THE mines of Arizona, varied and numberless, are no doubt the sources of the future wealth of the Territory, and consist of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, coal, salt, and perhaps of other valuable minerals. These mines, especially those of the precious metals, and of copper and lead, are of wonderful extent and richness, and are destined at no distant day to astonish the world by the immensity of their product.

A full description of the different mineral belts of the country, of the locations made, and of the mines already opened, would fill volumes, and therefore will not be attempted in this work. An outline and partial description alone can be given, leaving the subject to be fully written up in the future by some one having more time, and more competent to the task.

Mines of gold and silver were known to exist in what is now Arizona two hundred years or more since, and some successful workings were carried on by the old Jesuit priests, who first explored the Territory, and who employed Mexican and Indian laborers.

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After the whole of the Territory came into the possession of the United States, by the Gadsden Purchase in 1854, old mountaineers, trappers, and traders, in their expeditions through the Territory, reported from time to time the discovery of placer gold, but not until about 1860 was there any systematic or continued effort made to locate and work the mines. Reports from time to time reached California, and other mining sections, and in 1862 and 1863 many old miners from California and elsewhere visited the country, and made valuable discoveries of placer diggings. Previous to this, some twenty years since, rich placer diggings were discovered at Gila City, eighteen miles east of Yuma, and at one time a mining population of over three thousand were collected at that point, consisting of whites, Mexicans, and Indians. For a few years mining was a success at that point, and large amounts of the precious metal were taken out, aggregating, as the best informed claim, some two or three millions of dollars.

As in most rich mining localities, a large majority of the miners spent their earnings in riotous living, gambling, and debauchery, and but few of the many saved their fortunes. Owing to a want of water, these placers were after a few years almost deserted, yet a few Mexicans and Indians work at them from time to time, making fair wages. There is no doubt but the placers would pay well now, could water for

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sluicing or hydraulic washing be obtained at not too great an outlay of capital. The project of bringing water into the diggings from the Gila River has been mooted, and should it be carried out successfully, these placers will again attract large numbers of people.

Some rich placers were discovered and worked some fifteen miles above Yuma, at what was called the Potholes, and at the Cienega, where large quantities of gold were taken out for a few years, but these mines are now almost forgotten, although fortunes were made during their continuance.

In 1862, 1863, and 1864, the most thorough prospecting was done through all the mountainous regions of the Territory, and many rich and valuable discoveriea were made at different points. Some of these discoveries were back of the Colorado River to the east of La Paz and Ehrenburg, but owing to a want of water have never been worked extensively. Could water be obtained for hydraulic washing, these localities would pay exceedingly well for many years. Dry washing machines have of late been introduced, which, under favorable circumstances, work quite satisfactorily, and it is supposed they will be so improved as to produce good results, and be the means of working out large tracts of placer mines, where it would be impossible to obtain a water supply. If perfectly successful they will add much to the product of the gold placers.

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In 1862 and 1863, old Uncle Joe Walker, Paul Weaver, Jack Swilling, Henry Wickenburg, Mr. Peeples, and other noted prospectors and pioneers, devoted much time to the exploration of Central and Northern Arizona, and discovered many rich placers on the Hassayampa, Lynx, Big Bug, and other Creeks, in what is now Yavapai County, and in July, 1863, the rich placers of Weaver Gulch were discovered by them, and a Mexican working with Weaver, Swilling, Peeples, & Co. discovered Rich, or Antelope Hill, about the same time. This hill is twenty-eight miles north of Wickenburg, and near the road running from Wickenburg to Prescott. Weaver Gulch is on the east of the Rich Hill, and both the summit of the hill and the gulch were enormously rich. Antelope Hill was one of the most strange discoveries ever yet made in mining. The summit is some two thousand feet above the surrounding valleys below, and on it there is a slight depression, resembling a saddle back, of less than one acre of ground with but little earth covering the granite rock. In this depression of land a few men took out, in less than three months, $108,000 in nugget gold, from the size of a pin head to that of five or six hundred dollars in value.

A common belt or hunter's knife was the only implement used in the work, the gold being found in crevices and pockets, and to some extent on the smooth, bare rock. The gold was worn smooth and

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round, like that found in the rivers and gulches of California and elsewhere. How the gold came upon the mountain's summit in such quantities, smooth and water-worn, is a query which has puzzled most old miners, who advocate different theories; but the most natural explanation is, that a rich surface lode of gold-bearing quartz, running across the mountains, became decomposed and in the process of time, including perhaps many thousand years, the action of water, and wearing away of the rocks by erosion, had rounded and worn smooth the gold, and left it as when discovered. Work is yet carried on at Weaver Gulch, and on Antelope Hill, and some large nuggets are occasionally found.

A half million dollars or more has been taken from these mines, and when water is plenty in the gulch fair wages can yet be made.

Another rich mining camp was at the “Placeritas,” some fifteen miles northeast of Antelope Hill, where large quantities of gold have been extracted, and which are yet worked during the rainy seasons of the year.

The mines on the Hassayampa Creek, ten miles south of Prescott, have been worked since 1863, and are yet yielding well in different localities.

The mines on Lynx Creek, ten miles east from Prescott, have also been worked since 1863, and have yielded large amounts of gold. They are yet worked

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to some extent, as also the mines on Big Bug, Turkey, and other small creeks in Bradshaw Range, east and south of Prescott.

The “Cañada de Oro,” thirty-five miles north from Tucson, in Pima County, is an extensive and rich placer gold deposit, and was worked a hundred years or more since by the Jesuits, who employed Indian laborers. Evidences of their work can yet be seen. The Cañada de Oro Creek furnishes water sufficient for hydraulic mining at these placers, and with the expenditure of a few thousand dollars a successful mining camp would spring into life at this locality. Some gentlemen in Tucson have located these mines, and it is to be hoped that they will soon push their work to a success.

In the winter of 1874-75, some rich placers were discovered in the northern spurs of the Santa Rita mountains, by Messrs. Smith, Ray, Hand, and others, which have yielded quite well, and which would yield a large amount of gold, was there water sufficient for hydraulic working. The yield has been remarkably large for the small amount of water that can be utilized for washing out the gold.

Many other placers have been discovered in different portions of the Territory, some of which are very rich but not extensive. The placer mines of Arizona are not extensive, like those of California in its early days, and perhaps the world will never see again the

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like, either in extent or richness, as was witnessed in California from 1849 to 1860.

Wonderful reports have been circulated, from time to time, of rich placers in the northern and eastern parts of the Territory, which are said to have been seen by explorers long since, or by captives among the Apaches, and several expeditions have been fitted out for their discovery, but as yet without success. Some of these wonderful reports may be true, but doubtless many of them are more imaginary than real.

The great and permanent mineral wealth of the territory is in its numerous rich and extensive lodes of gold, silver, copper, and lead.

These lodes are found in almost every mountain, hill, and picacho peak in the Territory. Wherever one may go, north, south, east, or west, these lodes are found in almost endless profusion.

In Yuma County, in the southwestern part of the Territory, the most prominent mines are those of the Castle Dome district, forty miles northeast from Yuma. These mines are principally argentiferous galena and copper. The lodes are large and well defined, and most of them are very rich.

The principal argentiferous galena lodes are the Flora Temple, a four foot vein owned by N. Gunther & Co.; the Buckeye, a four foot vein owned by Miller, Berry, & Co.; the McLane, a four foot vein owned by Charles E. MeLane; the Little Willie, a

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two and a half foot vein, owned by William P. Miller & Co.; the Big Dome, a three foot vein owned by E. Battis, all of which yield from thirty to sixty-five per cent. lead, and from twenty to thirty ounces of silver per ton. There are other lodes equally as promising as the foregoing.

The principal copper lodes in the district are as follows: The Montezuma, an enormous twelve foot vein, owned by Messrs. Miller & Minear; the Cortez, another great vein, twelve feet wide, owned by G. D. Roberts & Co.; the Ellen Gowen, a seven foot vein owned by William P. Miller; the St. Charles, a six foot vein owned by Charles Baker & Co. The two first of these give a yield of thirty to sixty per cent. of copper, and from thirty to forty-five ounces per ton in silver. The Ellen Gowen vein yields from thirty to forty-five per cent. of copper, and over sixty ounces of silver per ton. The St. Charles vein yields about the same as the others in copper, and in places is very rich in silver, yielding at times over one hundred ounces per ton. Numerous other locations have been made in the district, enough to warrant the belief, that when this district is fully opened the yield of silver, copper, and lead, will be very large, and add much to the future product of the country.

The Castle Dome mines are in the Colorado River range of mountains, and from ten to twenty miles east of the river, and are easily approached from

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Castle Dome Landing, where a brisk little town is being built up. Further north, in the same mountain range, there are locations of gold and silver mines at different points, for two hundred miles or more, some of which are very promising.

The Planet Copper Mine is in the extreme northern part of Yuma County, on the south of Bill Williams Fork, which stream is the dividing line between Yuma and Mohave counties. The mine is twelve miles east of Aubrey on the Colorado River, and was discovered in 1863, and has been worked in a desultory manner ever since. The ore yields from twenty-five to sixty per cent. in copper, and there has been a total yield of ore from the mine of over 8,000 tons, most of which has been shipped to, and sold in San Francisco at a fair profit.

The distance from Aubrey to San Francisco by water, being about 2,200 miles, and the freight high, it will be readily perceived that ore must be very rich to pay freight and other charges, and return a profit to the owners.

Mohave County is the northwestern one of the Territory, and a large portion of it is distinctly a mineral region. From Bill Williams Fork on the south, and extending thence north through the region of the Sandy, and thence through the Hualapai, Cerbat, Peacock, and other mountain ranges, there is a continued succession of mineral veins of great extent

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and richness. Many of these veins have been opened with the most flattering prospects, and some are being thoroughly worked. In the southern part of the county the lodes are very large, being from ten to nearly or quite one hundred feet wide, and traceable in some instances for many miles. In the central part of the county, in the northern spurs of the Hualapai Mountains, and in the Cerbat and Peacock mountains, the mineral lodes are not as large as further south, but extremely rich. The principal veins are argentiferous galena, yet there are many promising lodes of gold, and some almost wholly of silver. But few of the many hundreds and thousands of mines located in Mohave County can be specially mentioned, but sufficient to give the reader a general idea of the mineral wealth of the county.

The McCracken Mine is in the southern part of Mohave County, thirty miles east of the Colorado River, with a good roadway back and forth. It is six miles north of Bill Williams Fork, and twelve miles west of Sandy Creek. This mine was discovered August 17, 1874, by Messrs. McCracken and Owen, who yet own a large interest in the mine. It is now incorporated under the laws of California, with the Hon. Eugene Casserly as President, I. C. Bateman, Vice-president, and H. Augustus Whiting, Secretary.

The lode runs nearly due north and south, directly over a high mountain spur, known as McCracken

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Hill. This hill has an elevation of about two thousand feet above the surrounding valleys. It is an immense vein, being in places over eighty feet wide at the surface. It is traceable for about two miles by surface out-cropping, and out-crops at different places on the south for ten or fifteen miles.

In some respects this mine differs from all others on the Pacific Slope, the formation being a spar gangue or matrix, in granitic or primitive formation. Not a particle of quartz has been found in the mine, and as quartz has ever been considered the true matrix of gold and silver, the mine is a curiosity, and well worth the study of the scientific. The out-croppings of the mine on the summit of McCracken Hill can be seen for many miles, the spar having a dark burned appearance, caused by the hot burning sun of thousands of years. At a distance it looks like a black volcanic dyke, and for many years prospectors had so considered it, and had passed by the mountain without an examination. The McCracken Company own two mining claims of fifteen hundred feet each in length, named the Senator and Alta. The mine is now the best developed in the Territory, having over seven hundred feet of shafting, and over twelve hundred feet of tunnels. The deepest shaft is three hundred and sixty-seven feet, and the shafts, and over one thousand feet of the tunnels are in vein matter all the way. The first class milling ore gives

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by assay an average of $96 per ton, and the company's ten stamp mill at Greenwood, on the Sandy, works this ore up to sixty-five per cent. of the assay. The bullion produced averages 985 fine.

The second class milling ore, of which over five thousand tons are now on the dump pile, gives by assay over $65 per ton.

Twenty samples, taken promiscuously by the author from the dump pile, gave by assay $67.54 per ton. There are small stratas of carbonate ore carrying much lead, and excellent for smelting, which has sold in San Francisco for an average of $237 per ton, in silver, and yielding in addition twenty per cent. of lead. In the different shafts, tunnels, and drifts, the ore has in no place been worked out from hanging to foot walls, and therefore the actual width of vein matter at one, two, and three hundred feet depth, is unknown. In seven different chambers, the workings are from twenty-five to forty-two feet wide, and there is sufficient assurance to pronounce the McCracken one of the great mines of the world. In addition to the ten stamp mill at Greenwood, the company are now making arrangements to erect a new and much larger quartz mill the present year.

Cost of labor at the mine and mill four dollars per day. Wood, delivered, costs five dollars per cord. The cost of hauling ore from the mine to the mill is twelve dollars per ton. The amount of ore now

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mined, and working value, is, as near as can be ascertained, as follows: Two thousand tons of first class ore at sixty-five dollars per ton, working value, and five thousand tons of second class ore at forty-five dollars per ton, working value, gives a total of $355,000 of ore now mined. The great want at the mine at present is water, of which none has yet been developed in the mine, and for drinking, culinary, and other purposes, water is now brought from Castenado's well, eight miles distant.

The company's office is at rooms 7 and 9 Hayward's Block, San Francisco, where further and full information can be obtained of the mine, etc.

The first north extension of the McCracken is the San Francisco Mine, also incorporated, which is being opened successfully, and a large mill is to be erected the present year for working the ores, which are equally promising, both in extent and richness, to the McCracken. The extensions south are also being opened, and all look well.

Six miles south the vein out-crops again, and at this point Messrs. Cory and Potts, and some other parties, have good prospects for valuable and extensive mines.

The whole country to the north from the McCracken Mine, and from Greenwood for over one hundred miles, contains continued successions of mineral lodes of wondrous extent and richness. These

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mines are mostly argentiferous galena, some of them having a fair showing of gold. By a judicious expenditure of time and money, this whole extent of country will in due time become a source of great mineral wealth.

In the river range of mountains to the northwest of the McCracken Mine, there are numerous lodes of gold and silver, some of which have been worked in former years, but are now lying idle. Among the number is the Moss Gold Mine, from which much rich mineral was taken in years past. This mine is fifteen miles east from Camp Mohave, on the Colorado River.

In the northern portion of the Hualapai Mountains, there are many valuable mines of both gold and silver.

The Dean Mine, gold bearing, has been successfully opened with the most flattering prospects, sufficient to induce the company to erect a ten stamp mill, which will be erected the present year.

The American Flag Mine, silver bearing, owned by Mr. Shoulters, has been fully opened, and is very rich. Fifty tons of ore worked in the Mineral Park Mill, gave a product of from $300 to over $1,000 per ton in refined silver bullion. The American Flag Mine is near the summit of the Hualapai Mountains, and about thirty-five miles southeast from Mineral Park.

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One hundred or more mines have been located in the Hualapais, but to the present time but few of them have been opened. Many of them give promise of exceeding richness, and the district, when well developed, will yield a large amount of gold and silver bullion. Wood and water are both abundant, offering fine inducements for both mining and milling operations.

The Cerbat Mountains, for an extent of thirty miles north and south, are a perfect network of mineral veins, including gold, silver, and lead, and of exceeding richness. The mineral lodes of the Cerbat range are small in comparison to those in the southern part of Mohave County, but make up to a great degree in richness what they lack in size and extent. These lodes range from one to three feet in width at a depth of twenty to one hundred feet. Many of them have been fully opened and prospected, and are now being worked successfully. The great hindrance to successful mining operations in the Cerbat Mountains, has been the want of reduction works. This has been partially remedied by the erection of a five stamp quartz mill at Mineral Park, which was put in successful operation February 22, 1876. The Mineral Park Mill Company have, since their mill was put in operation, worked ore for many different mines, all of which has paid extremely well, running from $100 to $1,000 per ton. A few only

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of the mines can be mentioned, of the hundreds in the Cerbat Mountains.

Cerbat, the county seat of the county, is in the southern spurs of the mountains, Stockton Hill being three miles northeast, and Mineral Park six miles to the north. This description of location will give the reader some idea of the particular locality of the mines hereafter mentioned.

The Fontenoy Mine, one mile east of Cerbat, is well opened by five shafts from twenty-five to one hundred feet each. The vein matter is eight inches to two feet wide, and works from $142 to $530 per ton in silver. Seventeen tons sold in San Francisco for over $500 per ton. Owners, Canavan & Mulligan.

The New York Mine, owned by Mulligan, is but a short distance from the Fontenoy and very similar to it. The ore pays from $100 to $600 per ton in silver.

The Sixty-three Mine, two miles northeast from Cerbat, was discovered in 1863, and has been successfully worked at intervals since that time. Over fifty tons of ore sold in San Francisco for $600 per ton, and large amounts of ore have been worked at the Mineral Park Mill and elsewhere, paying an average of $200 per ton in refined bullion. The vein matter is from one to three feet wide. The mine is incorporated, and the company are erecting reduction works at Cerbat, under the superintendence of Mr. Scale, one of the owners.

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The Mocking-bird Mine, a half mile from the Sixty-three Mine, has a fine two foot vein of gray and blue sulphurets of silver, inclosing specimens of green horn silver. The ore assays from $200 to $1,000 per ton, and twenty tons worked in the Mineral Park Mill gave an average of $700 per ton, silver bullion. Owners, Riley & Co. successor to Miley & Riley, the original owners.

At Stockton Hill there are a large number of promising mines now opened and being worked. Among the number is a cluster of five, named respectively the Little Tiger, Dolly Varden, Cupel, Edward Everett, and Alba Stevens; all of which are quite rich in silver, and from eight to twenty inches of vein matter. Fifty tons of ore from these veins sold in San Francisco for over $500 per ton, and a large amount has been worked in the country. All has paid an average of over $200 per ton. Owners, Messrs. Cory & Potts.

There are many other lodes of silver running through this portion of the Cerbat Mountains, some of which have been opened and are now being worked to some extent. Among the number are the Tiger, Monitor, Franklin, I. X. L., Legal Tender, Snowflake, Lorena, Continental, Little Chief, etc., etc. All of the foregoing are rich veins from one to four feet wide, and the ore assays from $100 to $1,000 per ton. Selected specimens assay as high as $5,000 to $10,000

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per ton. There is no doubt but Stockton Hill will ere long make a fine showing of her product of silver bullion. A quartz mill is much needed, and one for custom work would pay well, as fifty dollars per ton would be readily paid for reducing ores.

The Oro Plata Mine carries both gold and silver, as its name implies. It is two and a half miles north from Cerbat, a well defined two foot vein, owned by Messrs Cody and Layne, who have several other good mining properties in the Cerbat Range. The ore pays from $200 to $1,000 per ton. Large quantities have been worked in years past by Mexicans, in the common arastra, with large profits.

To the south and southwest of Cerbat are a large number of mines, mostly argentiferous galena, and gold intermixed with silver. Of the humber the Vanderbilt, Champion, and Twins, owned by the Cerbat Mining Company, are among the most prominent. The Vanderbilt and Twins carry both gold and silver, and yield by working from $100 to $400 per ton. The Champion is a large six foot vein, carrying some free gold, with silver and lead, and works about $70 per ton.

The O'Fallon Mine, four miles south of Cerbat, is owned by Johnson & Co., and carries both gold and silver,—vein two feet wide. A shipment of several tons of ore to San Francisco paid the owners an average of $300 per ton.

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There are many scores of other mines located around Cerbat, equally as promising as those mentioned. Those east of the town are mostly silver, while those to the west, running north and south, are gold and silver, and some heavy lodes of argentiferous galena.

At and around Mineral Park, in all directions, there are numerous rich and promising mines of silver and argentiferous galena, with a small percentage of gold in some, and an intermixture of other mineral substances. Some of these have been opened and are being worked quite successfully, among which are the following:—

The Keystone Mine, incorporated in California, is a few hundred yards north of the town, and has a vein of mineral from one to three feet in width, consisting of gray antimonial silver, carrying ruby and native silver, zinc pyrites and sulphurets of iron, and a trace of copper. Several hundred tons of this ore worked in the Mineral Park Mill has yielded an average of $200 per ton in refined bullion, and some lots have worked as high as $500 per ton. The claim west of the Keystone Mine, and on the same lode, is owned by the Hon. William H. Hardy & Co., and is equally promising.

The Lone Star Mine is one mile northeast of the town, and is incorporated under the laws of Arizona. It carries beautiful ore, rich in horn, ruby, and native

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silver, and yields in working from $200 to $600 per ton. The mine is well developed, and gives promise of becoming a splendid and permanent property.

The Metallic Accident Mine, discovered by accident as the name implies, is owned by T. J. Christie, its discoverer, who located it but little over one year since. The mining property covered by the Metallic location consists of a large and heavy lode of low grade ore on the surface, and includes several small veins or feeders, which run into the main lode. These feeders are extremely rich and are from eight to fourteen inches wide. Some thirty tons sold in San Francisco for $1,000 per ton. This was first class selected ore; specimens from this mine assay thousands of dollars per ton. Second class ore yields from $300 to $500 per ton. There is but little doubt that when this mine is worked to a proper depth, it will become one of the most productive in the Territory.

She-rum Peak is the highest point of the Cerbat Mountains, four miles northeast from Mineral Park, and well up its southern side there is an immense vein of low grade ore, located by Messrs. Mix & Co., which in time will become a great and valuable mining property.

The Index Mine, owned by Messrs. Haas & Co., is a good twenty inch vein, one mile northeast of Mineral Park, from which five tons of ore worked in the Mineral Park Mill yielded an average of $236 per ton in silver.

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The Laporte Mine, owned by Davison & Co., south of the Index, gave by assay $534 per ton, and the ore will work from $200 to $400 per ton. A large number of other mines similar to the foregoing are well prospected, and some are being worked quite successfully.

Many heavy lodes of fine smelting ore are in the vicinity, which carry from twenty to sixty per cent. of lead, and from thirty dollars to one hundred dollars per ton in silver. L. C. Welbourne, and others, have locations of this character, some of which are to the west and southwest of town, and some to the west and north from She-rum Peak.

Chloride Flat is six miles north of Mineral Park, in the low foot hills and level land on the west of the Cerbat Range. This district was prospected and worked to some extent ten or twelve years since, but owing to the continued hostility of the Hualapai Indians, who murdered many of the miners, and from other causes, the camp became almost deserted, and remains so to the present time. Two smelting furnaces were at one time erected at Chloride, one of which is now in ruins, and the other has remained idle for several years. The ores of this district are mostly chlorides, and heavy veins of argentiferous galena. Some indications of cinnabar exist, but none sufficient to warrant the belief that that mineral exists there in paying quantities. One of the first location

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made at Chloride Flat was on what is called Silver Hill, in 1864, but operations were broken up by the murder of those working it by the Hualapais, one being shot at the windlass, and two others killed by stones while in the shaft. Several other miners were killed in the vicinity about the same time, and for years all work was virtually broken up. The mine on Silver Hill is a four foot vein, and the ore pays from $100 to $300 per ton. No systematic work has been done on it for years, but just sufficient to keep up a title to the mine. This is the case with thousands of mines in the Territory, and though the law operates in some respects to the benefit of prospectors and miners, its general tendency is to retard the advancement and prosperity of the Territory. In the older States, during the past few years of hard times, thousands of landholders corn plain of being “land poor,” and the same may be said of hundreds of miners who own locations in many different mining districts, and are unable to develop any of them, yet hold on to all, hoping, Micawber like, that something will turn up to their advantage. Could miners see, and understand, that one well developed mine is worth more than a hundred undeveloped ones, and that by continual prospecting and locating new mines, they are continually growing poorer and poorer, they and the country would both enter upon a new career of prosperity

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by the new departure. Miners and prospectors, think of this, and act for your own and the country's good. The following are some of the most conspicuous mines at Chloride Flat:—

The Schuylkill Mine is close by the old Baker furnace, a well defined four foot vein of fine argentiferous galena, and a good smelting ore. It yields from twenty to sixty per cent. lead, and an average of $45 per ton in silver.

The Schenectady Mine is a parallel lode to the Schuylkill, and to the east a few hundred yards. The ore is similar in character but richer in silver, yielding from $50 to $200 per ton.

The Albany Mine is the first extension north on the Schenectady Lode, and is equally promising. The vein widens out in places to eight feet, and yields some fine carbonate ore. The Schenectady and Albany mines have a solid body of mineral two feet wide, and the vein matter is fully four feet.

The Empire Mine is one mile further up the ravine, an immense lode, from two to twenty feet wide, of argentiferous galena and chloride ores, which yield an average of $210 to $256 per ton by actual working. Selected specimens assay $3,000 per ton. The mine is owned by the Cerbat Mining Company, of which W. H. Raymond of San Francisco is one of the principal stockholders. The company have many fine locations at Choride, and also at Cerbat.

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To the west of the Empire Mine, some four hundred yards, Mr. Raymond has individually a mine called the Sunday-school, from which two lots of ore have been worked, one paying $191 per ton, and the other $500 per ton. Both of the last named mines are good milling ores.

The Blue Dick, Senator, and Hermit mines, are all less than one mile east from the Empire, and are owned respectively by Winham & Reany, Ashton, and Mr. Reany. They each carry silver, lead, and a trace of gold, and the owners claim a fine showing of cinnabar.

Independence Mine No. 1 is one mile east from Chloride Flat, a well defined six foot vein of argentiferous galena, yielding by assay from $50 to $500 per ton in silver.

Independence No. 2 is one mile northeast from Chloride, and is owned by Ridenour & Spear. The vein is three feet wide, and ten tons of the ore sold in San Francisco for $480 per ton.

The Oriental Mine, owned by E. Martin Smith, is south of Independence No. 1, and the vein matter, which is from five to twenty feet wide, assays from $100 to $300 per ton. The ore is a carbonate and argentiferous galena, with a trace of gold.

The Rose Bud and Porter mines are midway between Chloride and Mineral Park, having well defined veins of mineral. Ore from the Rose Bud paid

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by arastra working $300 per ton, and thirty tons from the Porter sold in San Francisco for $300 per ton. At a depth of fifty feet these veins run into a water formation and change from chlorides and carbonates to rich sulphurets.

The Black Snake Mine, in the same locality, is owned by W. M. Hardy. The ore is a fine chloride, which by mill process yields from $200 to $300 per ton.

The Conner Mine, one mile from the Black Snake, is a rich chloride and carbonate ore, with considerable gold. One lot of thirty tons yielded $400 per ton, and selected ore assays as much as $5,000 per ton. It is owned by Messrs. Canavan & Smith.

The Quaker Mine, a half mile north of Chloride Camp, is a large lode, varying from ten to twentytwo feet in width. It is a low grade ore, yielding from $30 to $60 per ton in silver. The ores are sulphurets, carbonates, and argentiferous galena.

The first extension north on the Quaker Lode is owned by Messrs. Towle & Co., and is called the Cady Mine, and is similar in character and extent to the Quaker.

The Virginia Mine, one mile northwest, is a good two foot vein of gray chloride and sulphurets of silver, which assay from $100 to $1,000 per ton. It is owned by H. Ashton.

The Pennsylvania Mine is owned by O. Groom, and

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is a four foot vein of chloride ore, two miles west of Chloride Camp. At a depth of forty feet, it changes to rich sulphurets at the water line. Fine specimens of horn silver are intermixed with the chloride ore. Ten tons of this ore gave an average yield of $200 per ton, and selected ore assays $1,000 per ton. When suitable hoisting and pumping works are erected, and the mine worked thoroughly, it will become a valuable property.

The Diana Mine, owned by Rogers & Doniphan, and the Pink Eye Mine, owned by J. Barnes & Co., are one half mile east from the Pennsylvania, and each have veins of from two to four feet wide of rich chloride ores, which assay from $300 to $3,000 per ton. Thirty-five tons gave by working over $300 per ton average.

There are numerous other lodes of equally valuable mineral in and around Chloride Flat. Many of these run well up in the foot hills of the Cerbat Range, and others extend far down into the Sacramento Valley to the west.

In the main range of the mountains north of She-rum Peak many locations have been made, but few of them, however, have been thoroughly prospected or worked. The whole range is mineral bearing, except a narrow strip on its eastern declivity. But few of the hundreds of mines located in the Cerbat Mountains have as yet been opened or worked,

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but enough of them have been thoroughly prospected to warrant the belief that these mountains have an almost inexhaustible supply of the precious metals.

Prospecting is as brisk as ever, and new discoveries are being made continually. Wood is quite plentiful in the mountains and in places there are fine springs of water, yet there is a scarcity of water at present for large reduction works. When the mines are worked to sufficient depth, a good water supply will be obtained for all practical purposes. At Chloride Flat, and Stockton Hill, the water is excellent for drinking and culinary purposes, but at Mineral Park and Cerbat, much of the spring water is strongly impregnated with mineral, and unpleasant to strangers.

The Peacock Mountains are about twenty-five miles east of the Cerbat Range, and to the east of the beautiful Hualapai Valley, which intervenes between the two ranges. In the Peacock Mountains some fine mineral lodes have been located, one of which is deserving of a full and special mention. In October, 1874, William Ridenour, S. Crozier, and two others parties discovered a wonderful rich lode, which they named the Hackberry Mine, in honor of a large hackberry tree near a spring of the same name, This tree gave them shelter and shade, and under its protecting branches they made their home for many weeks. Prior to the discovery of this mine,

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the party had been on a prospecting tour to the north, far down towards the Grand Cañons of the main and little Colorado, where they were attacked by Indians and barely escaped with their lives, losing, however, their animals, mining tools, food, and clothing. After long wandering, they succeeded in reaching Mineral Park, nearly dead with fatigue and hunger. After a few days of rest, they again started out on another prospecting tour, and were fortunate in finding the Hackberry Mine, which is destined to become one of the noted ones of our country.

The Hackberry Mine is in the foot hills of the eastern declivities of the Peacock Mountains. The lode has a nearly due north and south course, and has been traced for several miles. Two locations were made by the discoverers, the Hackberry and the Hackberry South. Messrs. Ridenour & Crozier, in the division, took the Hackberry, and the other partners the Hackberry South, which they sold soon after to the Mineral Park Mill Company for $12,000. Messrs. Ridenour & Crozier, though without money, had what is better, grit, vim, and energy, and a good mining experience, and went to work with a will to develop the mine. In the winter of 1875-76, Messrs. Davis & Randall erected a five stamp mill near the Hackberry spring, and when completed in March, 1876, it was included in the Hackberry property, and Messrs. Davis & Randall became part owners in the

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property. In October, 1876, the property was incorporated at San Francisco, under the laws of California, with William H. Raymond as President, and E. Martin Smith, Secretary, the character of both these gentlemen being such as to give perfect confidence in the organization, and in the value of the property.

The Hackberry Mine has been opened at five different points to a depth of fifty to over two hundred feet, and all the openings show a continuous body of rich mineral, from one to five feet wide, which increases in width regularly as the work goes down. On the surface the pay ore is from one foot to sixteen inches wide, and at two hundred feet deep the ore has widened out to five feet, and equally rich as at the surface. The ore body is all worked in the mill, and pays regularly $200 per ton.

Rich stratas are found which will yield $1,000 to the ton. To a depth of one hundred and sixty feet the ore is a free milling ore, and does not require roasting; but below that depth rich sulphurets abound, and it requires roasting. The company are now erecting a furnace, and when completed the product of silver bullion will be much increased. Over five hundred tons of ore have been worked, with results as before stated.

The geological formation is granite, with dykes of slate, quartzites, talc, and pipe clay. The inclosing granite walls are from thirty to one hundred feet

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apart. The ore at the mill battery has averaged $247 per ton, and there is now mined nearly one thousand tons of ore ready for working when the furnace is completed and in operation. Adjoining the wall rock of granite on the east is a quartzite from five to fifteen feet wide, then a talc of about the same width, then the mineral vein; to the west of the mineral body a pipe and fire clay fifteen to thirty feet, then a narrow, soft quartzite, and adjoining this a red water-bearing conglomerate, which meets the granite wall-rock on the west. A careful and critical examination conveys the impression that at a sufficient depth the whole space between the granite walls will be filled with mineral, in which event it will become a Bonanza mine, equal to the most noted in the world.

When incorporated, Messrs. Ridenour and Crozier owned three fourths of the mine and mill, and Messrs. Davis and Randall one fourth. The foregoing is but a brief and imperfect description of the Hackberry Mine, made from a personal examination by the author. $75,000 of bullion produced to date.

To the east and north of the Hackberry Mine are other promising mining locations worthy of mention, but which cannot be described or enumerated in this work.

Wood of an excellent quality and in abundance exists in the Peacock Mountains, close by the Hackberry

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Mill and Mine, and many fine springs of excellent water.

The eastern part of Mohave, and the western part of Yavapai County, are to a certain extent destitute of mineral, yet in several localities good indications exist, and when the country is thoroughly prospected, no doubt valuable discoveries will be made.

The central and southern portions of Yavapai County, which is the northeastern county in the Territory, may be said to be literally a mass of mineral lodes of gold, silver, copper, and lead, and a volume might be written descriptive of them without exhausting the subject. Silver, gold, and lead are found over the whole extent, and copper principally in the mountains and foot hills twenty to thirty miles southwest of Prescott, and on the upper waters of the Santa Maria Creek, which is the main eastern branch of Bill Williams Fork.

From the southern spurs of the Bradshaw Mountains, near Salt River, and extending thence north for a hundred miles or more, to the northern spurs of the Black Hills, there is a continued succession of rich lodes of gold, silver, and argentiferous galena.

In the northern and western portions of this great mineral belt, gold predominates, and in the central and southern, silver; but the two minerals are found intermixed to some extent through the whole belt.

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Some good locations of copper are also found in the eastern declivities and foot hills of the Bradshaw and contiguous mountains. Twenty miles southeast from Prescott, and thirty miles northeast, in and around the Black Hills, many fine veins of copper have been located, but they will not be worked much until the country is traversed by railroads.

The following is a brief description of some of the principalines in Yavapai County:—

The Vulture Mine is in the southwest part of the county, some ten miles south from Wickenburg, and was discovered in October, 1863, by Henry Wickenburg, one of the early prospectors of the Territory. It is gold bearing, and a rich and extensive lode. Mr. Wickenburg worked it for some time alone, and then James A. Moore became interested with him. It required great nerve and energy to work it, as the Indians were very hostile, requiring constant watchfulness and continued preparation for battle with them. The mine was afterwards sold to the Vulture Mining Company for $85,000, and was worked successfully for a time, and yielded large amounts of gold bullion, aggregating, as is believed, from one to two million dollars. For reasons unknown to the community, and under suspicious circumstances, work both at the mill and mine was suddenly suspended, and for several years the mill has lain idle. Some three years since Mr. William Smith, who has relocated

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a portion or all of the lode, erected a ten stamp mill twelve miles to the east of the mine, on the Hassayampa, and has been working the ore with fair profit.

The vein is from two to twenty feet wide, and in places of great richness. Mr. Smith has been working surface ore principally, which yields an average of $35 per ton. Doctor Jones, one of the best informed scientific miners in the Territory, is connected in some manner with Mr. Smith in the Vulture Mine, and has great confidence in its future. The Doctor has many mining interests scattered far and wide through the Territory, and is probably as well informed respecting its mineral wealth as any one there.

Many other lodes of gold and silver are located all through the section of country in and about Wickenburg. Argentiferous galena lodes are also numerous, and one owned by a well-known old pioneer, known as Black Jack, a few miles east of the Vulture Mine, is claimed to be one of the best for smelting purposes of any in the Territory.

In the mountains east of the Hassayampa Creek several promising lodes have lately been discovered, and are now being prospected with promises of good results.

Further up the Hassayampa, in the vicinity of Walnut Grove, and some twenty-five miles south

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from Prescott, there are a number of rich mines of gold, and argentiferous galena, now being opened and worked. Messrs. A. Cullumber and son, Fred. Henry, and others, have exceedingly good prospects, and the Pinal Silver Mining Company have also some good locations, and have lately completed a smelting furnace of thirty tons daily capacity, which if successful will add much to the prosperity of the district. The company own the Crescent Mine among other mining properties, which is a well defined two foot lode of argentiferous galena, excellent for smelting, and which yields from twenty to forty-five per cent. lead, and from $20 to $100 per ton of silver. Selected ore yields much more in silver.

The company employ from twenty to forty men at the furnace and mine. C. D. Morrison, the Superintendent, is an old and experienced miner and smelter, and has great confidence in the success of the company.

The new discoveries of Cullumber, Henry, and others, are a few miles west of Walnut Grove, and some of them are wonderfully rich in gold.

Mr. Bowers, sheriff of Yavapai County, has a good gold mine in the same section of country, which has been worked to some extent.

Twenty miles east from Walnut Grove, in the Bradshaw Mountains, and about forty miles south

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from Prescott, is the old Tiger Mine, discovered by D. C. Moreland some years since, and opened and worked to some extent.

The Tiger Lode is well defined with good wall rocks, and from four to forty feet wide on the surface, and has been traced and located a distance of over two miles. The locators are mostly residents of the Territory, are honest, but unfortunately most of them are poor, and consequently unable to erect suitable machinery to work the mine, or to treat the ores, and the result is, this valuable mining property with its untold millions of wealth has lain idle for years, and must continue so for years to come, unless capitalists shall take hold of the property and assist in the development of its long stored up wealth.

Two shafts have been sunk on the Tiger Mine to a depth of one hundred feet, connected by a tunnel two hundred and sixty feet long. There are several hundred tons of ore on the dump pile, taken out some years since, which will work from $100 to $300 per ton. Selected ore has been taken out which assays as much as $7,000 per ton in silver.

The first extension south, owned by Messrs. Riggs, Hammond, & Co., is now being opened, and looks equally as promising as the original discovery. Several openings on the northern extensions also give promise of grand results when thoroughly opened and worked.

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Whenever reduction works are erected for working the rich ore of the Tiger Lode, a large and prosperous mining town will spring into existence as if by magic, and hundreds of thousands of dollars be added to the productive wealth of the Territory.

To the north of the Tiger Mine, in a depression of the mountains three miles distant, and known as the Bradshaw Basin, are a large number of promising mines of both gold and silver. Several of the goldbearing lodes are being worked continuously, and the ore, worked by arastra process, pays from $60 to $120 per ton. Messrs. Luke, Collier, & Roach own several fine mines, and Mr. Luke, who is an active, wide-awake man, and ex-mayor of Prescott, has made arrangements to erect suitable reduction works the present season, which will add much to the prosperity of the district.

Messrs. Luke & Co. own the Gretna and Idlewild mines, both of which are four foot veins, and which have paid by actual working $464 per ton in silver.

They also own the Thurman Mine, gold bearing, a two and a half foot vein of solid sulphurets; also some others nearly as promising. The ore from the Thurman Mine yields from $40 to $200 per ton.

North of Bradshaw Basin, two miles, is the Del Pasco Mine, a rich gold bearing lode, which has been worked to some extent, but is now idle for want of capital to erect reduction works.

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To the east of the Del Pasco is the War Eagle Mine of Jackson Brothers & Co., about midway between the Tiger on the south and the Peck Mine on the north, and supposed by many to be the same lode. The War Eagle is a five foot vein, and has been worked to quite an extent. One thousand ions of the ore yielded from $60 to $500 per ton in gold and silver, the average being $50 in gold and $70 in silver,—a total average of $120 per ton.

Two miles north of the Jackson Mine is War Eagle Mine No. 2, on the same lode, now owned by Linn, Coe, & Co., who purchased it a few months since of Messrs. Goodwin & McKinnon, the original owners.

Before selling, Messrs. Goodwin & McKinnon took out and worked by arastra process several hundred tons of ore which paid them from $40 to $200 per ton, gold. The present owners are prosecuting work on the mine successfully, and at eighty feet depth are working a solid two foot vein which assays, in gold, from $50 to $1,200 per ton; and, in silver, from $25 to $50 per ton.

The Peck Mine, two miles north of the last named, is truly one of the great mines of the world. It is in the eastern declivities of the Bradshaw Mountains, and thirty miles east of south from Prescott.

The Peck was discovered and located June 17, 1875, by Messrs. Peck, Bean, Alexander, Jewell, and Cole, most of whom retain their interests in it. The

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mine has lately been incorporated under the laws of the Territory, with a capital of one million dollars, divided into one hundred thousand shares of ten dollars each. President, Hon. C. C. Bean; Secretary and Assayer, F. W. Blake: Office, Prescott, A. T.

When this mine was located its fortunate discoverers were, in mining phraseology, “down to bed rock,” in other words, out of funds; but by untiring energy, and continuous work and management, assisted by a few noble hearted friends, the Peck Company are now on the road to wealth. A ten stamp quartz mill, the Aztlan, located six miles south from Prescott, has been purchased and paid for, the mine has been opened to a depth of two hundred and fifty feet, and a large amount of ore taken out and worked very successfully both by mill and furnace process.

The geological character of the country both east and west, a half mile from the mine, is granite, but between the granite formation, for a half mile to one mile in width, are numerous dykes of quartzites, slate, and porphyry, intermixed with granite, forming a splendid gangue for a rich and extensive mineral deposit. At a depth of two hundred and thirty feet the ore body is five feet wide, carrying a wonderful strata of almost solid chloride of silver, from eight to fourteen inches wide, which yields from $1,000 to $3,000 per ton in refined silver bullion. Selected ore assays from $10,000 to $26,000 per ton. First class

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ore has paid, both by mill and furnace process, from $1,000 to $1,600 per ton. Second class ore has paid, by the same process, an average of over $400 per ton.

The ore from this mine is transported by pack trains over twenty miles to their mill, which is quite expensive. At a depth of 170 feet, water enters the mine, and it is expected that at not much greater depth a flow of water will be obtained sufficient to operate a ten stamp mill, in which event thousands of tons of ore, which will yield from $100 to $300 per ton, can be worked at the mine, but which will not warrant the company in paying the great expense of packing to their present mill. The Aztlan Mill is now turning out some $10,000 of refined bullion per week, and but five stamps are used, the other five being employed in working gold ores for different parties.

The probable future product of silver bullion from the Peck Mine is almost limitless. It is not the only one in the district however, as there are many other locations which give promise of becoming its rivals, both in extent and richness.

The Silver Prince Mine, discovered some time subsequent to the discovery of the Peck, is a short mile southeast from the Peck, and is owned by its discoverers and locaters, Messrs. Houghteling & Curtin, Both of these lodes have a north and south trend, and are parallel to each other.

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Messrs. Houghteling & Curtin have accomplished wonders in opening and developing their mine, which is now in good condition for successful work, and have good buildings, work shops, assay office, etc., all in perfect order.

The ore from the Silver Prince Mine is quite similar to that of the Peck. Several tons of first class selected ore sold in San Francisco for $2,470 per ton, and second class ore for $818 per ton. Selected specimens assay as high as 914,000 per ton. The future of the Silver Prince is most promising.

The Black Warrior Mine, the first south extension of the Silver Prince, owned by Messrs. Smith, Buttrick, & Co., is very promising, and has been well prospected.

Several tons of ore from this mine sold in San Francisco for $1,200 per ton. This mine carries in places heavy bodies of rich argentiferous galena.

One mile north from the Peck Mine, and evidently on or quite near the Peck extension north, is a heavy out-cropping of copper, eight hundred feet in length, with a width of vein matter six to ten feet wide, which gives by assay from thirty to sixty per cent.copper. The location was discovered and is owned by Messrs. Roberts, Poland, & Boggs.

One mile northeast from the Peck Mine, there is an immense lode of low grade ore called the Wallace Mine, which is owned by some members of the Peck

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Company. The vein matter is in some places eighty feet in width. At one point, there is a thin strata of salts of silver. This location will not pay to work now, but the time will come when the country is opened by railroads, when it will be a valuable property.

Scores of other valuable locations are within a short distance of the Peck and Silver Prince mines, many of which are being developed, among which is one owned by General A. V. Kautz, Military Commandant of the Territory.

On the route from the Peck Mine to Prescott, a distance of thirty miles, there is a continued succession of mineral veins of both gold and silver.

Some of them on the head waters of Turkey Creek have been well opened and are being successfully worked.

Wm. M. Buffum, Esq., has a quartz mill at that point, called the Crook Mill, which is in successful operation. It is run on gold ores exclusively, there being many rich lodes in the vicinity.

On the Hassayampa Creek, ten miles south of east from Prescott, S. O. Fredericks has a ten stamp mill with all the latest improvements in successful operation, working ore from his mine, the Senator Lode, which is one mile up the mountain to the South.

The Senator Mine is gold bearing, carrying a fair percentage of silver. The ore is a beautiful body of

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sulphurets, the vein being five feet wide with vertical wall rocks of slate and granite. The whole of the five foot ore body is worked, there being no assorting of mineral or refuse low grade ore. The whole body of ore assays $85 dollars per ton in gold. Until quite recently Mr. Fredericks has made no effort to save the silver, and beside has lost a large amount of the gold carried off in the undecomposed sulphurets. With improved machinery, now in operation, a very large saving will be made over former working, which however has been very profitable. The Senator Mine has been worked to a depth of two hundred feet, and a more regular body of ore of uniform width and richness was never discovered. In the whole depth of two hundred feet, and in all the drifts, stopes, and tunnels, the width of the vein will vary but a few inches from five feet. It is a most valuable property, and in good hands.

Some three miles south of the Fredericks Mill, in the southern declivity of the Hassayampa Mountains, are several large and rich lodes of argentiferous galena, and other ores, one of which, the Davis Mine, has been partially opened. The vein is fully fifteen feet wide, and some selected ore, shipped to San Francisco a few years since by the Hon. C. C. Bean, was sold for several hundred dollars per ton. At present these mines are difficult of access, as the mountain spurs south of the Hassayampa Creek are

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high and precipitous. There is no doubt but in a few years, some of the mines in this locality will be among the best in the Territory.

Between the Hassayampa and Prescott, there are many promising lodes, mostly of gold, some of which are now being opened and worked. Judge Brooks of Prescott has some good locations, as well as many other parties, and all have great hopes of realizing fortunes from their mines.

To the west of Prescott, from five to twenty miles, there is a gold bearing formation of considerable extent now being developed. Among those engaged in the work is Alexander Majors, Esq., one of the best known men west of the Mississippi River, and one respected by all men. In his old age he has settled down here to retrieve his fortunes, after having lost his all during the great civil war. Good wishes attend him from all, and a decided success would be hailed with delight by a host of sincere and earnest friends. The mine now being worked by Mr. Majors has a body of ore two feet wide, which assays from $40 to $200 per ton.

To the east of Prescott, from five to fifteen miles in width, and extending a long distance north and south, is a district of country 1iterally filled with lodes of gold and silver, some of which are of remarkable richness. These mines are mostly in the mountains bordering on Lynx, Big Bug, and other creeks,

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where for many years placer and gulch gold mining has been carried on with success. Excellent water and timber abound in this district, which is of great advantage to mining operations.

The following are a few of the many mines in this section of country:—

The Accidental, a mine discovered in 1864, and at times worked more or less since that time, is a well defined vein of gold bearing quartz, from two to three feet wide, now owned by Messrs. Rice, Elliot Bros., & Co. The owners have twenty-two hundred feet in length on the lode, and the workings include two tunnels, one of two hundred and ninety feet in length, and one of one hundred and seventy feet. Shafts have also been sunk to a depth of one hundred feet. Both the tunnels and the several shafts are all in the pay ore. Over one thousand tons of ore have been worked, and it has paid from $30 to $80 per ton in gold. The company have a mill one mile below the mine, on Lynx Creek, where they have a thirty-five horse-power steam engine, with which they run four arastras day and night, and a thunderbolt quartz crusher. They work an average of six tons daily, working sixteen men at the mill and mine, paying an average of three dollars per day and board. The mine in places carries a heavy and rich body of silver ore, but as yet it has never been worked but for gold. The argentiferous galena ore found in the mine gives

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thirty per cent. in lead, and an assay value of $30 per ton in silver. The mine is well up in the mountains on the east side of Lynx Creek. So numerous are the mineral lodes in this district, one can count nearly one hundred from the summit of the mountain above the Accidental Mine. Some of them have been thoroughly prospected and give promise of exceeding richness.

Across the summit of the mountain to the east, on the head waters of Big Bug Creek, Messrs. Poland, Roberts, and others have some excellent mining property, both gold and silver. Among those owned by Poland & Roberts are the Poland, Belle, Bullion, Mesa, Turkey, and Bulger, all of which are good mines.

The Poland Mine is rich in both gold and silver, and the ore works from $122 to $310 per ton. There are heavy bodies of beautiful sulphate of lead in this mine. The Mesa and Turkey mines are both gold bearing, and both pay from $60 to $200 per ton. The others carry gold, silver, and lead.

In the Poland Mine are many beautiful specimens of white crystallized sulphate of lead, a rare mineral in all mining countries.

Passing down Big Bug Creek to the east, one meets at short intervals rich out-croppings of mineral, of both gold and silver. The Hon. C. E. Hitchcock and family, who live near the creek, some four miles

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below the mountain summit, have several promising locations, among which are the Big Bug, Gen. Kautz, Belle, Sunset, Sunrise, Twilight, etc. Some of them are rich in gold, some in silver, and some are of argentiferous galena. Some years since, Mr. Hitchcock carried on at Big Bug successful mining operations, but during his absence east on business, operations, owing to mismanagement, entirely ceased, and like all others of like character, debts accumulated, and mines and machinery became involved in litigation, and an entire loss of all invested became the inevitable resuit.

Excellent water and good pine timber abounds in the mountains along the Big Bug as well as upon Lynx Creek. Wherever wood and water are both abundant the value of mining property is much enhanced.

From two to six miles north of Big Bug Creek, in the eastern foot hills of the mountains, there are several very fine lodes of argentiferous galena ores, which are fine for smelting, and of the highest grade.

The Silver Belt Lode is one of the best in the country, and has yielded a large amount of bullion. It is a heavy two foot vein, and is now being worked on a lease by Mr. Thompson, and the ore is smelted in the Agua Frio Furnace, a few miles distant. The ore yields a return of $300 per ton in silver, and some over twenty per cent. lead.

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The Kit Carson and Silver Flake mines are both of the same kind and character as the Silver-Belt, and both are being successfully worked. The ores from these two mines yield from $100 to $600 per ton. The veins are from two to four feet wide, with well defined wall rocks.

During the past few months the three last named mines have produced several thousand pounds of bullion, the ore being worked in the Agua Frio Furnace, by Messrs Perkins & Shafer.

The Salvador Mine is a gold lode, three miles east from Prescott, with a good showing of silver. Ninety tons of the ore worked in the Aztlan Quartz Mill gave a total yield of over $7,000. The ore was worked by Messrs. Bowers & Richards. Work is progressing on this mine successfully.

To the northeast from Prescott for a distance of fifty miles through the Black Hills, and to the west of Camp Verde, there have been many mines of gold, silver, and copper, located during the past year, which from surface indications, indicate the existence of vast bodies of rich mineral. Some of these locations have been prospected to considerable extent, sufficient to warrant the belief that they are permanent true fissure veins.

The extreme northern and northeastern parts of the county of Yavapai have not been prospected to any extent, though the well known prospectors and

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explorers, Charley Spencer, Dan O'Leary, and some others, have made several expeditions into that portion of the Territory in search of some fabulous rich silver mines, which tradition asserts, were long since worked by the old Jesuit priests from California, a century or more since. These daring prospectors and Indian fighters have penetrated far down into the great cañons of the north, and relate wonderful stories of what they there discovered: of isolated bands of Indians living far down in the deep gorges and cañons of that region, where no white man's foot had ever trod, and where none can enter except by the descent from point to point of perpendicular wall rocks, hundreds and thousands of feet deep; of peach orchards, corn and pumpkin fields, almost hidden from view, down in the cañons near the rivers whose presence was heretofore unknown; of masses of mineral running through the granitic formation of the cañon's sides, and of a thousand other interesting sights witnessed by them. Many other traditions exist respecting that great northern, and almost unknown country, of the finding many years since of rich gulches and ravines, where nuggets of gold could be picked up by the handful, of golden Indian bullets found after straggling Indian fights, of large masses of gold seen in the possession of Indians from time to time, and of many other wonderful stories hard to be believed. If any or all of such reports

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and traditions are true, they will in time be verified, for the impulse to search for gold is so strong in man that some of the hundreds of brave and reckless prospectors of the Territory will in the course of time find the localities indicated, at whatever cost and peril.

In the great Tonto Basin, a hundred miles east from Prescott, there are known to be rich placer mines, also wonderful lodes of gold and silver, but the basin has ever been the resort of all the Apache bands, and of the refugees who from time to time leave the Indian reservations for mischief and plunder, and consequently but few whites have been bold and reckless enough to explore and prospect that region of country, as most parts of the Territory have been explored and prospected. The march of the white man will no longer be stayed, and soon this almost terra incognita will be made to disburse freely from its long hidden stores of mineral wealth.

To the north of Camp Apache there is quite an extent of country having a sandstone formation, with limestone intermixed, in which have been found stratas of excellent coal, but they are so far from the white settlements, and from any market, no inducements have existed sufficient to cause them to be developed. With the construction of the Thirty-fifth Parallel Railroad, this coal formation will become a necessity, and a source of wealth and prosperity to the country.

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But two other mineral belts remain to be described in Yavapai County, which are the new mines lately discovered by Jack Swilling, Jack Moore, Bob Groom, and others, in the southern spurs of the Bradshaw Mountains, west of the Black Cañon, and the wonderful Clifton Copper Mines in the far southeastern part of the county, near the boundary line between Arizona and New Mexico.

The Black Cañon Mines were discovered but a few months since, and are of that wonderful rich character, characteristic of the Peck, Silver Prince, and others previously mentioned. They are about sixty miles south from Prescott, and ten miles west from the Black Cañon of Turkey Creek.

Within a radius of five miles, a large number of miners are now at work developing many lodes of rich silver ore, which yields from $300 to $600 per ton.

Among the principal lodes opened and now being successfully worked are the Tip Top, Rescue, Silver Jack, Fourth of July, Nevada, McDerwin, Fawn, George, Swilling, and several others equally promising.

The Swilling Mine, owned by Jack Swilling, has a four foot vein carrying a ten inch strata of solid chloride ore. Ten tons paid in working, $513 per ton. Second class ore assays from $100 to $300 per ton. The vein is well defined with good wall rocks.

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The Tip Top Mine is owned by Jack Moore & Co., and is the best developed of any in the district. It has been thoroughly prospected by both shafts and tunnels. The vein is from fifteen inches to over two feet wide, and the ore assays from three hundred to thousands of dollars per ton. The ore worked has yielded an average of $550 per ton.

One mile up the cañon from the Tip Top Mine is a location owned by Messrs. Brunson & Barnum, who have a two foot vein from which they have mined several tons of ore worth over $500 per ton.

The Fawn Mine is on the Swilling Lode, and is owned by Mr. Mullen, who has a two foot vein of ore equally as rich as the others mentioned.

The George Mine shows rich ore at four different openings.

Two miles distant from the George Mine, Mr. J. Foy has taken out some very rich ore, which gave by assay $1,900 per ton.

D. C. Moreland, the original discoverer of the noted Vulture Mine, has also a good claim here, from which he is taking out quantities of $500 ore.

Bob Groom and other parties have locations quite similar, and equally as good as the foregoing. The ore from the Black Cañon Mines has to be freighted either to the Aztlan Mill, a distance by wagon road of seventy-five miles, or to the Smiths Mill south of

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Wickenburg, a distance of over one hundred miles, at great cost and expense.

Good springs of water abound in and around this mining camp, but wood is scarce. When reduction works are erected conveniently near, and roads constructed, this new mining district will become one of the most prosperous in the Territory. Too high an estimate cannot be made of the vast amount of mineral wealth here stored up for man's use. The ores are easily worked, both by mill and furnace process, they being free carbonates and chlorides, with fine specimens of ruby and horn silver, in considerable quantities.

The wonderful Clifton Copper Mines were discovered several years since, and have been worked by different parties with eminent success. Among the leading operators are Messrs. Lazinsky and the Bennett Brothers, all of Silver City, New Mexico.

The ore is in vast bodies, virtually mountains of copper, and very pure, ranging from thirty to eighty-five per cent. Thousands of tons of copper have been worked by furnaces, of which there are a number in continual operation. There are from two hundred to four hundred men employed all the time at three to four dollars per day. These mines are about eighty miles west from Silver City, New Mexico, one hundred and seventy-five northeast from Tucson, and two hundred south of east from Prescott.

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Of nearly eight thousand mining claims located and recorded in Yavapai County, the author has selected and described but a few as a type of them all, hoping to give to the public correct and reliable information respecting the great mineral wealth of the county, from which the reader can form a definite idea of its future mineral product, when all these thousands of mines, already located, shall be worked, together with thousands of others which are now undiscovered.

It should be borne in mind that nearly all the mines opened and worked in Yavapai County, and elsewhere in the Territory, have been located by men without money to operate with, relying entirely on muscle, energy, and perseverance, and that consequently the development of the mines has been slow and gradual.

The continued hostility of the Apache tribes has also been a serious hindrance to mining, as well as to all other industries in the Territory, and until two years past no man was safe from their murderous attacks in any part of the Territory. When we consider the isolated condition of the country, far from any great centres of civilization, remote from railroads, destitute of cheap and rapid transit, the wonder is, that so much has been done in the development of the Territory as has been accomplished to the present time.

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Too much honor and praise cannot be given the early pioneers of Arizona, who have, under all the surrounding difficulties which have continually beset them, continued their exertions towards developing the Territory of Arizona—the coming country of our continent.

Mining capitalists from abroad, both on the Pacific and Atlantic slopes, are turning their attention to Arizona, being fully convinced by what has been already developed by hard labor alone, without any considerable assistance from capitalists, that it is the great mineral country of the world.

In this connection it is proper to remark, that several noble-hearted business men of Prescott have at times assisted miners in the development of their mines, without which assistance much delay and suffering would have ensued. Prominent among these are the firms of C. P. Head & Co., Bowers & Richards, L. Bashford & Co., William M. Buffum, John G. Campbell, and others, to whom Yavapai County owes much for its present prosperous condition.

Maricopa County is to the south of Yavapai, and is distinctively more of an agricultural region than a mining country. It is the great agricultural county of the Territory, and as such has been fully described in the chapter devoted to agriculture and farming.

The northern and eastern portion of Maricopa County is a mining country, in which some good

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mines have been located, and in the southeastern part is a portion of the newly-discovered and wonderfully rich Globe mining district, a district probably without a parallel. The main part of the district being in Pinal County, a brief description wilt be given of it in the description of the mines of that county.

Pinal County is south of Maricopa, and between Maricopa and Pima counties. The whole eastern portion of Pinal County is a mining country of exceeding richness. Good mines exist also in the western part of the county. No thorough prospecting was ever done through the Pinal, Apache, or Mazatzal Mountains, until 1875. The Globe Copper Mine, a mountain of copper, had been discovered, but nothing had been done to develop it. In the summer and fall of 1875 attention was attracted to the Pinal Mountains, and some gold placers were found sufficient to attract the attention of miners, who are ever on the alert to go in search of new diggings. The result was the discovery of wonderfully rich lodes of silver ore of almost fabulous extent, which are drawing to the district large numbers of miners and prospectors, as well as capitalists. During the past year, 1876, bundreds have flocked to this new El Dorado, and are opening the scores of rich mines already located. A brisk mining town has sprung into existence; quartz mills and furnaces are being erected, and the prospects are

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growing brighter and brighter, day by day, for this becoming one of the most prosperous mining camps on the continent.

This mining district is about twenty miles in length and twelve in width, and within this area about fifty distinct and well defined lodes of silver have been discovered, some of which are also rich in gold. The mineral lodes are from two to ten feet wide, and some of miles in length. The Globe Copper Mine is of enormous extent and exceedingly rich, and will yield from forty to eighty per cent. of refined copper.

One of the peculiarities of the Globe district is the wonderful plants of silver,—planchas de plata,—which are masses of almost pure silver nuggets, from a few pounds in weight to five hundred or more pounds. These nuggets are found in various localities, but more especially in and around Richmond Flat, where mining claims are staked off and dug up with pick and shovel like gold placers.

There is some mystery connected with these planchas de plata, many believing that they were thrown up from the depths below by volcanic action, but the more reasonable opinion prevails, that they are masses broken from the surface of the rich lodes during past ages, and have been washed and worn down to their present form and locality.

In connection with these planchas de plata, it may

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be proper to mention another locality in Northern Sonora, and but a few miles south of the Arizona llne, where in the past century some wonderful planchas of pure silver were found, one of which weighed twenty-nine hundred pounds, the record of it being yet kept at the port of Guaymas, on the Gulf of California.

The planchas of the Globe district have yielded many thousand dollars, one gentleman having secured and sold over $10,000 in value of his own discovery.

A few of the mines in the Globe district will be mentioned, being a fair average sample of the hundreds located.

The Rescue Mine has a three foot vein of silver ore which assays from $300 to $15,000 per ton. The lode is well defined, and well opened.

The Blue Cap Mine is a large and well defined vein, over three feet wide, and the ore assays from $500 to $5,000 per ton in silver. Horn and native silver is very abundant in the ore, as well as in many other lodes in the district.

The Helen Mine carries chloride, nugget, and horn silver, and the ore assays as high as $8,000 per ton. The vein is three feet wide and well defined.

Were it necessary a score or more mines equally as promising could be named. The foregoing will give the reader some faint idea of the wondrous mineral wealth of the Globe district.

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Several shipments of ore from this district to San Francisco have been sold at good figures, ranging from $800 to $3,986 per ton, gold value.

The Hon. A. P. K. Safford, governor of the Territory, has an interest in some of the mines in the district, from which ore has been mined that sold from $400 to $800 per ton. Messrs. Newman & Co., Williamson, and others, have sold ores from their mines, and one lot sold in San Francisco for the enormous sum of $11,000 per ton. Incredible as this may be to thousands of miners who deem $100 rock rich, the fact is well attested and strictly true. The country is well supplied with wood and water, and but forty miles of roadway is necessary to make it easily approachable with loaded teams.

The district is seventy-five miles northeast from Florence, the county seat of Pinal County, and but forty miles from the Silver King Mine, to which a good wagon road is opened from Florence.

The summers in the Globe district are mild and pleasant, and the winters not at all severe, as but little snow falls at Richmond Flat, remaining on the earth but a short time. The snow fail is never sufficient to retard mining operations.

In the western foot hills of the Pinal Mountains, forty miles southwest of the Globe district, and thirty-five miles northeast from Florence, is one of the most remarkable mines of the world. This is

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the celebrated Silver King Mine, discovered March 24, 1875, by Messrs. Long, Mason, Reagan, and Copeland. These gentlemen were all honest farmers, having farms near the Gila River, below Florence a few miles. They are all men of energy, industrious and enterprising. It had been their practice for years, when their farms required no attention, to make prospecting excursions through the mountains, and when they discovered the Silver King they were on their return from the Globe Copper Mine, which they had previously located. The discovery of the Silver King was almost an accident. Hundreds of miners, prospectors, and soldiers, had passed over it, and a few years previously a company of soldiers, belonging to General Stoneman's command, encamped for weeks close by the mine. At the time of the discovery none of the locators had money to assist in its development, but they went to work with will and energy, and succeeded in developing one of the most noted mines ever yet discovered.

On the 26th day of June, 1876, only fifteen months after the discovery, Messrs. Long and Copeland sold their interests to Mason and Reagan, for the sum of $65,000 each, including the value of the ore already mined. About the first of December, 1876, Mr. Mason sold his half interest to Col. James M. Barney for $300,000, gold coin.

The vein matter of the Silver King is eighty-seven

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feet wide, and the depth of working is one hundred and ten feet. The whole upper surface of the mine is worked and taken to the assorting dump for assortment and classification. The ore is assorted into first, second, third, and fourth classes. The first includes all which assays over $2,000 per ton; the second all between $1,200 and $2,000 per ton; the third all between $500 and $1,200 per ton; and the fourth all below $500 per ton.

That below $500 per ton, assay value, is saved for future working, and the three first classes are sacked and shipped separately to San Francisco and there sold. A considerable amount of the ore has been worked in furnaces at Florence, and elsewhere. The amount sold in San Francisco in 1875 cannot now be definitely ascertained. The amount sold there in 1876 was one hundred and sixty-three tons, which realized in gold coin $137,642.52, and this brought seventy-five per cent of the assay value.

There is now on the dump at the mine over one thousand tons of fourth class ore, which will work an average of $350 per ton, or in the aggregate $350,000.

There are three levels now being worked in the mine, and over $1,000,000 of ore is now uncoverd.

These rich ores are antimonial silver, nugget silver, and silver glance. When the author was last at this mine, in October, 1876, he examined one ton

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of selected ore whose assay value was $12,000. H. Kearsing, the assayer for the mine, is one of the most competent in Arizona, or on the Pacific coast, and his assays have never been at fault. Judge Anderson is secretary at the mine. In the whole history of mining, there has probably been no instance where a mine has yielded the same amount of bullion as this, in proportion to the amount of work done.

The geological formation is granite, gneiss, slate, and porphyritic rocks, and to the northeast near the summit of the mountain, a thin horizontal strata of limestone. Several other locations have been made on the Silver King Lode, and on other rich lodes which outcrop in numerous places, both north and south.

The Athens Mine, the first south extension of the Silver King, is owned by Charles Brown & Co., from which some very rich ore has been mined.

The Pike, Hard Cash, Redeemer, Silver Brick, and Surprise mines, in the vicinity, are all promising locations. The Surprise Mine is owned by Messrs. Richmond and Welch. It is now being worked and has yielded a considerable amount of ore which assays $900 per ton.

There is a want of water in the Silver King district, but wood of a good quality is conveniently near, and sufficient for many years.

There is no better opening for mining capital anywhere than in the Pinal Mountains, and the whole of

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the eastern portion of Pinal County seems to be a mass of mineral, including gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron. It may be remarked that iron prevails all over the Territory, and when the demand arises, and railroads, the great civilizers of the age, traverse the country, great iron manufactories will spring up to supply the demand for mills, machinery, farm implements, etc., etc.

Pima County, which embraces the whole of Southern Arizona, is traversed by mineral veins over most of its surface in all directions.

In the Quajate1 Mountains, south of the Gila River, there are some rich lodes of gold, silver, and copper, which have been opened the past two years, and which give promise of becoming valuable mining properties. Water being very scarce in these mountains, the work of development has been very slow, but this is now being remedied by the discovery of water at no great depth, and in a few months it is to be hoped that these valuable mines will be successfully worked.

In the southern spurs of these mountains, in the Silver Mountain district, are vast deposits of copper. This district is about fifty miles west of Tucson.

The principal operators in these copper mines are Messrs. Chas. Brown, E. M. Pearce, and Mr. Barnes. The firm of Tully, Ochoa, & Co., of Tucson, own some valuable locations in this copper belt


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Messrs. Brown, Pearce, & Co. own the Young America, and other mines in and around the copper peaks, some bold mountain spurs so fully impregnated with copper as to be distinguishable a distauce of fifteen miles. The principal locations by these gentlemen are known as the Young America, Boston, Lafayette, Brown, and No Name, mines. These several locations have all been thoroughly prospected and worked, and large quantities of ore shipped to Baltimore, Maryland, San Francisco, and other places. Although the cost of transportation is great, they have realized fair profits on their shipments.

The ores are black and red oxides, gray sulphurets, pyrites of copper, and rich sulphurets, or salts of copper. The main body of ore, at a depth of fifty feet, is the gray sulphurets.

The ore shipped has averaged from sixty to eighty-five per cent. copper. The amount of the ore bodies seems to be virtually inexhaustible.

The formation is granite, and the mountain sides for miles around are streaked with rich though small and thread-like veins of silver ore, which has been dug out in trench-like excavations for long distances by some unknown people in the distant past. The supposition is that it was done by Indian labor under the directions of the old Jesuit Fathers, as there is in other parts of the Territory similar mining which is directly traceable to them.

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Four miles west of the Copper Peaks, are some mines owned by Messrs. Tully, Ochoa, & Co., whose locations are also very rich in copper. They have taken out considerable quantities of ore, some of which they have had smelted in a common Mexican furnace with good results.

When the Texas Pacific, or Thirty-second Parallel Railroad is completed, all of these rich mines will become very valuable. Good water for drinking purposes is found near them, and a fair supply of wood.

The Picacho Mine, a very rich silver lode, is about seventy-five miles west from Tucson, and was discovered in 1860. It was worked successfully for several years, and produced a large amount of bullion. Work was relinquished when the water line was reached, as at the time there was no means by which pumps or other machinery could be obtained for working it. This mine was worked by Mexican labor, and for months before work was stopped, the water that entered the shafts and drifts was packed out by the Mexicans in rawhide buckets. The ore was worked by the Pateo process. It is known that two hundred and forty thousand ounces of silver was taken from this mine, and a large amount was supposed to have been carried away by the Mexican workmen which was never accounted for. The vein is from two to six feet wide, and paid by the Pateo process from $200 to $1,500 per ton. There are several

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lateral veins, or feeders, which enter the main lode, all of which are very rich. One of these lateral veins is rich in gold, as well as in silver.

This valuable mine is now the property of Don L. J. F. Jaeger of Yuma, who has lately offered it for sale at a low figure.

The Trench Mine is in the Patagonia Mountains, about seventy miles east of south from Tucson. The owners are Messrs. Archibald, Gardiner, & Hopkins of Tucson. It is an immense vein of low grade argentiferous galena ore, excellent for smelting, and easily mined. The lode is from four to ten feet wide and carries from $30 to $100 per ton of silver. Selected specimens assay as high as $600 per ton. The ore yields from thirty to eighty per cent. lead. Parallel veins of nearly equal width are within a short distance of the main lode. This is one of the few prominent mines in the Territory which have an east and west trend. Most others run north and south with slight variations. There is perhaps no better mine in the Territory of like character.

The lode has been traced and located a distance of over twenty thousand feet.

The Trench Mine, being the original discovery on this great lode, is now being worked successfully, and fifty men are in the employ of the company. Four smelting furnaces are in successful operation.

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The work on the mine includes several shafts from forty to one hundred and twenty feet, and two tunnels of two hundred and three hundred feet each. Wood and water are abundant and of good quality. Iron ore is abundant and of the right quality to form a proper flux in smelting.

The old Mowry Mine, now owned by Fish, Bennet, & Co., has quite a history. It is in the southern spurs of the Patagonia Mountains, five miles south of the Trench Mine, seventy-five miles from Tucson, and three or four miles north of the Sonora line. It carries a splendid quality of argentiferous galena and carbonate ores, in a formation of limestone, ironstone, and manganese inclosed in a granitic primary formation.

It was discovered in 1857 by a Mexican herder, who sold it to Captain Ewell, afterwards General Ewell of the Confederate army, and Messrs. Brevoort, Douglass, and Johnson, who gave the Mexican a pony and some other traps for the location. In 1859, Colonel Titus and Brevoort became the owners by purchase, and in 1860 they sold it to Lieutenant Sylvester Mowry for $25.000. Lieutenant Mowry associated other parties with him, erected buildings, furnaces, machinery, etc., and worked it successfully until 1862, when he was arrested by order of General Carleton, who was then in command of the Union forces in the Territory, was taken to San Francisco,

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but was never tried on the charges of disloyalty preferred by General Carleton. There was much indignation among the people of the Territory against General Carleton for the arrest of Lieutenant Mowry, and it was then charged, and is yet, that the arrest was without cause, and was made on account of previous jealousies and ill feelings between Carleton and Mowry, when they were in the service in former years. Be this so or not, the result of the arrest of Mowry was the ruin of all his hopes of fortune and affluence. After his release he went to London for the purpose of selling his mine, was taken sick and died in poverty.

After the death of Mowry, his heirs, who reside in Connecticut, being either ignorant of the mining laws, or too poor to fulfill the requirements, neglected to maintain their title, and on the first day of January, 1875, Messrs. Fish & Bennet of Tucson relocated it and now hold possession. A patent has been applied for and soon the occupants will become the owners in fee simple.

The present location includes three thousand feet in length by six hundred feet in width, or over forty acres of land.

The workings now include several shafts, the deepest of which is two hundred and sixty feet, and numerous tunnels and drifts.

There are several lateral veins running into the

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main lode, some of which are splendid carbonate ores. The lode, like the Trench mine, has an east and west trend, and several extensions have been located on it to the east.

The argentiferous ores work from $60 to $400 per ton in silver, and the carbonate ores from $30 to $60 per ton. Both kinds carry from thirty to sixty per cent. of lead. Much of the ore is found in great pockets, or caves, which present the appearance of having been filled by injections of the mineral from below, some of these pockets or caves being sixty feet across, all filled with mineral. A few of the caves near the surface are only partially filled with the mineral, and in them are found beautiful stalactites. The altitude at the surface of the mine is six thousand feet.

After the arrest of Lieutenant Mowry, Mexicans from Sonora carried away much of his valuable machinery, and also gouged out and took away a large amount of valuable ore, and seriously injured the mine, requiring a large expenditure of money to timber up and make it secure for working.

There are many other good mines in the Patagonia Mountains, consisting of gold, silver, and lead, and some paying gold placers.

Another rich mineral range of mountains is the Santa Ritas, west of the Patagonia Range, and divided from them by the rich and beautiful Sonoita

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Valley. The Santa Ritas are twenty miles long north and south, with a width of three to six miles, and they seem to be filled with lodes of gold, silver, and lead, in its whole extent.

The district embraced in the old Santa Rita mining district, is in the southern declivity of the mountains, twelve miles east from the old Tumacacari mission church, and sixty-five miles south from Tucson.

Some of the mines in this district give evidence of having been worked a century or more since, and from traditions now current, much silver was mined here by the old Jesuit Fathers, who employed large numbers of Mexicans and Indians in the work. From 1856 to 1861, the mines here were worked by an eastern company, but owing to the continued and determined hostility of the Indians, who killed many of the employees, Superintendent Wrightson and others, with other causes combined, work was wholly discontinued. Messrs. Wrightson, Grosvenor, and Hopkins, all leading men in the enterprise, were murdered by the Apaches between 1858 and 1861. In January, 1875, the mines were relocated under the superintendence of Col. William G. Boyle, one of the best informed mining men on the Pacific Coast. Considerable work has been done since their relocation, but until suitable machinery is erected for properly working them, and mills erected for treating the

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ores, but little can be done towards their proper development. There is no doubt that with the proper expenditure of money and labor, these mines will become very productive.

In the northeastern spurs of the Santa Ritas there are numerous lodes of gold, silver, and lead, and valuable placer mines, the latter having already been described. Wood and water are both quite abundant in the Santa Ritas, but there are no large streams of water sufficient to work placers with great success.

Twenty miles west of the Santa Ritas, and forty-five miles southwest from Tucson, is the formerly noted Cerro Colorado Mine, which was worked in former years by an eastern company who expended large sums of money in machinery, and for other purposes. The lode is extremely rich, and much of the ore assays as high as $5,000 and $10,000 per ton in silver.

Like many of the early mining operations in Arizona, owing to mismanagement, incompetency, and Indian hostilities, the operations completely failed. Portions of the milling and other machinery are scattered at different places on the road between the mine and the Rio Grande River, in New Mexico, for a distance of hundreds of miles. Other portions of the machinery have been appropriated by different parties to their own use, and some yet remains, scattered

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promiscuously around the mine in different directions.

The Cerro Colorado Company owned another mine, the Frowita, fifteen miles south, and the two were connected by a telegraph, the first in operation in the Territory.

The Cerro Colorado Mine has been relocated by parties who are making arrangements to reopen and work it by improved processes.

The Emma Mine is a late discovery, being in the same section of country, and on a lode called the Sea Serpent. This mine is about sixty-five miles to the southwest from Tucson, and fifteen miles from the Sonora Mine. The Sea Serpent Lode has been traced and located a distance of twenty-one thousand feet. It is one of those immense lodes of mineral seldom found in any country, being from ten to forty feet wide. The ore assays from $50 to $800 per ton in silver.

The Emma Mine, which is the best developed of any on the lode, is owned by Thomas Ewing & Co., who are making arrangements for working it in a thorough and systematic manner. When fully developed, this mine, as well as the others on the lode, will produce an enormous amount of bullion.

The Ostrich Lode and Mine is seventy-five miles west of south from Tucson, and within six or eight miles of the Sonora line. It is a large, well-defined

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gold bearing vein, from three to twelve feet wide, with nearly vertical and well-defined wall rocks. The lode trends to the northwest and southeast, and is apparently a continuation of the old Frowita Mine. The Ostrich Mine is owned by Dr. J. C. Handy & Co. who have erected a ten stamp quartz mill which is in successful operation.

Wood and water is quite abundant. The capacity of the mill is twenty tons per day of twenty-four hours. Wood delivered at the mill costs $3.50 per cord. The company employ about fifty men at the mine and mill, paying an average of $50 per month and board for good men.

The formation is granite, with heavy dykes of slate and quartzites. The mine is in the Cerro Blanco Mountains, which extend south into the Mexican state of Sonora.

Six miles south from the Ostrich Mine is the so called Old Mine, so named from its having been worked long since by the old Jesuit Fathers.

This mine was discovered and relocated over one year since, and gives promise of becoming a most valuable property. Two well known gentlemen, euphoneously known as Hank and Yank, formerly large freighters and packers in the Territory, are its principal owners, and are developing it with much energy. Eminent success awaits them.

To the south of the Old Mine are the wonderful

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Planchas de Plata, before described. These are in Sonora, a few miles south of the Arizona line.

The mines already mentioned are but few of the hundreds in Pima County. There is hardly a mountain spur or picacho peak in the county, but has its lodes of mineral, either of gold, silver, copper, or lead, and iron exists in large quantities. Scores of mineral lodes are within sight of Tucson.

North of Tucson, in the Santa Catarina Mountains, are many fine lodes of gold and silver.

Extending through the Santa Teresa, Mount Turnbull, Mount Graham, and other mountain chains, and thence south through the Dos Cabasas, and Chiricahua Mountains, are numerous rich lodes of mineral, both gold, silver, copper, and lead. Near the head of Aravaipa Cañon are many locations made by Dr. Atkinson, Mr. Buck, and others, which have been but partially prospected, but give evidence of being very rich in silver and copper. Wood and water are both abundant in this region of country, and in time, when circumstances are more favorable, many prosperous mining camps will spring up through the whole range of country named.

In the Chiricahua Mountains, in the southeastern part of Pima County and of the Territory, there has been known for a long time the existence of wonderfully rich and extensive lodes of gold and silver; but until quite recently no prospecting or

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mining was permitted there, as it was included in the Chiricahua Indian Reservation. This reservation having been lately vacated, prospecting parties will soon explore the mountains, and make known its hidden sources of mineral wealth.

A valuable gold mine was opened a few years since in Apache Pass, by Colonel Stone and others, a quartz mill erected, and the mine and mill were being thoroughly and successfully worked, when Colonel Stone and others were brutally murdered by the Apaches, which put an end to operations at the mine and mill, since which time no effort has been made to reopen and work it.

The foregoing brief description of a few only of the thousands of mines located and recorded in Arizona, will give the reader some faint idea of the enormous mineral wealth of the Territory. A few only have been selected from each of the many mining districts in the Territory. The number might have been swelled indefinitely, as the author visited and examined carefully nearly all of the thousands of mines located. The descriptions are literally true. and the yield of bullion, though in amount almost beyond belief, has been carefully collected from the books, certificates, and returns given from the mines mentioned, and carefully copied.

The number of mines located and recorded in the Territory, which was obtained from the county registers

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of each county, excepting the County of Mohave, which is given much below the actual number, was, on the first day of October, 1876, as follows:—

It is safe to assert that the Territory is not at the present time one half prospected, as, until the two past years, but little thorough prospecting could be done, on account of the hostility of the Indians. Vast areas in the Territory are as yet almost wholly unknown, and many sections of the country have never been trod by white men. What will be accomplished in the coming years is, of course, a matter of conjecture only, but judging from what has been done the past two years from the actual results obtained, and from a careful examination of the mines now being opened, no one can doubt that a bright and golden future awaits those who now have, or may hereafter have mining interests in the Territory. What is now necessary to open up this great mineral wealth is, first, railroads; second, capital; and third, more men of energy, will, and perseverance, to open

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and develop its inexhaustible mineral resources, and to hasten forward the day when Arizona, and its wealth of precious metals, shall be known to the uttermost parts of the earth.


1. Qua-hä-ta.


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