IT is admitted by all, that railroads are the great civilizers of the nineteenth century. This being the case, it is important to know what the prospects are for railroads in and through Arizona. One of the principal objections to immigration to Arizona, and one that has for years retarded its progress, has been its isolation, and a want of cheap and rapid communication through its borders, and with the outside world. Though there are several excellent stage lines, which have been of great benefit to the Territory, and accomplished all that the best of stage lines could do, they have not filled the want, which can only be supplied by railroads. The subject of railroad building is therefore of vital interest to the people of the Territory, as well as to the people of the whole Union, for when Arizona's wondrous mineral wealth is developed, all will be benefited.

There are two great trans-continental lines of railroad projected and surveyed through Arizona. One of them is on the thirty-second parallel, and commonly

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known, as the Texas Pacific Railroad route. This railroad would enter Arizona from the east, either north or south of the Steins Peak range of mountains, near the eastern line of the San Simon Valley, follow down the Gila River, or make a detour to the south via Tucson, and thence down the valley of the Gila from Florence to Yuma, and thence west to San Diego on the Pacific Ocean, where there is one of the finest bays on the Pacific coast; a bay easy of entrance and perfectly secure at all times. The eastern connections of the Texas Pacific would be with the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad; the International and Great Northern Railroad; the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad; and with numerous other lines to all parts of the Mississippi Valley, the Atlantic sea-board, and the Gulf of Mexico. The Texas Pacific is now completed to Fort Worth, Texas, and work is progressing at Yuma, San Diego, and other points along the line of route. The history of this railroad route is well known to the public and need not be repeated. As to its necessity, none can doubt. When completed, it will open up Arizona, New Mexico, and Western Texas; will be free from snow blockades, and will shorten the distance and time across the continent, and become a popular and favorite national railroad.

Another trans-continental railroad route, is the Atlantic and Pacific, or thirty-fifth parallel route.

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This railroad would enter Arizona at or near the Zuñi Village, nearly west from Santa Fé, crossing, to the north of Prescott, the Colorado River at or near the Needles below Camp Mohave, intersect the Southern Pacific Railroad at or near Indian Wells on the Colorado desert, and thence be run on the Southern Pacific Railroad track, or on a route of its own, to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, and other cities on the Pacific coast. This railroad would make connections at St. Louis with all railroads from that point, north, east, and south.

Both of these great trans-continental routes would open and develop a wide extent of country through which they pass, could be worked at all times of the year, would shorten the time and distance across the continent, would cheapen the cost of travel and transportation, and would add much to the production of mining, agriculture, and grazing wealth.

The Southern Pacific Railroad of California, which is destined to be of immense benefit to Arizona, has been completed to Indian Wells for some months, a distance of less than 150 miles from the Colorado River, and, work being prosecuted with vigor, will be completed to Yuma before July of the present year. Owing to railroad complications at Washington, the public are not informed as to the route the road will take from Yuma, nor other circumstances connected with it. It will soon become the great connecting

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link between Arizona and San Francisco. This railroad has been pushed forward with the same energy and skill that made the Central and Union Pacific railroads memorable, is deserving of, and will surely attain success.

Several other railroads are projected in the Territory, one of which will be a most important one, and articles of incorporation have been filed in the office of the Secretary of the Territory. This is the Prescott, Phœnix, Tucson, and Sonora Railroad. It is intended to connect with a railroad from Guaymas on the Gulf of California through Sonora to the southern line of Arizona, for which a concession has been obtained from the Mexican Government, and the state of Sonora.

The Utah Southern Railroad is of much interest to Arizona, and is now completed from Salt Lake City to Nephi, 120 miles south of Salt Lake. From Nephi to Prescott, Arizona, is less than 500 miles, and when completed to Prescott, will make direct connections with the Central and Union Pacific Railroads at Ogden, and give Northern Arizona a direct outlet in that direction.

The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railroad is being pushed forward with commendable energy, and in a few years will open another railroad outlet for Prescott and Northern Arizona.

Two great stage lines have been in operation in

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Arizona for many years, and several minor ones, and horseback post routes.

The Southern Pacific Mail Line, owned by Messrs. Kerens & Mitchell, extends from San Diego, on the Pacific Ocean, to Mesilla, New Mexico, on the Rio Grande River, a distance of 850 miles, at which point it makes connections with other lines running to different cities and railroads east.

This great stage line enters Arizona on the west, at Yuma, and on the east at the Steins Peak Mountains, fifteen miles east from Apache Pass. It is a tri-weekly route, and is made in eight days from San Diego to Mesilla. The line is well stocked with horses, Concord coaches, and closed buckboard carriages. Good Concord coaches are run over most of the route.

The coaches are run promptly on the schedule time prescribed by the Government. The proprietors, superintendents, and employees, on the route, are well informed, affable, and attentive to every duty, and, as a consequence, travel and transportation over the route has much increased the past two years. It is a very popular route, and well patronized.

The California and Arizona Stage Line is the other great stage line of Arizona. The line now connects with the Southern Pacific Railroad at Indian Wells, runs thence to Ehrenburg on the Colorado River, thence to Wickenburg, from whence the main line

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runs to Prescott and intermediate stations, and a branch line to Phœnix and Florence, where it intersects the Southern Pacific Mail line before mentioned. Both the main and branch lines are tri-weekly. An effort is now being made to make the main line from Prescott to the railroad a daily route, with prospects of success.

Another route, run by the California and Arizona Stage Company, is a weekly, from Prescott via Mineral Park and Cerbat to Hardyville, on the Colorado River. Petitions have been forwarded to increase this to a tri-weekly route. The officers of the California and Arizona Stage Company are Mr. James Stewart, President, and Dr. J. H. Pierson, Secretary. Messrs. Thomas and Nichols, Superintendents, are both good men, and employ none but first class drivers.

The two stage companies above mentioned have, for many years, kept up their several lines under the greatest difficulties imaginable, and with hardly a day's interruption. During the long years of the Indian wars, their coaches were often attacked by the savage foe, coaches rifled and burned, stock killed or driven off, employees murdered, and great pecuniary damage sustained in addition to loss of life, yet, through all these difficulties and dangers, they, with indomitable will and courage, fulfilled their obligations to the government and people, kept up their several lines, and are deserving the thanks and gratitude of all in Arizona.

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These two stage companies employ four hundred horses, one hundred men, and fifty coaches.

There is a weekly stage line from Tucson, running south into the Mexican state of Sonora, and thence to Guaymas on the Gulf of California.

A tri-weekly stage line runs from Phœnix to Camp McDowell, thirty-five miles. Another one runs from Phœnix to Maricopa Wells, connecting the two first described main lines—the distance is thirty miles.

A weekly stage line runs from Prescott, via the Chiquito Colorado and Camp Wingate, to Santa Fé in New Mexico. This will soon be made a tri-weekly route.

A horseback mail route is run from Camp Grant, via old Camp Goodwin and Safford, to the Clifton Copper Mines. At Camp Goodwin it is intersected by a military post rider, who takes the mail via San Carlos to Camp Apache. From Camp Apache, the military post route runs north to the Chiquito Colorado, connecting with the line from Prescott to Santa Fé.

Another horseback mail route runs from Yuma, via Castle Dome, Ehrenburg, Colorado River Reservation, Aubrey, and Camp Mohave, to Hardyville.

Another one runs from Cerbat and Mineral Park, via Stone's Ferry of the Colorado River, to Pioche, Nevada.

Another route has lately been established which

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supplies Greenwood, McCracken, the settlements on the Sandy Creek, and a few other places.

Another horseback route is from Prescott, via the Peck Mine, Bradshaw, and Walnut Grove, to Wickenburg.

The great increase in population, the springing up of numerous and successful mining towns and camps, demand increased mail facilities in different parts of the Territory, which requires constant attention on the part of the present efficient Delegate in Congress, and which he is ever willing to give.


© Arizona Board of Regents