4. HOPI BUTTES AND MESAS.


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Biddahoochee—Chakpahu—Kokopnyama—Kawaiokuh—Periods of Tusayan Ware—Age of Jettyto Valley Ruins.

4.1. BIDDAHOOCHEE.

For a number of years pottery has been coming into Holbrook from the north, and for the best of reasons the persons collecting pottery for gain were indefinite as to locations until the spoils had been gathered. The specimens brought in were usually mixed as to quality and


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color of wares, due to careless methods of collection. The presence of fine yellow pottery of Hopi type in these mixed lots of gray, red, etc., led the writer to attempt to disentangle the problem in May, 1901, but sand storms prevented more than a glance at a few ruins on Le Roux Wash. In September, after the close of work with the Museum-Gates expedition, the thread was taken up again. The services of Juan Baca, the most assiduous “pottery digger” of this region of the Southwest, were secured, and an extensive reconnoissance was carried out, resulting in the mapping of the ruins to 40 miles north of Holbrook. (Plates 30 and 65.) Plans of the more important ruins were made (Plate 66), photographs taken, some pottery and pottery fragments and a few crania collected.

The Cottonwood Wash ruins are scattered about in an area of perhaps 30 square miles, mostly along the north side of the stream east and west of the crossing of the Holbrook-Keams Canyon road, at 7 miles south of Biddahoochee. (See sketch map, Plate 65.) From this crossing the Cottonwood runs southwest, entering the Little Colorado near Winslow. The upper portion of the stream is indefinite on the maps, and it is only possible to say that the wash parallels Le Roux Wash and has important branches from the north among the Moki Buttes on the 6,000-foot contour.

The first ruin examined lies on the level plain, 4 or 5 miles northeast of the buttes between which the Holbrook road passes. The location is at the head of a small, narrow canyon running north to the Cottonwood. The ruin is fairly large and is divided into two sections by the canyon; the part to the west is rectangular, and the eastern section is roughly circular. A seep spring, now dry, exists in the canyon below the ruins. The labors of coyotes and other animals digging for water were evident here. The numerous potshards are mostly of fine yellow ware; some fragments of thin red, with enamel decoration, and of white, with green enamel decoration, were seen.

Following down the canyon to the Cottonwood Wash and going west to the Navaho hogans, near where the Holbrook road crosses, a large ruin on the bluff was examined and sketched (Plate 66). The ruin consists of a quadrangle on the level at the top of the bluff and a prolongation conforming to a promontory bounded on the west by a deep ravine. From the number of human bones scattered about it is evident that the cemeteries had contained many burials. The pottery fragments are abundant and of fine quality like those of the ruins just described. On the same bluff, not far away, is a small ruin belonging to this group.

The Navahos in the valley have impounded the waters of the wash by means of a dam, thus securing enough water to last for several years. Several of the Indians told me that there is an ancient ruin on the summit of the largo butte across the valley. Lack of time


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rendered it impossible to verify this story. There is every reason to believe that a ruin crowns a low, block-shaped butte (Plate 67, fig. 1) some miles to the west of the ruins just described. At the base of this butte, near a Navaho corral, the cemetery has been excavated (Plate 67, fig. 2). The ware is yellow, red, and gray and not of the finer class.

Some few miles down the wash, on the southeast front of a large butte, are two ruins with a spring in a gulch between them. They also show ancient Hopi ware and were rifled several years ago.

The remaining member of this group is a small site containing six rooms, lying one-half mile south of the first butte on the Holbrook and Keams Canyon road.

As a result of the researches in this locality the writer was able to identify the specimens in the Scorse collection at Holbrook, procured by Juan Baca. In view of the interest attaching to the group of ancient Hopi pueblos examined for the first time, the purchase of these excellent museum specimens was recommended, and they were acquired by the Bureau of American Ethnology.

While the typical yellow ware characteristic of Tusayan makes up the bulk of the collection, there are several other kinds of ware that give the ruins additional interest as probably denoting the union of clans of differing culture. The yellow ware of Biddahoochee resembles that of Homolobi, collected by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes and the writer. 1 It has fine, homogeneous paste, varying in shade from cream color to orange. One specimen (see Plate 72, fig. 2) is of bright lemon color. It is necessary to class the earth color and salmon color ware with the yellow. The decoration is in dark brown, red brown, and light brown. The designs are geometric, of great variety and boldness, as though not far removed from the original naturalistic concepts. Symbolism like that of the pottery found near Walpi is rare. Brief symbols are the arrow, feather, lightning, birds, corn, and the butterfly, a number of which will be noted in the plates of illustrations.

The forms of yellow ware are bowls, cups, vases, and dippers, the latter often with animal handles.

Four typical yellow bowls are shown on Plates 68 and 69. Plate 68, fig. 1, is of fine, clear, yellow paste, and the design incorporates several bird forms. The second figure is also of line yellow paste; the design in red brown, apparently incorporates snakes or lightning.

Another bowl (Plate 69, fig. 1) of ocher yellow has a geometric design in hachure and solid color, which is unusual in this locality. The remaining bowl (Plate 69, fig. 2), which is also of ocher yellow, has a geometric design in two sections. In the open area between the sections are two flying arrows.


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A small dipper with animal handle (Plate 70, fig. 1) has a design on the interior representing corn. Another dipper with animal handle is shown (Plate 70, fig. 2). A cup of fine yellow ware (Plate 70, fig. 3) has an unskillfully drawn decoration on the body. The design seems to be the four-bird symbol arranged in a band. The small bowl with handle (Plate 70, fig. 4) is a fine specimen, exhibiting a geometric design margined with white. It has also marks in sets of three on the rim, a feature often, seen on vessels from the southern side of the basin of the Little Colorado and in ruins in other localities yielding gray or red ware.

Five interesting vases are shown on Plates 71, 72, and 73. Plate 69, fig. 1, is decorated with conventional birds, and the second figure bears the four-bird symbol. Vase (Plate 72, fig. 1), has a decoration of unknown meaning; the design is margined With white. The remaining vase (Plate 72, fig. 2) is a beautiful specimen of lemon-yellow color, with elegant geometric decoration. In shape this vase is like the best specimens from Sikyatki and Jettyto Valley. The vases from these ruins are generally of inferior shape to those from the Hopi ruins to the north. A large vase (Plate 73), of rich orange color, from the Cottonwood ruins, bears a geometric design in which hachure is employed.

Three unique bowls of red ware belong to this collection. The paste is dark on fractured edges, but where it is exposed to the fire it burns to a pure brick color. The largest bowl (Plate 74) is decorated on the interior, consisting of three segments outlining a trefoil arcs in the bottom of the bowl. The exterior walls of the bowl are decorated with frets of narrow white lines, as on the specimen from Stone Axe. (See Plate 62, fig. 2.) The interior decoration is in dark green enamel. Another bowl (Plate 75, fig. 2) has the interior covered with white kaolin slip, and on this ground were painted interlocking frets in bright green enamel. The exterior is red, with a maze fret design in narrow white lines. In one section the space between the lines is filled with green enamel. The bowl is a brilliant specimen of polychrome ware. The third bowl (Plate 75, fig. 1) is one of the most artistic specimens of ancient American ceramics known to the writer. It shows remarkable taste in its design and execution. The bowl is bright red in color; the special feature of its decoration is a zone of white around the walls of the interior. On this band is painted a key design of serrated hooked figures (birds) in green enamel. The center of the bottom is a field of red. The exterior of the bowl also has lozenge designs in narrow lines of white. The field of the lozenge is crossed by vertical lines, in turn crossed by short bars.

White ware.—Another remarkable group of ware was found in the Cottonwood ruins. This consists of two bowls and two vases of fine


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white paste, well finished and of good form. (Plates 76 and 77.) The decoration is in enamel leaf green and dark green in color, except in the small vase, which is decorated in red. The enamel is like that on the polychrome ware. The white ware resembles that from Stone Axe in the Petrified Forest Reserve, described on page 323, which also shows a similar enamel paint. The green color is due to the presence of iron, and it is evident that the pigment was applied in a pasty condition from the uneven lines. The enamel, on fusing, also spread and ran into lumps. In some cases the enamel has affected the ground, producing a delicate pink margin around the design. I am not aware of the process employed in producing this enamel. It has been suggested that the ordinary iron pigment may have been mixed with pinyon gum.

The inner wall of bowl No. 212,329 (Plate 76, fig. 1) is decorated with a zone of diagonal frets and parallel lines, inclosed in bands of horizontal lines, divided at intervals by square areas with a dot in the center. The exterior has two double rain-cloud designs and another figure of unknown meaning. The second bowl (Plate 76, fig. 2) has a zone of frets on the interior and on the exterior four equidistant groups of stepped lines in pairs. The texture of this bowl is fine. The unique vase (Plate 77, fig. 2) is also of fine texture. The design consists of three figures, representing four birds on the corners of a quadrangle, inclosing two diamond-shape figures. Around the neck are alternate pairs of vertical and horizontal short lines. The vase has had a short handle, probably an animal head, projecting from the neck. The color of the decoration is a clear, leaf-green enamel, with glazed surface. The remaining vase (Plate 77, fig. 1) has a simple design around the body and a band below the neck in soft red color.

Gray ware.—Some of the specimens of gray ware resemble those of Scorse Ranch. In general, it may be said that the gray ware found in the ancient Hopi ruins is of finer quality and more accurate finish than that of the San Juan. The design and forms also render most of the ancient Hopi gray ware unmistakable.

The casual observer will note that the food bowls, for instance, are rarely so distorted as those found on sites furnishing the gray and the red pottery alone. A dipper bowl (Plate 78, fig. 1) bears an effective design in lustrous black. The vase (Plate 78, fig. 2) is remarkable both for its elegant form and the handle on which is represented a snake with head bent down toward the interior of the vase. This specimen has been overfired, darkening the ground and design, and rendering the paste hard as stoneware. It will be noted that the design is in hachure and solid black. (See page 354.)

A number of small forms of gray ware shown are excellent examples of this type of pottery. The bird-form vase (Plate 79, fig. 6) combines


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a conventional representation of the bird topography, with a realistic treatment in the modeling of the tail. The small cup, shaped like a teacup (Plate 79, fig. 3), is of thin ware, and the decoration blends with the background in a pleasing manner. Another cup (Plate 79, fig. 5) is of a form found over a wide range of territory in northern New Mexico and Arizona. Two almost identical specimens are found by Dr. Fewkes and the writer at Homolobi. The ware is fine, and the decoration blends softly into the ground. One of the finest pieces is the four-lobed vase (Plate 79, fig. 4), with a pleasing design in deep polished black. A small vase (Plate 79, fig. 2) is also an artistic specimen, and the dipper (Plate 79, fig. 1) is of the customary form.

Some of the finest examples of coiled ware also come from the Biddahoochee region. Plate 80, fig. 3, shows a vase of good workmanship and a small vase of diversified pattern (Plate 80, figs. 1 and 2). This is the best piece of the kind that has come to my notice. The design is produced by alternate plain and pinched coils beginning at the center of the bottom and extending to the lip, and shows what may be done in the artistic treatment of the coiling.

A number of stone implements are in this collection. These consist of grooved stone hammers, the material, quartzite (Plate 81, fig. 4), ground axes of basalt (Plate 81, figs. 1 and 2), and chert knives, drills, and arrowheads.

Ax No. 212,407 (Plate 81, fig. 1) resembles the double-bitted axes from the Jettyto Valley ruins. Ax No. 212, 413 (Plate 81, fig. 4) is of fine white crystalline limestone or marble. The specimen is carefully finished and polished. Four scores are cut on the surface near the groove and seven small pits are sunken on the ridge bounding the planes of the cutting end. There is every evidence that the unique specimen was ceremonial in character. The reader is referred to a double-bitted ax of white stone found by Dr. Fewkes and the writer at Chevlon, which also has four scores on the side. 2 A bird carved from white stone is also a fine example of stone carving.

Shell objects were quite scarce in the Cottonwood ruins, only a fragment of a pectunculus shell armlet being encountered. Objects of stone and pottery, apparently spindle whorls, are in the collection. A stone disk has pits on either side, showing that boring was in process.

It is gratifying to be able to contribute one of the links in the chain of Hopi migrations from the Red land of the south and to add to one of the best pieces of archæological work ever done in the Southwest. Reference is here made to the explorations of Dr. J. Walter Fewkes in the years 1896 and 1897, when he excavated the sites of the ancient Raincloud and Lizard clans at Chaves Pass, in the Mogollon Mountains,


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at Homolobi, on the Little Colorado River, near Winslow, Arizono, 2 degrees south of the present villages of the Hopi. It was the good fortune of the writer to be present during these epoch-marking investigations.

In an important paper 3 by Dr. Fewkes a new clew to the migrations of the Hopi clans, based on the ownership of eagle's nests situated near the ancient seats of the clans, has been presented|. The researches of Dr. Fewkes show that the Lizard clan, who migrated with the Raincloud clan, claim the eagle nests at Biddahoochee. It has been conclusively shown that the Raincloud clan settled for a time at Homolobi and that the Lizard clan located near them. From the character of the artifacts, especially from the polychrome ware with green decoration like that on Plate 75, the large ruin at the mouth of Chevlon Creek, 12 miles east from the Homolobi group, was the pueblo of the Lizard clan, which, with the Raincloud clan, followed the natural line of migration northeast along Cottonwood wash to Biddahoochee. Migration follows the water in this semiarid region and the great Cottonwood wash, which with greater precipitation would be a large river, offered abundant facilities for halting and putting in a crop of corn. Perhaps further investigations along the Cottonwood between Winslow and Biddahoochee will reveal halting places of the clans. To the Biddahoochee focus it is also believed that the clan from Stone Axe, east of the Petrified Forest, was drawn, and the proof also rests in the main on the ware mentioned. (Compare Plate 61 with Plate 76.)

East and west along the Moki buttes are sites yielding gray ware, which was probably the kind of pottery made by the northern clans entering into the Hopi complex, the art having been submerged and lost under that brought from the south and east.

The upper portion of the Jettyto Valley lies a few miles southeast of the first Hopi mesa. Its trend is southwest, paralleling Keams Canyon, and its waters find their way into the Little Colorado near the Cascade.

The valley is quite deep and wide, as travelers from Holbrook to Keams Canyon will testify from experiences in crossing it and climbing the Keam mesa. The north side of the valley here is walled by a high, abrupt sandstone mesa; the south side presents gentler contours, except to the east, where the head branches run in canyons. Navahos off the reservation have undisputed possession of the valley and their hogans and corn fields are frequent along the wash. A number of very large ruins are situated on promontories of the Keam mesa overlooking the valley. They begin at the Awatobi mesa, southeast of Walpi, and extend to “Mormon John's” spring, 2½ miles east


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of Keams Canyon School (Plate 82). Beginning on the west, the Hopi name the ruins Awatobi (Great and Little), Kawaiokuh, Chakpahu, Nesheptanga, and Kokopnyama, and on the south side of the valley, opposite the latter, Lululongturqui. Several smaller ruins are interspersed among the larger ruins, principally on the mesa top some distance from the edge; a few lie on the southern side of the valley. The cultivable tracts along the wash are strewn with potsherds.

Previous to 1901 the only Jettyto ruin scientifically explored was Awatobi, excavated by Dr. Fewkes, 4 and subsequently by Dr. Frank Russell, of Harvard University. Plans of the larger ruins on the northwest side of Jettyto Valley wore made by Victor Mindeleff. 5 His “Mishiptonga” is Kawaiokuh; “Bat House” is Chakpahu; “Horn House” is Kokopnyama wrongly located; “a small ruin between Horn House and Bat House” is Nesheptanga. The ruin south of Kokopnyama, called Lululongturqui, is not described. It may be said that the examination of most of these ruins is attended with hardships because of the lack of water. Awatobi still has fine springs, and this fact, coupled with its accessibility, would sooner or later have led to its excavation. Water can be had within 1½ miles from Kokopnyama, also. The lack of water, however, has not prevented the Navaho tearing the Jettyto ruins to pieces in search of pottery for the trader.

The first Jettyto ruin worked by the Museum-Gates expedition was Kokopnyama, a Hopi name meaning “firewood people.” 6 The Navaho name is Delcalsacat, “wild gourd,” and the name given it by white people is “Cottonwood ruin,” from the trees, growing in one spot near by. It is located on a low, easily accessible mesa near Maupin's store, at Mormon John's spring, 2½ miles east of Keams Canyon School, and so far as known is the easternmost of the Jettyto Valley ruins and one of the largest. 7

The ruin is commandingly located on the mesa top, affording an extensive view over the valley below and over the country toward Keams Canyon (Plate 83). In the distance the Hopi Buttes fret the horizon with their remarkable outlines. Juniper and pinyon trees and an occasional oak clothe the top and flanks of the mesa. Large junipers grow near the ruins, but no trees occupy the zone of habitation. The location of the ancient spring is marked by four cottonwood trees growing close against the mesa; much digging near these trees has been done by Navaho in a futile search for water. Toward the valley the zone of pottery fragments extends for more than a mile, and


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beneath the village, heaped up against the mesa, is a great talus of house refuse. To the east of the site are sand dunes from 10 to 30 feet high, among which fine specimens of juniper flourish. Vegetation is scanty on the mesa, Bigelovia graveolens protecting Tradescantia scopulorum and other small herbs from browsing animals. On the talus below the mesa the customary Hopi berry bushes, Lycium pallidum and Ribes cereum, thrive.

An examination of Mindeleff's plan will show the lack of order in the accretion of house groups going to make up this pueblo, due in great part to the configuration of the margin of the mesa. The rear wall is the only uniform feature; the intermediate area seems to have been built over in a haphazard manner.

Portions of the pueblo were formerly at least four stories in height above the spring and a long that section. Below the mesa many houses were built among the rocks, where excavation exposed walls running irregularly on account of the nature of the ground. Places of burial were found in these houses and under the rocks and in crevices, as is now customary in the latter case at the Hopi pueblos.

No walls remain standing on the ruin, and there are no traces of house beams. 8 Excavation in the rooms showed walls rather poorly built of coarse soft sandstone laid in mud. Many of the rooms were plastered.

A group of lower rooms 7 feet square on the edge of the mesa above the spring and having the mesa as a floor were excavated. The walls were chinked with small stones; the fire hole was on the floor at the southwest. Small, low doors or openings between the rooms were noticed. On the floor lay lumps of clay, paint, flat mealing stones, small mortars, etc. The pottery in these rooms was altogether gray and red, a fact to be noticed later. No subterranean kiva could be found here or in any of the Jettyto ruins examined. Such kivas existed at Awatobi, however.

Scattered over the surface are vast numbers of potshards, almost invariably of yellow ware, many pieces showing interesting symbolism. At one spot near the edge of the mesa pottery was burned, leaving heaps of cinders and ashes. Lignite was used as fuel, the débris filling the houses and falling below the mesa, being largely composed of coal ashes derived from burning “bony” lignite. At the foot of the mesa south of the wash is a vein of pure coal 7 feet thick, and at this point is abundant evidence of pottery burning. Some fragments of vessels picked up had clinkers fused to the surface, and specimens of pottery burned to the hardness of stoneware occurred in the débris.

On a bench of the mesa a fire box was seen near a series of “gardens”


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demarked with parallel lines of large stones. A small cist (Plate 84) was discovered in the cliff and photographed by Mr. Gates. This had been broken into, and there is now no means of ascertaining its purpose. The cist may have been made as a receptacle for cult objects. A single pictograph rewarded the search. This was on the face of an immense block of sandstone fallen from the rampart of the mesa. The pictograph, which apparently represents a mask, is obscured by weathering, and its preservation seems to be owing to a covering of lichen. The cliffs were searched for shrines without results.

Some time was spent in the endeavor to locate the cemetery. The sand dunes 200 yards back of the pueblo seemed favorable from the number of potshards there, but nothing was found, and it was thought that this cemetery had been destroyed long ago by the moving sand. It appears that several parties of prospectors for pottery met with disappointment at this ruin. The main talus of village refuse had been untouched, and excavation here yielded a fair collection, which has the distinction of being all that remains to tell of the ancient inhabitants of the pueblo of the firewood people.

The soil of the talus has been greatly solidified by pressure, the burials often showing as a mere narrow band of organic materials. Excavation was carried on by running a trench across the talus and carefully paring off the face, which was from 5 to 8 feet high. (Plate 85.) The bodies were placed with the head to the northwest, the face toward the mesa, the legs being flexed. Mats were wrapped around the body, and the remains of coiled and wicker baskets, cord of hair, cloth of animal fiber, and feather textile show a considerable variety in this class. Near the head were usually found lumps of gray and yellow clay, red and yellow paint, and a flake knife of flint; the pottery also was placed around the head. The bones were extremely decayed, and in most cases had so disintegrated that no specimens could be saved. In one burial at the moment of uncovering the body by the falling away of the earth a skull was found retaining the hair in excellent preservation, tied with a human hair cord at the sides of the head. (See Plate 86.) The skull, however, fell to pieces in a few minutes. Small balls of clay like marbles were found in the graves. Beads and ornaments were almost lacking, and only one small oblong of turquoise was encountered. Pahos also were not seen, Many of the burials were without mortuary offerings, and rarely more than three pottery vessels were taken from a single interment.

The pottery is yellow and as a rule is inferior in quality to the fragments scattered over the ruin. In deep diggings at the bottom of the talus some burials had only gray and a little red ware. On the slope below the mesa at the east side of the pueblo in indurated sand at a depth of 3 feet were found four pieces of black and white ware, consisting of a vase with animal handle, a cooking vessel with handle,


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a cup, and bowl. The vase contained black and white beads of stone and shell, tablets of red stone, and pottery ornaments all pierced for stringing. Parts of a child's skull and femur were found near by, but no bones were directly associated with the pottery, and extensive diggings brought to light no other burials or remains at this place.

Some work was done at Nesheptanga, 9 a ruin of fair size, in the neighborhood of Kokopnyama, situated on the mesa about 100 yards from Maupin's store. The buildings conform to the mesa edge toward the west and the village terminates to the east in a wall crossing the mesa. Fragments of fine yellow pottery are scattered over the ruin. Burials were made among the rocks in débris from the village. The cemetery among the rocks below the mesa had been dug out by the Navaho, and few specimens remained. Several smaller ruins a few miles west of Nesheptanga were inspected. One of these of good size is located on the mesa at the head of a long gulch leading into the Jettyto Valley. The ware here is yellow and of good quality. A smaller ruin in the same neighborhood showed fragments of large napiform vases characteristic of Tusayan. The small sites showing gray and red ware presented few features of interest. The ware is coarse, and it is apparent that the inhabitants were poor. The presence of ruins of this class in Tusayan, however, is interesting. (See p. 332.)

The ruin called Lululongturqui, located across the Jettyto Valley from Kokopnyama, was carefully examined, but not excavated. It is of medium size and has a commanding situation on the mesa. The mound stands high, and the village plan shows a rounded outline, reminding one of some of the Canyon Butte ruins. Adjoining the village in the north quarter are many oblong garden plots bounded with lines of stones. It is an interesting fact that the pottery of this ruin, while mostly gray and light red, has a fair proportion of fine yellow, either indicating that the people making the red and gray ware were contemporaneous with the makers of yellow ware or that the latter supplanted the former. Unfortunately the evidence of the graves could not be obtained. The Hopi name of the ruin is worthy of remark. Some work had been done here by the Navaho, and it appears that burials had been disturbed close to the town walls. Two small ruins with coarse red and gray ware one-half mile east of this ruin on a branch of the Jettyto Wash were visited. These ruins had been worked by the Navaho and a few pieces of pottery taken out.

4.2. CHAKPAKU.

About midway between Kokopnyama and Kawaiokuh lies a very large ruin called by the Hopi “Chakpahu,” Speaker Spying. It is located on a spur of the mesa and overlooks the Jettyto Valley and a


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deep gorge to the west. The ruin was surveyed by Victor Mindeleff in 1885. 10 The prominent features of the ruin are the defensive wall and the great court or plaza which overlooks the gorge. No walls are standing, and the house plans can in few cases be traced among the mounds of rubbish. Vast quantities of potshards are mingled with the débris. The ware is of the finest quality, the best in texture and decoration to be seen on any ruin in Tusayan. The prevalence of fragments of large napiform vases at Chakpahu is noteworthy. The shards are bright and fresh looking as though recent. Many superb specimens from this ruin have gone into the various collections made by Mr. T. V. Keam. The cemeteries, which were in the débris between the houses and the mesa, have been rifled by Navaho. In 1893 the spring below the mesa was dug out by the Navaho, and many vases and vessels of various forms, like those found by the Museum-Gates expedition at Kawaiokuh, were encountered. A short account of this find, with illustration, was published by James Mooney. 11

A ruin furnishing yellow ware is said to exist on the south side of the valley, nearly opposite Chakpahu, where Maupin's new road descends the mesa. The ruin was not seen, but some specimens were bought of Navaho, one a canteen in yellow ware, with ancient decorations, and shaped like those used by the Hopi.

4.3. KOKOPNYAMA.

There is at Kokopnyama, as may be expected, a preponderance of useful forms in pottery, represented by bowls, vases, dippers, cups, and cooking utensils. Large water vases, with rugose surface, without decoration, are also represented here, but in limited numbers. The concave disks of pottery, with holes punched around the edge, are almost lacking at Kokopnyama. It is conjectured that these objects may have been used as revolving rests for ware during the process of manufacture, as are the tabipi or bottom forms, employed by the potters of Hano at present. A portion of this customary imperforated disk, with clay still attached to the concave surface, was found in this ruin.

A vessel of very thick ware, showing traces of fire, is believed to have been a brazier, in which coals were kept alight. I have observed such vessels in use among the Zuñi.

Small objects of pottery were somewhat numerous, such as toy cups and bowls, frequently unbaked and showing the touches of childish fingers; a rattle with perforated globe, clay balls, toy dippers, and a number of animal handles representing the wildcat, badger, mountain sheep, wolf, etc. One of these, probably a wolf, is covered with a


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thick enamel caused by fusing in the fire at great heat. A few disks worked from pottery fragments, and a fragment bearing the lug of a canteen reground in the shape of a frog, were encountered. Spiral appliqué ornaments for pottery, like those on Zuñi cooking pots, were used here, as fragments attest. It is worthy of remark that the minor works of pottery mentioned are fewer and somewhat ruder than those found in the ruins to the west.

Objects of shell are extremely rare in this ruin, a few unworked bits, a fragment of a large armlet, and a few conus and olivella beads being the sum total secured.

Worked bone is also scarce, with the exception of small awls. A few bone beads, small tubes, and a rib knife were taken from the excavations.

Stone implements are numerous here. Flint cores, arrowheads, knives, scrapers, flakes, and drills represent objects and materials of chippable stone. The workmanship, however, is poor. Spherical hammer stones, grooved hammers, an ax hammer, a simple grooved ax with poll, and a double-bitt ax were taken out. A sandstone upon which are grooves made in sharpening paho sticks, arrow smoothers, rubbing stones, small mortars and pestles, and pottery polishing stones were collected. Fragments of hand stones for grinding corn were seen, but no flat grinding stones were found in place in the rooms and very few were observed on the surface, though undoubtedly they were in constant use. The absence of surface relics of this character is due to the proximity of these ruins to the inhabited pueblos, who find use for many things abandoned by the ancients.

Several stone spheres, of a size suitable for club heads and probably originally put to that use, were secured.

Ironstone concretions of many interesting forms weathered out of the sandstone ledges are scattered in the débris of this ruin. A few in the collection have been worked in improvement of the suggestive natural form. These usually take the shape of miniature, well-finished cups. A curious toy grooved hammer of sandstone, painted red, was taken from the débris of a room.

Ornaments were made from a white limestone and a fine-grained clay stone of good red color. Thin disks of the latter stone, with perforation near the edge for suspension, are numerous. Turquoise was practically absent at Kokopnyama. Two fragments of tubular pipes were secured, one of beautifully banded stone and the other of pottery. Selenite fragments were scattered through the débris, also a few chips of obsidian and chalcedony like that of the Petrified Forest.

Of pigments, numerous examples occur at Kokopnyama. The most abundant is a dark red derived from the “bone” in burnt lignite and from the clay stone used for ornaments; yellow occurs as yellow ocher and ocherish clays, green as copper carbonate and arenaceous


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clay, and white from decomposed chalky limestone. Several fragments of dark brown iron ore showing marks of rubbing are examples of the stone used by potters for the brown pigment.

Bones of small animals were very scarce in the débris. Those found were principally of the two species of rabbit. Bones of the dog, fox, eagle, and turkey were also observed.

Numerous specimens of textiles were discovered in the cemetery during the excavations at Kokopnyama. Matting of twilled weaving was commonly employed to envelop the body preparatory to burial. In contact with the body also was found a very interesting textile, if so it may be called, but more resembling a rather thick felt of downy feathers, presumably of the eagle. This cloth was usually found on the face of the dead and is never of large extent. It may have been a mask of down for which cotton was substituted at a later period. Dr Fewkes mentions mortuary masks of cotton as having been traditionally used by the Hopi. In one instance a twisted two-strand cord of hair still binding masses of hair was found. (Plate 86, figs. 1 and 2.) A number of specimens of coiled and wicker basketry were taken out. (Plate 87.) The coiled basket is of close, fine work, and will be described by Professor Mason in his forthcoming work on basketry. The wicker basketry is of the ordinary type at present made at Oraibi. Several knots tied in yucca-leaf strips are shown in Plate 97, fig. 2. A thick lock of hair bound with yucca and saturated at the basal end with red pigment is thought to have been a brush, perhaps a brush for producing spatter work on pottery.

Beans of a long variety, corn, and squash seed and indistinguishable remains of food were found with the dead.

The absence of fetishes of worked stone is not unusual in the ruins of northeastern Arizona, but the absence of pahos with the interments at Kokopnyama is remarkable. It must not be said, however, that the Kokop people did not employ pahos, for the most important cemetery, which has either been swept away or is yet undiscovered, may have contained them. Still, the lack of pahos with the burials in the extensive ash talus of the pueblos must be taken as positive evidence, proving a considerable variance from the neighboring pueblos to the west in this respect.

4.4. KAWAIOKUH.

This very large ruin is situated much as Chakpahu, on the top of the mesa between two gorges. It lies a short distance to the west of the Keams Canyon road, where it reahes the level of the mesa, 2 or 3 miles above Jettyto Spring at the “Rock House.” (See Plate 82.) Communication is rather easy over the level mesa to Awatobi, near which is a Hopi settlement around a fine spring.

Kawaiokuh has a commanding position, giving an extended view up


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and down the Jettyto Valley. (Plate 88.) Juniper trees come close to the ruin and are abundant on the mesa, not having been consumed for fuel, as near the present Hopi towns. This is due, perhaps, to the use of lignite at Kawaiokuh. During the winter the Navaho move up from the valley to their hogans among the junipers, where fuel is convenient and snow furnishes water. Many varieties of plants grow on the mesa, which at this elevation (6,200 feet) assumes the aspect of the White Mountain slopes.

In the gorges below the ruin are seen springs which hold out for some time into the dry season. Jettyto spring issuing from the shales at the base of the mesa is permanent, and no doubt furnished water for Kawaiokuh, though at the cost of much labor in bringing it up to the pueblo.

The front of the village was built close to the edge of the mesa, though enough space was left for passage around. The rear of the village is comparatively straight. 12 The houses near the edge of the mesa were several stories in height, and some of the rooms were large and well plastered with red clay mixed with sand. The walls of a room excavated were covered with numerous coats of plaster, on the surface of which various designs had been painted in color. (Plate 89.) The floors were broad slabs of flagstone. The masonry is of small cubes of sandstone laid in mud and shows inferior workmanship like that of the present pueblos. No scattering houses were to be seen around the pueblo nor were there traces of shrines or pictographs.

On the bench below the cliff a pottery-burning place was discovered, and by carefully removing the layers of soil the bed on which the pottery was set up was exposed. (Plate 90, fig. 1.) This layer was made up of ashes mainly composed of the slaty portions of the lignite burning white or red. There were bits of white sandstone also, and charcoal of twigs and stones. Near this spot was unearthed a heap of fragments of vessels broken in firing. (Plate 90, fig.2.)

Kawaiokuh has been devastated in a thorough manner by the Navaho, and there was grievous evidence that their wasteful methods had destroyed far more than was saved. The burials in which the finest ware had been placed were found in the débris among the rocks at the foot of the cliff and extended entirely around the front of the pueblo. The slope at the west side of the village above the gorge had also been an important cemetery. There is no cemetery at a distance from the pueblo, as at Awatobi, and it appears that the latter pueblo is unique in this respect among the related Jettyto ruins.

After numerous trial excavations it was determined to clear out one of the higher house masses on the edge of the mesa. Very soon in the course of this work it was discovered that the front rooms had been devoted to burials and eventually a considerable collection of pottery,


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etc., was taken out. As many as eight interments had been made in one room at different levels. (Plate 91.) A large coiled jar, sealed with clay and having the rim of a fine vase luted on, was unearthed beneath the stone floor of a room. (Plate 92.) The jar contained only a quantity of clean sand in pellets, the grains loosely cohering in globular form as though arranged by some obscure natural process. This deposit was perhaps of sand for ceremonial purposes. Offerings of corn, beans, cotton seed, etc., accompanied these burials. The skeletons were decayed beyond preservation. The burials below the mesa held the ware of the finer class almost exclusively, so far as could be ascertained from the fragments of beautiful texture and design left by the Navaho around their excavations. A few interments that had escaped the Navaho were encountered during the work. Mats of yucca strips were wrapped around the bodies and these placed on wicker trays or constructions of small twigs. Food offerings of young corn ears and bread were placed on coiled baskets and numerous elaborate pahos arranged around the body. It seems plain that the important cemetery was at this location, and it is regrettable that so little remained where there had been so much valuable scientific material. With the specimens from the house cemetery, however, and those from the excavations in the débris and from the surface of the ruin a considerable collection was formed, containing many interesting objects.

In the neighborhood of Kawaiokuh are several small ruins yielding gray ware, a specimen of which is shown on Plate 95, fig. 1. While in camp here a Navaho brought in two fine pieces of this class from a ruin, described as large, in the Moki Buttes, about 25 miles distant. One of these pieces is a large globular vase well decorated.

Artifacts, Kawaiokuh.—The remark as to the useful forms of pottery vessels at Kokopnyama applies also to this ruin. A greater number of specimens were collected at Kawaiokuh than at the former site, and as noted the æsthetic ware is more abundant; likewise, there are many small objects of different classes showing that the potters' art was quite diversified in this pueblo.

In detail, attention may be called to a small vessel in form of a frog; the ware is fine yellow, and the modeling is aided by decoration in dark brown (Plate 93, fig. 1). Another of this class is a vase in form of a parroquet, of excellent workmanship and decoration (Plate 94). A vase of gourd form also displays much taste, and a vase of the oriental “pilgrims' gourd” shape, a form rare in this region, is represented in the collection. An oblong canteen form, from which the handles have been broken, bears a symbolic decoration on the sides, and at the ends conventionalized faces. (Plate 93, fig. 3.) A well-formed dipper in perfect preservation is shown in Plate 93, fig. 2.

A vase of gray ware with spiral decorations on the shoulder (Plate


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95, fig. 2) was taken from the house cemetery at Kawaiokuh. The ware is remarkably thin, so much so as to raise the question whether the vessel could have been made by coiling, and yet there seems to be no alternative.

A bowl, one of several, of salmon color (see Plate 100, fig. 2) must be mentioned. The paste is dense and of the same fine character of the ware from this region; it is probable that to produce this color either a little yellow ocher was added to the clay or the clay was selected for the purpose. In either case the bowls have the look of strangers amidst the fine ceramics of Kawaiokuh; especially is this remarked when one considers the rudely drawn design in brown bordered with white, a style extremely rare in ancient Hopi pottery, where white is not a potter's pigment. White-margined decoration is found at Honolobi, and in many of the ruins along the White Mountain plateau it is common. Possibly the woman who made these bowls was following the traditions of the potters of her clan, which may not have been represented at Kawaiokuh except by herself.

The fancy of the potter was expressed in many small works, as in the handles of the cups and vases, which often represent animals with accuracy and again with grotesque or humorous treatment. The handle of a cup (Plate 93, fig. 4) is an example of the latter. By setting the mouth of the animal at an angle a peculiarly whimsical expression was produced by the artist. figurines of a dog going on three legs (Plate 96, fig. 12) and of the same animal apparently curled up in sleeping posture were found. Ornaments in shape of birds perforated for wearing are frequent. (Plate 96, fig. 11.) One of these in the collection is a superior piece of modeling; the tail and extended wings are vaned by notches pressed in the clay and the body is decorated. (Plate 96, fig.9.) Small ornaments in shape and decoration designed to imitate shells are also frequent. (Plate 96, figs. 7, 8, and 10.)

Pottery bells like those found by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes at Awatobi 13 and first described by him from this region are somewhat numerous here. They are hollow spheres, having a narrow aperture like the sleigh bell, and as to devices for fastening to a cord or to garments are of two classes; one with a perforated tang, and the other having a pair of holes opposite the aperture. One of these specimens retains the pellet of clay forming the sounder and on being shaken produces an agreeable tinkling sound. These bells are undoubtedly of aboriginal manufacture. 14


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Toy pottery vessels are plentiful, representing vases, cups, dippers, and bowls; one in form of a gourd, and one miniature vase of gray ware of excellent form and finish should be mentioned. A pottery object in form of a hollow cone, with perforations around the base, is supposed to have been used as the nose of a mask. Several tubular pipes (see Plate 52, fig. 4) were taken out.

Hundreds of fragments of the concave disks of rude pottery with perforations around the edge, indicating a diameter of from 8 to 12 inches, were seen in the débris. (See p. 337.)

Among the pottery objects found at Kawaiokuh is a fragment of a thick rectangular slab, with two shallow saucers in the upper surface. From traces of adhering color, this was no doubt used for mixing paint.

Stone working at Kawaiokuh had not reached by many degrees the perfection attained in clay working. This remark is true for the whole Pueblo region, where the worked stone is much inferior to that of the ancient inhabitants of Ohio. Still, in the Pueblo region, there was considerable variation in workmanship among the different tribes and also in some lines, as in mosaic and bead making there was great proficiency. It must be said that for careless and crude manufacture of stone implements, the tribes going to form the Hopi complex were among the first, though on the other hand quite a variety of implements, ornaments, etc., were fashioned of stone.

The primitive spherical hand hammer is common at Kawaiokuh, where it was employed, no doubt, for battering corn mills, etc., as it is among the present pueblos, where the writer has observed it in use. 15 Grooved hammers of different sizes are also found. The large grooved hammers seem to have been used in wood gathering; they are sometimes met with among the juniper trees at a distance from villages. Axes, sometimes double-bitted, had their principal use also in getting out beams and chopping wood. Occasionally ceremonial implements in the form of highly polished axes and hammers of actinolite, a beautiful and much-prized stone, are picken up on the ruins. Two fine specimens of this character were secured from Sa-a-la-ko, the chief Snake woman of the Hopi, mother of the leader of the snake fraternity of Walpi. Aside from actinolite, the material of hammers and axes is chert, sandstone, and basalt of inferior quality.

The arrow smoothers from this locality were made by securing a suitable piece of stone, dressing down a face, and making a groove across it. The materials are coarse and fine sandstone, claystone, and soapstone. This implement must be divided in two classes, one in which the arrow-shaft was smoothed by attrition, and the other in which when the stone was heated the shafts were straightened. In the latter class often a companion stone, also grooved, was placed over


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the shaft and the latter drawn to and fro through the channel. Small cup-shape mortars of coarse sandstone were found at Kawaiokuh and a slab of fine-grain sandstone with shallow cavity in which iron paint had been triturated. Pottery-smoothing stones are numerous, and small slabs of fine grit wood opal, used presumably in stone working, were picked up. There were also cylinders of coarse stone, probably employed as rasps.

Ornaments in form of round and oblong tablets of red-clay stone like that used at Kokopnyama are shown (Plate 96, figs. 1–3). A drilled tablet of buff limestone is also shown (Plate 96, fig. 4). A small object of hematite, neatly carved to represent a wolf and having a hole drilled through it for suspension, is probably a fetish (Plate 96, fig. 6).

The arrowheads at this site differ very much in size from slender specimens three-fourths of an inch in length to those 2¼ inches in length. Many of them are serrated; such arrowheads are common in northeastern Arizona. The materials are various—chert, quartzite, quartz, agate, jasper, obsidian, and chalcedony. A number of knives were collected, mostly rudely chipped, though some show rather good work. Scrapers consisting of irregular spalls of chert, chalcedony, and obsidian worked on one edge are numerous. Obsidian is more plentiful at Kawaiokuh than at the neighboring ruins. Several perfectly formed chips found in the débris are believed to have been used as minature mirrors. The Navaho are familiar with such use of obsidian flakes.

No crystals of quartz commonly found in the pueblo ruins were observed at Kawaiokuh. A few beads of fine turquoise were picked up in the débris, but no specimens were placed in the graves.

Several chipped fragments of vitreous stone, some of which seem to have been fused, were thought to be artificial, or rather to have been produced by accident in burning pottery at a high heat. 16 We have seen that fused masses of green enamel sometimes occur on fragments of pottery among the ashes at the pottery-burning places, and suggest that the people of Kawaiokuh were near to the independent discovery of glass.

Objects of shell are comparatively few at Kawaiokuh, although there is much more here than at Kokopnyama. Among the specimens secured were a fragment of shell pendant, a fragment of amulet drilled for a pendant, conus and olivella tinklers, a small circlet cut from a pectunculus shell, and a circular ornament with scalloped edge having a hole cut through the center.

Small bone awls like those used by the Hopi for basket work and sewing are common. Tubes of bird bone and of a few deer bones cut off with flint were collected. One of these tubes has a hole cut through


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the wall near one end and was probably made for a whistle. The tips of an antler and several other bones appear to have been employed in flint chipping. A circular ornament cut from the skull of some animal and having a hole near the edge for suspension was taken out.

The pigments used for various purposes at Kawaiokuh were found to be similar to those collected at Kokopnyama.

Wicker and coiled basketry like that described from Kokopnyama was made at Kawaiokuh (Plate 97, figs. 1, 2, and 4). The bed or mat of twigs often placed beneath the more important dead was, as far as the condition of the specimens allow to be made out, constructed of interlaced shoots of Rhus trilobata, the ends of the shoots turned in and thrust among the interlacings forming an edge. Matting of yucca, the making of which has been long discontinued among the Hopi, was also used to enwrap the dead, as shown (Plate 97, fig. 5), where remains of matting adhered to the lower jaw of the skeleton. Strips of the fibrous leaf of the yucca were used for tying.

Specimens of the felt-like masks of the down of birds were also collected at Kawaiokuh, as at Kokopnyama.(See p. 339.)

Squash seed, beans, corn, and cotton seed were found in the graves. Sometimes a bunch of ears of corn, probably roasted and secured together by the husks for hanging in the house as the Hopi do at present, were uncovered. The cotton seed resembles in size and appearance that still raised by the Oraibi at Moenkopi.

The offerings of prepared food to the dead in the ancient ruins are rarely in such condition as to admit of identification. At Kawaiokuh, however, one of these offerings was plainly a round, thick tortilla, such as the Hopi call pilabaki.

While at Kokopnyama pahos seem to be absent; at Kawaiokuh they are numerous in the graves and are the only wooden objects that have been preserved. It may be said that the cause of this is the carbonate of copper pigment with which the pahos were covered. Three kinds of pahos were noticed—one a short, slender stick sharpened at one end; another larger, with carved head, and still another a stout rod having a flat tablet fastened to the upper portion, 17 No traces of other colors than green are observable on these pahos. Remains of pine needles and feathers still adhere to the tablets, and in one case the small mass of meal (nüsha, “sustenance”), customarily added by the Hopi to certain pahos, as those of the flute society, was preserved.

In regard to the distribution of pahos in this region, it may be said that while they are sparsely represented in the ruins of the Little Colorado Valley and the north side of the White and Mogollon mountains, they are most numerous in the ruins around Hopi mesas, especially in the latter ruins. In the excavation of Old Wolpi,


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Mr. C. L. Owen, of the Field Columbian Museum exploring party, took out many hundreds of these interesting objects, proving that here is the center of greatest prevalence of pahos. The origin of the custom can not be ascertained as yet, nor is there data as to its extent in the Pueblo region. Presumably the elaborate pahos were an accession from the Rio Grande coming in with the complicated Katchina ceremonies. 18

4.5. PERIODS OF TUSAYAN WARE.

It may be well to notice here the characteristics of the ware of the different periods as marked by the incoming clans. The settlements of the first period are small and obscure and have not been excavated. From surface indications, however, it is found that the ware is rather coarse, and that there is a greater proportion of gray and red ware than in later ruins. The small sites showing only gray ware and red ware have been mentioned, and these may indicate early clans with the technic of the San Juan region. To the north and west of Tusayan such ruins are numerous, coming close down upon the area of the yellow ware. The traditional Hopi ruins at Black Falls, discovered by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, are of this class. 19 The decoration of this ware is geometric, and animal forms or symbolic figures are almost lacking.

The second period begins with the initial coming of the clans from the south. These people are well represented at Homolobi, near Winslow, Arizona, where exist a group of ruins explored by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes and the writer in 1896, and the group near Biddahoochee, described in this paper (p. 326). Here we find a considerable diversity of color and quality of ware. The fine yellow ware is well represented, but we have gray ware, red ware, polychrome ware, and coiled vessels with marked coiled decoration different from the obscure coiling of the ruins near the Hopi mesas. 20

The decoration is geometric, but not derived from the same motives as in the gray ware of northern localities. There is more fertility of invention in handling motives which are in a transition from more complex symbolic subjects in the main primarily realistic. This gives, for example, the interior decoration of bowls a greater variety in the matter of placing the design over the whole area, whereas in the black-and-white northern ware the design is usually arranged in four areas between the arms of a cross, leaving a square or circular field in the


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middle of the bowl scarcely ever occupied by a symbolic design. The designs are almost invariably angular and rarely undertake the voluted or curved designs of other regions.

Invariably, also, the ancient Hopi ruins are richer in shell, turquoise, and objects of aboriginal art than other ruins of the Southwest.

The extent of the impress upon the Hopi of the art of the clans coming from the south is not clear at present, as the ancient sites have not been explored to any extent. In the summer of 1901 Dr. George A. Dorsey and Mr. C. L. Owen, of the Field Columbian Museum, excavated on the site of Old Walpi, the “Ash Heap,” as it is called, securing a large collection, which, when it is available, will probably throw light on the transition period.

It appears that comparatively recently the potter's art died out among the Hopi of the Middle and East Mesas and that by the law of village specialization of an art, Oraibi retained the making of pottery until shortly after 1872, when Dr. J. W. Powell visited the pueblo. The later Oraibi art shows marked Zuñi influences. The Tewans, however, practiced the art uninterruptedly, and it has come to be that the people of Hano are the only potters remaining in Tusayan, and that finally, at the close of the fourth period, the pottery used by the Hopi is of Rio Grande extraction, even though it has become thoroughly debased, like many of the arts of the American Indians. Nampeo, an intelligent Tewan woman, however, is endeavoring to revive the glories of the former times.

The third period, the golden age of Tusayan, begins with the great migration from the Rio Grande. To this period belongs the splendid ware procured by Dr. Fewkes at Sikyatki and Awatobi, 21 the Keam collections at Peabody and Chicago, and the collection from Jettyto Valley by the Museum-Gates expedition.

In texture and decoration this pottery is the best in North America and ranks with the finest of Mexico and Peru. In decoration it is perhaps superior, for it must be remembered that the highest efforts of the potter in those countries belong in the class of sculpture, which is hardly represented in Tusayan, nor indeed in the Pueblo region, except where it connects with the Mexican culture on the southern border.

The ware of Jettyto Valley is preponderantly yellow, ranging from cream color to yellow ocher and occasionally reaching orange. Brown and salmon color also occur, with a few sporadic examples of gray and red.

The texture of the ware is fine and homogeneous; the absence of sand or dégraissant is notable, which speaks well of the cretaceous clays that occur as partings in the sandstone rocks of the region. These clays also contain little iron and that is such chemical form as to


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location for one hundred and sixty years during the historic period, and inferentially having been built long before 1540. At that date, also, the three very large pueblos to the east of Awatobi, and also Sikyatki, had been abandoned, as Tobar makes no mention of them. This, of course, is negative evidence. It seems likely, therefore, that, as Dr. Fewkes has suggested, this migration probably occurred in the fifteenth century.

The impression the writer received on the study of these ruins is that Kawaiokuh 22 and Chakpahu were contemporory with Awatobi. Like Sikyatki, they mark the period of the highest development of the potter's art in Tusayan. Kokopnyama, however, seems older; the pottery is not so good and it is possible that it is the first settlement in this region from the Rio Grande. The important clan of the Fire or Firewood is known to have lived at Tebungkihu and Sikyatki; 23 it may be that Sikyatki was settled from Kokopnyama. The pottery of Chakpahu is the finest to be found in Tusayan. This pueblo was the center of the manufacture of the splendid napiform vases characteristic of this region, and innumerable beautiful fragments are to be seen in the débris. At Kokopnyama sherds of such vases are very few; at Kawaiokuh there are about as many as at Awatobi. The ruins of Sikyatki have furnished some fine examples, figured in Dr. Fewkes's monograph. 24

One of the most beautiful specimens in existence, taken out by an Indian at Chakpahu, was secured by Mr. P. G. Gates in 1901.

If there were no traditions among the Hopi relating to the five pueblos mentioned, comparative methods would show that the bold symbolism on the pottery relates them to the Keresan pueblos, which furnish the only ware among the present village dwellers that is similar in style of ornamentation. We may conclude, therefore, that superior ceramics, both in texture and decoration, were brought to the Hopi from the east as early as the fifteenth century.

The main feature of interest in this connection is the extent to which the Hopi culture has been modified by that of the Rio Grande peoples. The region of the upper Rio Grande, with its superior advantages as to food supply, due to the abundant water, has been the cradle of pueblo culture, and to these favorable conditions, as well as its position on migration lines, it may have received the first settlements of hunter tribes forced into the pueblo region. Undoubtedly these conditions have determined the perpetuation of the majority of the existing pueblos. From this region we would expect various populations to swarm in search of new homes. The Navaho also were modified for their betterment by contact with the Rio Grande culture and by racial


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mixture with some of the clans, through whom, no doubt, they received sheep and their first lessons in pecudiculture. 25

The original Hopi clans, the Snake and Bear, forming the nucleus of the settlement, traditionally came to Tusayan from the northwest and southwest at an early date, possibly as early as the fourteenth century. This marks the end of the wanderings of those clans, the location having many permanent springs and the stream beds giving fair opportunity for agriculture. It is not the country that civilized man would choose for a habitation, but to the Indian its isolation gave safety and the desert gave subsistance to those who knew the field craft for the desert.

There can scarcely be more than conjecture as to the origin of these early clans. From the language they were of the great Uto-Aztecan stock, which forms at this day the largest linguistic family on the Western Hemisphere. The history of this family is comprised in less than four centuries since the conquest, and tradition in Mexico, where the tribes reached their greatest efflorescence, places their migration from the north at two centuries before the conquest. Cubas places the first “king” at 1352.

There is little doubt that before the date of the entrance of the Aztecs into Mexico the Pueblo region possessed its characteristic culture. Whether this culture was environmental (Brinton) or an outer wave from the great ancient cultures of Central America, or both, is an open question.

The Shoshoneans, like the Navaho, came in contact and union with pueblo tribes at one of the early centers of population, presumably in southeastern Utah or northern New Mexico. Here they received a modifying element assimilating them to pueblo culture. It might not be going too far to say that Nahuatl incursions into Mexico from the north were filtered through the Pueblo region; indeed it seems probable. The Hopi, then in their beginnings, may be regarded as a product of pueblo enviromnent and culture upon hunting tribes of Shoshoneans whose virility fitted them to move about in the Pueblo region, preserving their organization and language. If it be true that the early tribes did not possess corn, but depended upon the chase, the most important, in fact a well-nigh essential, need was supplied by this food of foods, and the modifying effect was like that of the acquisition of sheep by the Navaho. Contact of the Hopi with cliff-dwelling tribes of Pueblo Indians is undoubted; the traditions hint at it, and the discoveries of George H. Pepper in northern New Mexico reveal basketmaking tribes using symbolism familiar among the Hopi. 26 In truth


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it might be said that we have in the ancient inhabitants of Grand Gulch the Shoshonean prototype of the northern clans of the Hopi, or rather one of these clans in a state of modification as referred to.

The subsequent history of the Hopi after the Snake and other early clans settled in Tusayan is marked by the arrival of many clans from various quarters, consolidating into the Hopi complex as we find it to-day.

The more important of these superadded elements were the Rain, Lizard, and Rabbit groups of clans from the south, according to Dr. Fewkes, which have been traced at Homolobi and Biddahoochee, and the Badger, Horn, Tansy Mustard, and Katchina groups of clans from the east.

Attention is called in this connection to an interesting environmental phase of the names of the clans, which seems to work out beautifully in determining the location from whence they came. This is that the clans coming from the north and northeast, from mountainous regions where game abounds, bear the names of animals; while those from the south, or from less rugged and more cultivable regions, bear the names of plants, minor animals, or of the beneficent powers of nature. The clans from the land of the agave and the yucca palms lived in a milder environment and by the nature of things were more civilized than the clans who were forced to depend largely on hunting for subsistence. It will be seen that those facts must be taken in account in the study of the composition of the Hopi.


Notes

1. In a forthcoming Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

2. Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1896, p. 537, pl. XLVII.

3. Property Right in Eagles among the Hopi, American Anthropologist (N. S.), II, Oct.–Dec., 1900. Also Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Pt. 2.

4. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology; Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1895; American Anthropologist, Oct., 1893.

5. Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology.

6. This name refers to the clans which lived here and is probably not the ancient designation of the village.

7. For Mindeleff's plan see Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pl. VII, and brief description, p. 50.

8. A number of beams from Awatobi are incorporated in the houses of Hano and Walpi. Some of these maybe seen in Nampeo's house at Hano. They were secured by her husband, Lesu.

9. Mindeleff's “small ruin between Horn House and Bat House.”

10. Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau Ethnology, p. 52 (map faces p. 26).

11. American Anthropologist, July, 1893, p. 283.

12. See Mindeleff's plan, Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology.

13. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 629.

14. During a meeting of the Anthropological Society of Washington, at which the results of the Museum-Gates expedition of 1901 were presented, the question of the aboriginal origin of the so-called hawkbell was canvassed, the evidence presented going to show that such bells are prehistoric on the American Continent, although at an early date bells of a similar form were articles of trade, being in universal demand by the native tribes and scarce with them at any period.

15. American Anthropologist, X, June, 1897, p. 191.

16. This mass has been tested by Dr. George P. Merrill and is found to be a slag.

17. See Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 736–739, for pahos found by Dr. Fewkes at Awatobi and Sikyatki.

18. Most of the traditions ascribe the introduction of prayer sticks to the Water House people of the South. See Fewkes, Tusayan Migration Traditions, Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

19. American Anthropologist (n. s.), II, July–Sept., 1900.

20. The migration from the south has also been in progress for a considerable period, extending up to comparatively recent times. It must be said, however, that these clans brought with them pottery that appears to be more ancient in type than that brought by the Rio Grande clans.

21. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Pt. 2.

22. Mr. F. W. Hodge informs me that this is also the Keresan or Queres name of the pueblo of Laguna.

23. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Pt. 2.

24. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Pt. 2.

25. F. W. Hodge. The early Navajo and Apache, American Anthropologist, VIII, 1895, p. 223.

26. The Ancient Basket-Makers of Southeastern Utah, G. H. Pepper, Journal of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, II, Supplement, April, 1902.

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