ARIZONA is divided into six counties, to wit: Yuma, Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, Pinal, and Pima.

Yuma County is in the southwestern part of the Territory, and has a population of 2,212. The populations given of the towns and counties is taken from the Territorial census of July, 1876.

The county town of Yuma County is Yuma, which was formerly known as Arizona City. Its population is about 1,500. Yuma is situated on the east or left bank of the Colorado River, at its junction with the Gila River. It is one hundred and seventy-five miles above the head of the Gulf of California, eight miles above the line of Lower California, and twenty miles above the Sonora line.

Yuma is the principal shipping and commercial town of the Territory, being the point where a large portion of the goods and merchandise entering the country is unloaded from the steamers of the Colorado Steam Navigation Company. From Yuma they are

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shipped by wagon to Phœnix, Florence, Tucson, and the many mining camps in Central and Southern Arizona. That taken to the northern part of the Territory is taken by river steamers to Castle Dome, Ehrenburg, Aubrey, Camp Mohave, and Hardyville, and thence to Prescott, Wickenburg, and other interior towns, and elsewhere as required.

At Yuma is the Territorial Prison, which is now partly completed, and when fully finished according to the plans and specifications, will be a model of strength, utility, and architectural beauty. Among the other important buildings are the county court-house, jail, public school-house, Catholic school-house, two hotels, printing-office, and a large number of fine stores, saloons, and private dwellings. The “Sentinel,” a wide awake newspaper, is well established at Yuma, and thoroughly devoted to the interests of the county and territory. It is now under the management of George E. Tyng, Esq., an independent and thorough journalist. For several years it was under the management and control of Judge Wm. M. Berry, who was an able editor and a most genial gentleman.

The Southern Pacific Railroad of California will, it is expected, be finished in a few months to Yuma, when the town will receive a new and fresh impetus.

The Texas Pacific Railroad will also cross the river at Yuma, which will add much to the prosperity of

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the place, connecting it with San Diego on the Pacific, and with all the great cities of the Mississippi and Atlantic States.

Castle Dome Landing is thirty miles above Yuma, at which an active little town is springing up, and from which point the Castle Dome Mines, fifteen miles distant, are supplied. A store and post-office is kept here by Wm. P. Miller, who has also a smelting furnace in successful operation. Large quantities of argentiferous galena, and copper ores, are shipped from Castle Dome Landing to San Francisco. Population about 50.

Ehrenburg is a brisk town one hundred and thirty miles above Yuma, and next to Yuma the largest shipping town on the Colorado River. The population is about 300. Most of the freight for Prescott, Wickenburg, and the country east is transshipped at this town. There is a public school, Catholic church, general stage offices of the California and Arizona Stage Company. Several fine stores and private dwellings may be found here.

Ehrenburg is the present crossing of the Colorado River of the California and Arizona Stage Line, from the terminus of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Prescott, and other points in the interior. The annual sales of the merchants of Ehrenburg aggregate about $200,000. The principal firms are J. M. Barney, J. Goldwater & Brother, J. M. Castenado, and Juan Noli.

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Mohave County is in the northwestern part of the Territory, and north of the Bill Williams Fork, that stream being the dividing line between Mohave and Yuma counties. The county town is Cerbat, a small town in the southwestern spurs of the Cerbat Mountains, and about thirty-five miles from Hardyville on the Colorado River. The population of Mohave County is put by the census at 822, but it is believed that it much exceeds that number. The population of Cerbat, the county town, is about 100. There is a good county court-house at Cerbat, a post-office, a few stores, saloons, private dwellings, etc.

Mineral park, the largest town in the county, is six miles north from Cerbat, with a population of about 200. Mineral Park has a five stamp quartz mill, a public school-house, post-office, several stores, saloons, and private dwellings, and is the centre of a rich and extensive mining country. By act of Legislature of 1877 it is now the county town of the county.

Hackberry is a new and prospering mining town in the Peacock Mountains, thirty miles east of Mineral Park. The celebrated Hackberry Mine is the cause and foundation of its prosperity. Population about 100.

Greenwood is a fine little hamlet village on the Sandy Creek, in the southern part of the county, twelve miles east from the celebrated McCracken Mine, and the location of its quartz mill, the working

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of which has built up a town of 100 inhabitants. Hackberry and Greenwood have each a few stores, restaurants, and saloons, and several private dwellings, blacksmith shops, etc.

At McCracken Hill and Mine there are about 100 inhabitants, and at Planet, twenty miles west, about a score. Aubrey Landing is two hundred and thirty five miles above Yuma, and the landing for goods, merchandise, and miners' supplies, for the McCracken and Sandy districts.

Hardyville is the present upper terminus of the river navigation, and the great crossing point for immigrants from California. It is three hundred and thirty-seven miles above Yuma, and five hundred and thirteen miles above the head of the Gulf of California. It is quite an important place, being the point of transshipment of freight for Cerbat, Mineral Park, Hackberry, and other points in the interior. A fine store is kept here by William M. Hardy, Esq., a post-office, and an excellent ferry.

Yavapai County embraces the whole of central and northeastern Arizona, an immense extent of territory embracing an area of country larger than the States of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland, or about fifty-five thousand square miles. The population is 18,738, nearly one half of that of the whole Territory. It is fast increasing in

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population, and the immigrants are of the better class, consisting to a great degree of families who come to stay and to build up homes.

Prescott, the county town, and by an act of the Territorial Legislature, January, 1877, once more made the capital of the Territory, is as beautiful a mountain town as can be found on the Pacific slope. It has a population of 3,800, consisting almost wholly of white people of the better class. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides, which are covered with forests of pine and other timber. The town is well laid out on the eastern side of Granite Creek, one of the tributaries of the Verde River.

An addition has been laid out by Judge Fleury, on the western side of Granite Creek, which adds much to the beauty and growth of the town.

The Judge is an old and respected resident, and came to the Territory in 1863 with Governor Goodwin and suite, took part in the organization of the Territory, and has been identified with Arizona and its interests, and especially with Yavapai County, ever since. A beautiful plaza adds much to the beauty of the town, being in its centre, and surrounded on all sides with fine business blocks, residences, etc.

There are fourteen mercantile houses in town, three jewelers, three meat markets, four livery stables, three breweries, eight carpenter shops, eight blacksmith shops, seven wagon shops, five hotels and

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restaurants, five boot and shoe stores, fourteen saloons, two tin shops, two barbers, seven attorneys, four physicians, one drug store, four milliners, one dentist, one harness shop, one photographic gallery, three assay offices, one extensive sash, door, and blind factory, one church edifice, Methodist, with the Rev. Mr. Wright as Pastor, one Congregational Church organization, Rev. Mr. Merrill, Pastor, and one Methodist Episcopal Church South organization, Rev. Mr. Head, Pastor. There is also a comfortable county court-house and jail, and good county offices, and an excellent new brick school-house, erected at a cost of $12,000, and capable of accommodating three hundred pupils, with Professor Sherman, Principal, and a good corps of assistants.

Prescott has many fine business blocks built of brick, which would do credit to a large city, the principal ones being those of C. P. Head & Co., L. Bushford & Co., J. G. Campbell, Wm. M. Buffum, and others.

Prescott has two newspapers, the “Miner,” the leading paper in Arizona, owned and conducted by Messrs. Marion & Beach, independent in politics, having a large circulation, and great influence. The “Miner” is daily and weekly, being the only daily in the Territory.

The “Enterprise,” published by Mr. Mitchell, is a wide awake Democratic paper, having a good circulation,

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well edited and well supported. John W. Leonard, Esq., is associate editor, and adds much to the life and character of the paper.

Wickenburg is a small town in the southwestern part of the Territory, on the Hassayampa, and the general transfer station of the California and Arizona Stage Company. Passengers, mails, and express, are here transferred from the main line via Ehrenburg to Prescott, and intermediate stations north, and to Phœnix, Florence, and other stations south. Population 300.

Brisk little hamlet towns are springing up in all parts of the county, among which may be mentioned Walnut Grove, Williamson Valley, Walnut Creek, Peck Mine, or Alexandra, Chino, Verde, etc.

Several others are becoming quite important points on and near the Chiquito Colorado River, two of which are at the new Mormon settlements, where these industrious people are making good improvements.

There has been a large increase in the population of Yavapai County the past two years, and its increase in wealth and productiveness has kept pace with the increase in population.

During the past year Prescott exported over five hundred thousand dollars of gold and silver bullion, three hundred and fifty thousand pounds of wool, and a large amount of lumber and of, her products. Messrs.

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Curtis and Noyes have each large saw mills near to Prescott, and both are doing a large and remunerative business.

The largest mining town in Yavapai County is at the Clifton Copper Mines, in the southeastern part of the county, which has a population on an average of 300.

Maricopa County is south of Yavapai, and has a population of 3,702. It is the great agricultural county of the Territory, and the larger part of its population are directly connected with agricultural pursuits. The great and rich valley of Salt River is wholly in Maricopa County.

The county town is Phœnix, with a population of 500. It is pleasantly situated in the valley of Salt River, two miles north of Salt River, well laid out, with a fine growth of shade trees along its principal streets, rendering it pleasant, attractive, and beautiful. In summer the thermometer ranges here from 80° to 110°, and in winter from 40° to 80°.

There are three fine flouting mills in and close to Phœnix, which furnish the larger portion of flour for Maricopa and Yavapai counties. A court-house, jail, school-house, hotel, restaurant, and several good stores, pleasant residences, etc., make up the town. The population is about one half each, white and Mexicans.

At Hayden's Mills, eight miles east of Phœnix, is

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a small town with two stores, and a population of about 100.

Maricopa Wells is a noted station near the southwestern part of the county, and a principal station on the great overland Southern Pacific Mail Line of Messrs. Kerens & Mitchell.

James A. Moore, Esq., one of the old pioneers of the Territory, a most estimable man, and superintendent of the line between Yuma and Tucson, resides at Maricopa Wells, with his estimable and respected family.

In the Salt River Valley, for many miles in and around Phœnix, are many interesting and wonderful ruins, the work of a long forgotten race, which will be fully described in a future chapter.

Pinal County is south of Maricopa and north of Pima, having a population of 1,600. In the eastern part of Pinal County are some of the most valuable mines ever yet discovered, embracing most of the Globe district, the Silver King, and other rich mines. The central and western part of the county, along the Gila River, is a rich agricultural country. In this valley are the Pima villages, on the Gila River Reservation, which embraces a large tract of valuable farming land, where the Pimas and Maricopa Indians raise large crops of wheat, pumpkins, melons, etc.

Florence, the county seat of the county, is on the southern bank of the Gila River, some fifteen miles

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below where it emerges from the mountains. It has a population of 500; four stores, a good school-house, Catholic church, two hotels and restaurants, one brewery, a smelting furnace, three flouting mills in or near town, and some fine residences. Shade trees, as at Phœnix, are freely put out along its streets.

Adamsville is four miles west of Florence, the location of the Bichard Mill, the first flouting mill erected in the Territory. A large mining town is being built up in the Globe mining district, and an active one in the Silver King mining district.

Pima County is in the southern part of the Territory, and until within a few years was the most populous county in the Territory. It now has a population of 8,117.

Tucson is the county town of Pima County, and since 1867 has been the capital of the Territory, until January, 1877, when the seat of government was removed, by an act of the Territorial Legislature, to Prescott.

Tucson was settled, as claimed, somewhere about the year 1560, by an expedition fitted out by the Spanish authorities in Mexico, with whom came some of the Jesuit Fathers, who thus early commenced the work of Christianizing the Indians. It is in the beautiful valley of Santa Cruz, three hundred miles east from Yuma, one hundred and twenty-five miles west from Apache Pass, and seventy-five miles north

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from the Sonora line. It has a population of about 4,000, one third being whites and two thirds Mexicans. The Santa Cruz River waters the valley of the Santa Cruz, south of Tucson. This valley has a very rich soil, and portions of it have been cultivated for one or two centuries, and produce equally as well now, as when first known to our people. The town of Tucson is built up almost wholly of adobe (sun-burned brick), and to one unaccustomed to that kind of material, it presents a quaint and curious appearance. Buildings erected of this material are extremely cool and comfortable in the hot and dry climate of the country.

Tucson has two hotels, a county court-house and jail, fifteen general stores, a branch United States depository, two breweries, six attorneys, five physicians, one news depot, ten saloons, two milliners, two flouring mills, three barbers, four boot and shoe stores, four feed and livery stables, a public school-house and about three hundred pupils, a Catholic school under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, with about two hundred pupils, one photographic gallery, two jewelers, several small establishments, and one newspaper, the “Citizen,” edited and published by John Wasson, Esq. It has the second largest circulation in the Territory, and has done much to build up the Territory, more especially the southern part.

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The business of Tucson is quite large, amounting annually to over $1,500,000. A good proportion of this business and trade is with Sonora, the merchants exchanging dress and fancy goods, boots and shoes, groceries, notions, etc., for flour, oranges, lemons, tobacco, cigars, and silver coin, of which large sums are annually brought from Sonora, where there are two coinage mints, one at Hermosilla, and one at Alamos, both of which coin from $50,000 to $200,000 per month. Tucson has ever been, and must continue to be for a long time to come, the central point for business of Southern Arizona. In summer the climate is quite hot for many months, but not unbearably so, and in winter mild and pleasant. General good feeling exists between the white and Mexican population, and a large number of white men have married Mexican women, who make kind, pleasant, and affectionate wives.

Many of the wealthiest and most successful business men of the Territory reside at Tucson, where they have accumulated handsome fortunes, in trade, government contracts, and general business enterprises.


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