipes are fusiform, with bowl worked out in the end and a central bore opened through the tube with a slender stick while the clay is green. Frequently these pipes are decorated with dark-brown color. Occasionally the tube is bent slightly. The specimen (Plate 52, fig. 5) is of pottery, extremely well made, and polished, the color dark brown. It was found at Awatobi in a vase with a number of similar specimens, and was presented by Mr. Julius Wetzler, of Holbrook, Arizona. The squared stem and globular bowl mark a greater differentiation than is observed in the more ancient tubular forms. The pipes of clay and stone used by the Hopi in their ceremonies at present show a variety of forms from the simple tube to shapes approximating the European pipe. Many of these pipes are curved or bent to as great an angle as would be consistent with punching the orifice through from both ends, and often they are modeled in the shape of animals. No pipes showing this degree of elaboration are found in the ancient pueblo ruins.
Across the wash from the Petrified Bridge is a ruin covering the apex and extending about halfway down the flanks of a conical hill. The houses were rectangular and were built of lava blocks. The hill bristles with oval inclosures and lines formed by setting on edge large slabs of stone, principally those worked out as metates, and from the number of these objects the site was given its name. The ruin is badly washed and blown out, and it was not thought profitable to work it, but a careful examination was made, a little excavation prosecuted, and a number of specimens gathered from the surface débris. The pottery is of coarse texture and undecorated except by lines scratched in the paste or by indentation in the coil, the colors gray-brown and black. The former inhabitants were workers in stone, as is evidenced by the profusion of such relics in the great accumulations of débris and the numerous metates and stone battering hammers. Several axes, a digging stone of chert, and the half of a tubular pipe of curious form were picked up. The metate people were in touch with primitive commerce, as fragments of wristlets cut from seashell manifest.
It must be acknowledged that Metate ruin is an archræological enigma in the light of present knowledge. It is possible, however, that a survey of the ruins in the Navaho Springs region, where pottery with scratched ornamentation occurs, would clear up the matter. On weathered sandstone rocks near Metate ruin faint petroglyphs may be traced.
The pyramidal lava-covered mass called Woodruff or Canyon Butte, the Mesa Prieta of the Mexicans, a prominent landmark over a wide region in northeastern Arizona, has on its southern terrace a remarkable series of circular remains. These circular platforms are from 50 to 75 feet in diameter, bordered with lava blocks. The platforms are level and smooth and have no traces of constructions upon them. Seventy circles were counted beginning about halfway down the butte and stretching both as connected and disconnected terraces to the edge of the bluff above the Lee farm house. Near the northeast end of the(see Map, Plate 1). A few hammers of fossil wood were seen. It is said that the numerous visitors to the butte are responsible for the paucity of surface relics, which is no doubt true. The conclusions as to the pottery, however, were drawn from an undisturbed section at the foot of the butte in the house yard of Mr. Lee where several skeletons had been found.
On the summit of Canyon Butte are remains of stone houses, the point affording an extended and agreeable view, especially over the alfalfa fields of Woodruff. The small birds carved from dark-blue steatite, figured by Dr. Walter Fewkes, 11 were found on Woodruff Butte.
Speaking in the light of a superficial examination of these ruins, it seems that they are to be classed with the garden plots so common around ruins in the Southwest, and of which the gardens at Zuñi and Walpi are familiar modern examples. It must be said, however, that the labor expended in grading and terracing on Woodruff Butte has been enormous for what at present seems a futile effort. 12
To the east of the Petrified Forest, about 9 miles, is a ruin located on the edge of Milky Hollow and extending in a narrow strip along the edge about three-quarters of a mile (Plate 53). The village is being swept down into the Bad Lands and much of it has disappeared, including the cemeteries. The houses were small and rudely built, stone being very scarce. Pottery fragments are scanty, the ware coarse and undecorated, red, gray, and black in color. Stone implements, however, exhibiting excellent workmanship, are abundant, such as mctates, small, neatly-finished mortars of granite, limestone, and quartzite; stone cups, scrapers, drills, stone balls, and a hoe of petrified wood among the rest. Some shell ornaments were found and two small lava pipes with bone stems or mouthpieces (Plate 52, fig. 3). These pipes and mouthpieces were found in place on the west side of the ruin, the stems with the bowls, but not fitted in them. On adjusting the stem it was found to fit accurately against a ridge of burnt13
Strangely enough, the ancients of Milky Hollow possessed stoves, a number of which were seen near the house groups. They consist of two slabs of stone set up parallel in the ground about 8 inches apart, and across one end at right angles was a movable slab having a round hole 3 to 4 inches in diameter cut through it. No cover stone was seen in place, but such slab usually lay close by. The slabs were reddened and smoked by the action of the fire. It is evident that the perforated slab was an arrangement for regulating the draft, an essential matter in open-air fires in this windy region, where on many days the camper has to dig a pit for his fire and throw up a mound of earth to the leeward in order to reduce the difficulties of cooking. The position of the stoves near the houses and their number indicate that they were for domestic purposes, either for cooking wafer bread, in the manner of the Hopi and Zuñi, or as a primitive andiron on which the pots could be conveniently set. Mrs. M. C. Stevenson informs me that the Zuñi have a similar device, which may be termed a fire altar.
It does not seem possible to classify the people of Milky Wash ruin from the data at hand. It may be affirmed, however, that they were a people of low state of culture, not related to the tribes occupying the known pueblos of this region, unless it be the Metate ruin.
This ruin, so named from the number of actinolite axes found on the surface by cowboys, lies 4½ miles east of the Central Petrified Forest, on the north slope, near the divide between the Puerco and Little Colorado rivers, 30 miles east of Holbrook (see Map, Plate 38). The road from Adamana to Cart's Tank and the Long H Ranch passes near the ruin, and the Black Knoll, a landscape feature of the region, stands a few miles from it to the north. The Milky Hollow ruin lies 4½ miles to the cast, and the Metate ruin, opposite the Petrified Bridge, an equal distance to the west. The country is high, rolling prairie, draining into washes leading to the Puerco. The elevations are sand ridges or low hills showing outcrop of Triassic fossils. There are no springs, permanent water being found only below the bed of the wash, near the Petrified Bridge. After a rain storm, water stands for a time in natural mud-lined reservoirs in the draws. The region of the Stone Axe is treeless, and there is little animal life. As there is no building stone, the ruin presents only mounds of ill-defined outline on the point of a ridge between two small washes. A survey of the ground shows four rectangular mounds facing(Plate 54). Some distance to the south on the sand ridge are evidences of detached houses. About 2½ miles to the southwest, on the neighboring ridge, are three small village sites where artifacts are different from those in Stone Axe ruin. The winds have full sweep and power. The loose character of the soil renders it easily displaced by the infrequent and often torrential rains, and by these agencies many of the ancient pueblos of this locality have been almost swept away. In some cases the obliteration has been thorough. Neat Stone Axe large tanks with hardpan bottoms, seemingly excavated by human agency, were found to be a result of wind action. It appears that wind erosion is equal to the erosion by water in this region. Much of the surface of the former mound of Stone Axe has been swept away, but enough remains to render it probable that the houses were formed by sinking a square hole in the ground to the depth of 3 to 4 feet and throwing the earth up around it to make low walls. The roof covering was probably a thatch of brush and grass. The roof in this region was required more for protection from the sun's rays than from the storm. The detached houses to the south of the pueblo show no ground plans. Their location was indicated by the presence of large coiled jars, ornamented vases, and pottery fragments exposed by the wind. These large jars had evidently been buried in the ground for storage of water as Castañeda relates of the Hopi. 14
Great quantities of potshards are scattered over the ruin and a number of stone hammers, metates, and hand stones lay about. Bits of copper paint stone, obsidian, flint, shell, and an occasional arrow point rewarded the search. The pottery fragments on the surface show ware of better quality and decoration, on the whole, than that excavated in the cemeteries, but not different in character.
The cemeteries, three in number, are on the glacis directly in front of the main division of the ruin (see plan, Plate 54). A few sporadic burials exist on the east side. The burials were at length, with heads usually to the west, at a depth from 2 to 5 feet, in soil mainly of house refuse, and the skeletons were in rather good condition. From 150 to 200 burials, it is estimated, were made around this pueblo.
It was customary here to place food bowls, vases, cups, and other articles of pottery in the grave near the head. Many of the graves contained no mortuary objects whatever, which is unusual. Shell beads, ornaments of shell, awls, and tubes of bone, arrow-smoothing stones, scrapers and knives of obsidian and chert, red, green, yellow, and black paint were commonly found, also fragments of mats, coiled basketry, and pahos. Clinging to one skull was a fragment of a mosaic earring, formed of oblong, rectangular plates of turquoise set(Plate 55, fig. 8), a material prized by the ancient Hopi and Zuñi; spherical battering hammers of fossil wood; rubbing stones like those from California (Plate 55, fig. 10); arrow smoothers of lava (Plate 55, fig. 9) and limestone (Plate 55, fig. 7); cylinders, disks, and spheres of sandstone (Plate 55, figs. 4, 5, and 6), probably used in games; drills, arrowheads, and knives of chalcedony and obsidian (Plate 55, figs. 1, 2, and 3); and tubular pipes of lava. Of shell there are gorgets of different shape cut from large shells or formed by merely polishing and perforating a sea shell (Plate 56, figs. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6); a few olivella beads and small beads of cylindrical form. Of bone, there are awls, knives, tubes, and notably a whistle and a notched scapula, the former of eagle wing bone (Plate 56, fig. 2) with a hole cut through the wall near the middle where a small lump of pitch was inserted into the canal to produce a sound as in the whistles of the Kiowas and other plains' tribes, and found also among the present Hopi. The notched scapula (Plate 56, fig. 11) is from the deer. The instrument is still in use for ceremonial music among various existing pueblos and tribes of northern Mexico, and is played by laying it across a gourd or jar and scraping the notches with a stick. 15
Some obsidian was found at Stone Axe, but no arrowheads or implements of this material were seen. Vesicular lava was worked into spheres, cylinders, and pipes. Fossil wood and limestone were employed for hammers, scrapers, axes, arrowheads, etc. In this connection should be noticed a fragment of a limestone axe having scores on the side, which brings to mind similar specimens from Biddahoochee and Chevlon. Metates and hand stones were numerous and well worked out, the material being red and gray freestone.
The pottery of this ruin proves very interesting and gives the most important indication that the former inhabitants of Stone Axe were related to the Hopi. This fact is an important contribution to our knowledge of the migration of this people, as it was not anticipated that traces of them would be found in this region. This ruin is about 70 miles east of Homolobi, a group of Hopi ruins near Winslow, explored by Dr. Fewkes and the writer in 1896, and 50 miles southeast of the new group of Hopi ruins near Biddahoochee, which were discovered by the writer during the autumn of 1901. (See p. 326.)(Plates 58 and 62.)
Among the minor articles of pottery collected are spiral relief ornaments which had been used in decoration (Plate 56, figs. 7 and 9); disks ground from pottery, often perforated as in spindle whorls (Plate 56, fig. 8); a rectangular fragment, on the edge of which teeth like a comb have been cut (Plate 56, fig. 11); a fragment of a globular rattle, perforated, of yellow ware; a dipper handle with rude attempt to represent an animal; scrapers; oblong tablets ground from polychrome ware in shape like the stone ornaments, etc. From the small ruins 2½ miles to the west are disks, canteen lugs, etc. It was observed here that cup-shaped depressions were made in large vessels to aid the grasp. This feature is found in many ruins along the White Mountains; almost always associated with gray ware.
The collection shows a number of bowls of red ware of mixed paste, slipped on the interior with white, upon which are painted subgeometric designs in black; very few of these specimens have rim decorations. With this class are several polychrome vases, one quite large (Plate 57), the body of mixed paste burning light red. On this ground white is applied, outlining the portions of the design that are intended to be red. On the white areas portions of the design are painted black. In some instances the red areas are intensified with a wash of deeper red. The ware just described is of Gila type. Similar bowls have been found in the ruins north of the Petrified Forest, at Fourmile, Chaves Pass, Chevlon, and Homolobi, 16 being prevalent in the ruins along the White and Mogollon plateaux, where the Gila influence is strong, and occurring sporadically along the Little Colorado and Puerco and to the north of these streams, except at Stone Axe, where the proportion is about that of Four Mile. The presence at Stone Axe of light red ware, characteristically decorated with narrow white lines breaking the field into irregular wedges, must be noted; also thin bowls of gray paste slipped all over with white and having sparse decoration in dark green or brown enamel. These types appear at Chevlon, Homolobi, and Biddahoochee, and W. H. Holmes informs me that the white ware occurs at Jemez, on the Rio Grande. The ware also has a vivid polychrome decoration of green, red, and white at Stone Axe; only fragments, however, were secured. (For remarks on distribution of pottery, see p. 354.)
The accompanying plates give a good idea of the color, form, and symbolism of the pottery from this important ruin. It will be seen that there is the same remarkable variety here that also characterizes
Typical specimens of this class of pottery are shown in Plates 58 and 59, while brownish yellow, also of this class, is shown on Plate 60. The color of the decoration is dark brown, and only in the case of the bowl with symbolism (Plate 60, fig. 2) is red used in connection with the brown.
Several vases of an ancient Hopi form were collected. The specimen figured (Plate 58, fig. 2) has a decoration in red-brown around the body. A bowl of fine yellow (Plate 58, fig. 1) is rudely decorated, having irregular patches of pigment applied with no system on the interior; it has an exterior rim decoration of unknown meaning. The bowl (Plate 59, fig. 1) bears a geometric decoration involving a number of bird forms; in the center is the familiar symbol of two birds with interlocking beaks adapted to a square figure. Another bowl of fine texture (Plate 59, fig. 2) bears on the interior a symbolic design surrounded with the “life line.” The bowl (Plate 60, fig. 1) is decorated with a conventional bird, and the second figure on this plate bears a symbolic design representing a supernatural being in the style of the Katchina figures of the Hopi.
The ware with wash of white and decoration in enamel (Plate 61, fig. 1) bears a decoration on the interior of three interlocking hook forms which seemingly represent tails of snakes. A set of two zigzag lines extend around the exterior rim of the bowl; the space between these lines is often filled in with red. The second figure on this plate is a good example of the Gila type with geometric decoration. On the
A bowl (Plate 62, fig. 1) of yellow-brown ware shows a fine arrangement of a complicated geometric design in which there are numerous bird forms. These may be traced in the square in the center and in wedge-shaped sections above and below. The rim decoration is a simple step design in an oblong frame.
The second figure (Plate 62, fig. 2) is a perfect specimen of a rare decoration. The ware is light red, and the design on the exterior and interior is in narrow white lines. The home of this style of ware is not known to the writer, but examples resembling it were found at Biddahoochee.
A small vase of good red ware (Plate 64, fig. 1) with handle, in the form of an animal looking into the vessel, a common conceit among the ancient pueblo potters, has a geometric decoration in hatched and solid areas in dark brown color. With this specimen was a bowl of fine yellow ware. (See Plate 58, fig. 1.) These specimens are not related. The vase should belong to the St. John-Zuñi region, while the yellow piece belongs to the special area in Tusayan.
Another vase of gray ware with conventional animal handle (Plate 64, fig. 2) was found together with an elegant canteen, now in the Gates collection, in a small ruin some miles to the west of Stone Axe. This vase is covered with a well-executed geometric decoration, the motive being terrace figures in the dual hatched and solid color. A red bowl from the same group (Plate 63, fig. 1) shows the same treatment. The specimen is quite similar to bowls found at Forestdale, Showlow, Scorse Ranch, and Canyon Butte. It has no exterior decoration in common with those mentioned; a bowl from the small ruins near Stone Axe, without interior decoration, has horizontal bands of white on the exterior. (Plate 63, fig. 2.) The white exterior decoration is also common to the ruins mentioned above.
It will be seen that Stone Axe ruin presents a number of features of great interest to the student and some problems which may be solved when we come to know more of the ruined pueblos of the Southwest, multitudes of which await the explorer.
The group of small ruins 3 miles southwest of Stone Axe furnished hard gray ware, with black geometric decoration, soft red ware, and coiled ware with patterns formed by punching the coil ridges. These data affiliate the ruins with the numerous small pueblos scattered along the northern side of the White Mountains, apparently belonging to
Abundant somatological material was secured from Stone Axe, consisting of crania, skeletons, and parts of skeletons, numbering 30 entries. The skulls are brachycephalic and show in adults occipital flattening. The skulls of children do not present this feature. It is expected that this material will be described by a competent specialist when comparison may be had with the material collected by Dr. Fewkes and myself in 1896 and 1897 and reported on by Dr. Hrdlicka. Bones of animals brought up during excavation were carefully collected, no mammals larger than deer and antelope being noted. A portion of the skull of a dog was found.
As mentioned, the affiliations by arts of the Stone Axe people seem to be with the clans migrating from the south to Tusayan, which form an important element in the Hopi complex. The stations to the south in this case have not been located as yet. The next stopping place to the north, I believe, was Biddahoochee, and the route followed was by Carrizo Creek, which enters the Puerco a few miles west of Adamana, up this wash into the Le Roux Valley, and across into the valley of the Cottonwood, 8 miles southeast of Biddahoochee. (See map, Plate 1.)
The large stone ruin at Adamana, 9 miles northwest of Stone Axe, does not seem to have been occupied by this clan (see p. 317); neither does the small ruin a short distance north of the Puerto, near Adamana. The distance to the Biddahoochee group is about 25 to 30 miles by the route indicated, not too great for a single move, longer migrations having been noted in the pueblo region.
1. Pottery of the Ancient Pueblos, Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 323.
2. Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1896, p. 529.
3. Idem, p. 535.
4. See Harper's New Monthly Magazine, March, 1902, p. 899.
5. See F. II. Cushing, Zuñi Fetiches, Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
6. W. H. Holmes, Ornament in Ceramic Art, Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
7. J. N. Rose, Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, V, 1899, p. 251.
8. J. Walter Fewkes, Journal of American Archæcology and Ethnology, IV, p. 43, Boston, 1894.
9. See the interesting paper by J. Walter Fewkes, entitled Property Right in Eagles among the Hopi, American Anthropologist (N. S.), II, Oct.–Dec., 1900, p. 690.
10. See Pipes and Smoking Customs of the American Aborigines, J. D. McGuire, Annual Report, U. S. National Museum, 1897, p. 378.
11. Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1897, p. 605, pl. III.
12. There is a tradition that when the Mormon colonists of Woodruff were putting in their first dam the remains of a former dam in the Little Colorado came to light.
13. O. T. Mason, The Ray Collection, Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1886, pl. XVI.
14. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 490.
15. Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 394.
16. J. W. Fewkes, Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1896.