Description of Soil Series


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This appendix contains descriptions of the 221 soils mentioned in Arizona Soils. The mapping units of the Arizona General Soil Map (Plate 1) that contain a particular soil are listed after the name of that soil. Included in the first phrase describing each soil series is another soil name in parentheses. These are names of Great Soil Groups, a category of the 1938 Soil Classification System (Baldwin et al, 1938) that was used before adoption of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975). Not all soils are listed by a soil series, the sixth and lowest category in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975). Those soil mapping units are named by the subgroup to which they belong. The subgroup is the fourth-level category in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975).

The Cristobol, Deloro and Ligurta series were established formally in 1977, two years after publication of the Arizona General Soil Map (Plate 1), but were included because they had been described and named earlier. The process of formalizing a soil series description and name through the USDA Soil Conservation Service takes from two to three years.

Complete and partial laboratory data were available for 118 of the soil series and are included. Most of the headings of the tables should be understandable to persons who have read the text. A few that may not be are explained here.

O.M.% heads the column that shows the percentage of organic matter in the soil being described.

CEC is the cation exchange capacity of the soil being described. The capacity is measured in meq/100 g, or milliequivalents per 100 grams. Lower values indicate that the soil tends to have lesser amounts of clay and/or organic matter.

In some instances CaCO3%, or percent calcium carbonate, data were not available, but B.S.%, or percent base saturation, data were. Lower percentages of base saturation indicate lower pH values and increased leaching. In one instance, the description of the Purgatory soil, the CaSO4#183;2H2O%, or percent gypsum, was used instead of either CaCO3% or B.S.%.

Finally, BD is bulk density or volume density and is measured as g/cm3, or grams per cubic centimeter. Bulk density values indicate levels of aeration or porosity of soil as well as degree of compaction. Generally, the lower the value, the higher the level of aeration or of porosity and the lower the level of compaction. Lower values also may indicate higher permeability.

Blanks in the column indicate that no laboratory data were available. Zeros indicate that laboratory test results showed no values. Very low values are indicated with a ‘‘T’’, or trace.


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Soils Descriptions

Abra (MS8, MS9, MS10). Ustollic Calciorthids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Calcisols). Abra soils are deep and well drained. Typically, the surface layer is brownish gray gravelly sandy loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The underlying material, to more than 150 cm (60 in) is light brownish gray, light yellowish brown and very pale brown calcareous loam. A zone containing many soft lime masses with more than 15 percent calcium carbonate occurs between depths of 46 and 125 cm (18 and 50 in). Depth to this lime zone ranges from 20 to 71 cm (8 to 28 in). Abra soils are on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 1 to 30 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1957 and the name was taken from a siding on the Santa Fe Railroad.

Agua (TA2). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Agua soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have light brownish gray surface and subsurface layers, about 76 cm (30 in) thick, over stratified sand and gravelly sand to more than 150 cm (60 in). They occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 percent to 2 percent. They have moderate available water capacity. The permeability is moderate in the upper part and rapid in the lower part. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. They may be subject to piping along entrenched streams. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1969.

Agualt(HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed (calcareous); hyperthermic (Alluvial). Agualt soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam surface layer about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The underlying material is brown loam about 40 cm (16 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pale brown sand. Agualt soils occur on alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity in the upper 68 cm (27 in) and very low available water capacity below that. They have moderate permeability to 68 cm (27 in) and rapid permeability below that. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1966 and is the hyperthermic equivalent of the Agua series.

Ajo (HA4). Petrocalcic Paleargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Ajo soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and yellowish red clay loam about 55 cm (22 in) thick. This is underlain by a white and pink indurated lime cemented hardpan many centimeters thick. Depth to the hardpan ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Ajo soils occur on old fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 10 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are noncalcareous in the upper part of the solum and are calcareous throughout the remainder of the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971 and the name was taken from the town of Ajo in Pima County.

Some properties of the Ajo soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meg/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.46 54 28 18 17 T 7.5
Bt 5-33 0.56 41 24 35 30 1 7.7 1.26
Bk 33-61 43 17 40 35 4 7.9 1.30
Bkm 61- 77 18 5 13 21 8.7 1.75

Amos (MH5). Typic Hapludalfs; fine, mixed, mesic (Brown). Amos soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown and brown clay about 100 cm (40 in) thick. This is underlain by light yellowish brown and yellowish red weathered stratified shale and siltstone about 18 cm (7 in) thick. Hard shale and siltstone is at a depth of 125 cm (50 in). Amos soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 20 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and are calcareous in the subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in Navajo County in 1966 and the name was taken from a local wash.

Anklam (TS6). Typic Haplargids; clayey-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow (Lithosol). Anklam soils are very shallow and shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very gravelly sandy clay loam surface layer


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about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 13 cm (5 in) of subsoil is reddish brown gravelly light clay. The lower 15 cm (6 in) of subsoil is red very gravelly heavy clay loam. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is varicolored latite rock that is weathered and fractured with clay in the fractures. Anklam soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 50 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1974.

Antho (HA1, HA5, HA7). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Antho soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have light yellowish brown sandy loam surface layers about 20 cm (8 in) thick and similar subsurface layers to more than 150 cm (60 in) that commonly contain slightly coarser or finer textured strata. They occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are usually calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Anthony series.

Some properties of the Antho soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meg/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-18 0.24 76 15 9 7 T 7.7 1.55
C 18-127 0.14 79 13 8 6 T 8.1 1.70

Anthony (TA2, TA4, TS2, TS3, TS9, TS12, TS19). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Anthony soils are deep and well drained. They have a brown sandy loam or gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick over stratified pale brown and brown fine sandy loam, sandy loam and gravelly sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Anthony soils are on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. They have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and slightly calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, in 1912.

Some properties of the Anthony soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meg/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-30 0.17 70 20 10 7 2 7.7 1.65
C 30-107 0.15 64 28 8 7 2 7.8 1.52
Btb 107-137 61 18 21 10 T 7.8 1.56

Anway (TS3). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Anway soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light yellowish brown loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is brown clay loam about 38 cm (15 in) thick. This is underlain by pale brown and light yellowish brown stratified loam, silt loam and fine sandy loam. Anway soils occur on nearly level stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate to moderately slow permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Tucson-Avra Valley area in 1965 and the name was taken from Anway Road.

Apache (MS4, MS7). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy, mixed, mesic (Lithosols). Apache soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown cobbly heavy loam surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick. The subsoil is brown cobbly light clay loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The underlying material is composed of soft to slightly hard white carbonate concretions and hard carbonate coatings on rock fragments and soil material similar to the overlying subsoil about 10 cm (4 in) thick. Hard black basalt coated with white carbonate is at a depth of 40 cm (16 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Apache soils occur on basalt mesas and lava flows with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Mansher Soil Conservation Demonstration Project in northeastern New Mexico in 1938.

Arada (TA5). Typic Calciorthids; sandy, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Arada soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have a pink fine sand surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The upper 53 cm


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(21 in) of underlying material is pink fine sand. The middle 25 cm (10 in) of underlying material is pink gravelly loamy fine sand. The lower portion of the underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is stratified pinkish white and very pale brown very gravelly sandy loam and loamy coarse sand. Arada soils occur on nearly level to moderately sloping stream terraces and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1970.

Arizo (TA5, TS2). Typic Torriorthents; sandy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Alluvial). Arizo soils are deep and excessively drained. Typically, they have light brownish gray gravelly sandy loam surface layers about 20 cm (8 in) thick overlying very gravelly and cobbly sand to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Arizo soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans that have slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and very rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and usually are calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1971.

Arp (MS6). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Brown). Arp soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark brown gravelly clay loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay about 40 cm (16 in) thick. The underlying material is light yellowish brown weathered schist about 40 cm (16 in) thick. Hard schist bedrock is at a depth of 85 cm (34 in). Depth to the hard schist is 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Arp soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 10 to 25 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow to slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1960 and the name was taken from Bill Arp Wash.

Some properties of the Arp soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meg/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.4 36 37 27 30 92 6.7 1.60
Bt 5-40 1.4 14 33 53 54 93 6.9 1.68
C 40-75 .34 24 50 26 49 97 7.3 1.73
R 75-

Atascosa (TS6, TS13). Aridic Lithic Argiustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Lithosols), Atascosa soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is dark gray very gravelly sandy clay loam about 18 cm (7 in) thick. This is underlain by white rhyolitic conglomerate at a depth of 23 cm (9 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Atascosa soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 60 percent. These soils have low available water holding capacity and moderate permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Avondale (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Avondale soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pale brown loam and very fine sandy loam. Avondale soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate to moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1969 and the name was taken from the town of Avondale.

Some properties of the Avondale soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-25 1.80
C 25-150 0.69 47 35 22

Badland (MA1, MA3, MA5). Badland consists of moderately steep to very steep, nearly barren areas of highly erodible, multicolored, clayey shales and siltstones interbedded with thin layers of harder sandstone and conglomerate. These shaly areas are dissected by numerous drainageways, leaving small remnants as ridges and


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low buttes capped by the more resistant sandstone and conglomerate rocks. The dominant slopes are 30 to 50 percent. Vertical relief is from 8 to 60 m (25 to 200 ft) or more.

Baldy (FH2, FH5). Typic Cryorthents; coarse-loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic (Regosols). Baldy soils are deep and well drained. Typically, there is a 3 cm (1 in) leaf and pine needle litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is light brownish gray cobbly fine sandy loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The underlying material to more than 107 cm (42 in) is pinkish gray, very pale brown and yellowish brown cobbly or gravelly fine sandy loams. Gravel, cobble and stone content averages less than 35 percent. Baldy soils are on hillslopes with slopes of 10 to 50 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are medium acid throughout and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in 1965 and the name was taken from Mt. Baldy.

Balon (MS6, MS9). Ustollic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Balon soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have dark grayish brown gravelly sandy clay loam surface layers about 8 cm (3 in) thick, and dark grayish brown gravelly clay loam subsoils that grade at about 38 cm (15 in) to mottled yellowish brown and pale brown gravelly sandy clay loam and gravelly sandy loam. The underlying material from 91 to more 150 cm (36 to 60 in) is light yellowish brown and very pale brown gravelly sandy loam. Balon soils are on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 30 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are medium acid to mildly alkaline and are noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1960.

Some properties of the Balon soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 1.09 57 22 21 21 93 6.5 1.54
Bt 8-58 0.54 46 28 26 35 96 6.7 1.64
BCt 58-90 0.15 57 28 15 32 96 6.7 1.60
C 90-183 0.12 56 29 15 35 97 6.8

Bandera (MS4). Torriorthentic Haploborolls; cindery (Lithosols). Bandera soils are shallow and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have dark grayish brown and brown gravelly (cindery) loam surface layers about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The underlying material is yellowish brown very gravelly (cindery) loam 8 cm (3 in) thick that grades at about 41 cm (16 in) into very dark gray loose cinders. The gravel in the profile is mainly cinders. Depth to the unweathered cinders ranges from 30 to 66 cm (12 to 26 in). Bandera soils occur on cinder cones that have slopes of 2 to 45 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the soil profile and moderately alkaline and calcareous in the cinders. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Valencia County, New Mexico, in 1957 and the name was taken from Bandera Crater.

Some properties of the Bandera soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 4.86 37 47 16 41 0 7.4
C 23-48 3.62 47 42 11 37 6 8.4
Cr 48-

Barkerville (MS6, MH2, MH4). Udorthentic Haplustolls; loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow (Lithosols). Barkerville soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a 2.5 cm (1 in) layer of undecomposed and partially decomposed leaves and twigs on the soil surface. The upper surface mineral layer is dark grayish brown cobbly sandy loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. This is underlain by yellowish brown and light gray highly weathered granite to a depth of 65 cm (26 in). Below this to a depth of 100 cm (40 in) is varicolored slightly weathered granite. Barkerville soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 10 to 60 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noneffervescent throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.


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Some properties of the Barkerville soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/l00g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 0.77 81 11 8 9 93 7.0
C 8-63 0.20 85 10 5 13 100 6.7

Bernardino (TS4, TS5, TS7, TS15). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Bernardino soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a dark brown loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick and a dark reddish brown gravelly clay loam upper subsoil and clay lower subsoil that grades at about 38 cm (15 in) to lime mottled pinkish gray gravelly sandy clay loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Bernardino soils are on rolling fan terraces with slopes that are dominantly 5 to 15 percent but may range up to 25 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are usually calcareous throughout with zones of high lime at less than 50 cm (20 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971 and the name was taken from the San Bernardino Valley.

Some properties of the Bernardino soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/l00g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 2.77 67 15 18 19 0 7.2 1.03
Bt 5-43 1.75 50 14 36 34 0 7.0 1.47
Bk 43-127 0.41 75 13 12 18 13 7.6 1.41

Bitter Spring (TA5). Typic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Bitter Spring soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a well-developed desert pavement of subangular to rounded varnished gravels on the surface. The surface layer is pink loam about 4 cm (1.5 in) thick. The subsoil is light reddish brown sandy loam and light sandy clay loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pink and light reddish brown very gravelly sandy loam. Bitter Spring soils occur on nearly level to moderately sloping fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline with alkalinity decreasing with depth and are calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1969.

Some properties of the Bitter Spring soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.43 61 28 11 3 7.9
Bt 5-55 1.50 43 33 24 7 7.9
Bk 55-90 0.29 62 29 9 23 8.2

Bonita (TS4, TS15, TS17, TS18). Typic Chromusterts; fine, montmorillonitic, thermic (Brown soil-Grumusols). Bonita soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark brown granular cobbly silty clay surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown silty clay about 74 cm (29 in) thick. The underlying material to 150 cm (60 in) is reddish brown very cobbly and gravelly clay loam. Bonita soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity. Permeability is very slow and the upper layers have high shrink-swell that causes them to crack widely and deeply when dry and swell when wet. They are moderately alkaline and are calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and erosion hazard is slight. Short pipes may develop where water follows cracks. The series was established in Graham County in 1936 and the name was taken from Bonita Canyon.

Some properties of the Bonita soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/l00g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-28 1.31 13 42 45 39 1 7.6 1.74
C 28-79 1.00 11 42 47 39 2 8.0 1.75
2 Bk 79-160 0.63 30 45 25 28 7 7.7 1.50


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Boysag (MS1, MS2, MS5, MS6). Lithic Ustollic Haplargids; clayey, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Boysag soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, these soils have reddish brown and brown fine sandy loam surface layers about 8 cm (3 in) thick. Below this is a layer of yellowish red clay about 20 cm (8 in) thick that grades to pinkish white highly fractured and weathered limy sandstone about 8 cm (3 in) thick. Below this, the bedrock is very pale brown calcareous sandstone having widely spaced fractures. Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Boysag soils occur on gently undulating hillslopes with slopes ranging from 0 to 8 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid and noncalcareous in the surface and upper subsoil and moderately alkaline and calcareous in the lower subsoil and bedrock. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1962 and the name was taken from an Indian name for an isolated point on the north rim of the Grand Canyon.

Some properties of the Boysag soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.77 73 21 6 9 1 7.7 1.39
Bt 5-23 1.96 60 16 24 16 6 8.0 1.33
Bk 23-39 3.33 51 20 29 13 36 82
R 39-

Brazito (TS2). Typic Torripsamments; mixed, thermic (Alluvial). Brazito soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown sandy clay loam surface layer about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brownish gray or light gray sand and fine sand. Brazito soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate to high. The series was established in Dona Ana County, New Mexico, in 1912.

Brios (HA1, HA7). Typic Torrifluvents; sandy, mixed, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Brios soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have a brown sandy loam surface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The upper 20 cm (8 in) of underlying material is brown coarse sand. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is brown stratified coarse sand and gravelly coarse sand with thin strata of fine sandy loam and sandy loam. Brios soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. Available water capacity is low and permeability is rapid. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1972.

Brolliar (FH1, FH2). Typic Argiborolls; fine, montmorillonitic (Reddish Chestnut). Brolliar soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin layer of decomposing pine needles on the soil surface. The surface mineral layers are brown and dark brown stony heavy loam about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and brown heavy clay loam and clay about 74 cm (29 in) thick. The bedrock from 86 to more than 150 cm (34 to 60 in) is dark gray, extremely hard, fractured basalt. Depth to the bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Brolliar soils occur on mesas with slopes ranging from 0 to 30 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity, slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. Reaction is slightly acid to neutral throughout the profile, and these soils are noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Beaver Creek area of Yavapai County in 1965.

Some properties of the Brolliar soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/l00g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 4.40 14 57 29 33 64 5.7 1.54
Bt 10-80 1.72 7 33 60 54 83 5.9 1.75
Cr 80-88 1.29 17 36 57 61 94 6.7 1.79
R 88-

Bucklebar (TS19). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Bucklebar soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown, sandy loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown sandy clay loam about 48 cm (19 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brown loam and silty clay loam with few carbonate nodules and masses on surfaces of peds. Bucklebar soils occur on gently sloping fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity


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and moderate permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline, noncalcareous in the surface layer and calcareous in the subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Dona Ana County, New Mexico, in 1971.

Bushvalley (FH2). Argic Lithic Cryoborolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed (Prairie). Bushvalley soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark brown cobbly sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. This is underlain by light brown tuff bedrock at a depth of 25 cm (10 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 18 to 50 cm (7 to 20 in). Bushvalley soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 40 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Apache County in 1971.

Some properties of the Bushvalley soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 2.14 59 27 14 31 92 6.7 1.45
Bt 10-20 1.80
R 20-

Cabezon (MS4, MS7, MH2, MH6). Lithic Argiustolls; clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic (Chestnut). Cabezon soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown extremely stony loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The subsoil is brown cobbly clay about 20 cm (8 in) thick that overlies weathered fractured basalt bedrock at about 30 cm (12 in) and relatively unweathered basalt at about 38 cm (15 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Cabezon soils are on hillslopes with dominant slopes of 2 to 15 percent and short escarpments up to 45 percent or more. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral and are noncalcareous except for small accumulations of lime on the bedrock in places. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Sandoval County, New Mexico, in 1965.

Cambern (FH2). Argic Pachic Cryoborolls; fine-loamy, mixed (Prairie). Cambern soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark gray sandy loam and loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is dark gray heavy loam and light clay loam about 45 cm (18 in) thick. White tuff and ash is at a depth of 70 cm (28 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Cambern soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 1 to 25 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to slightly acid and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Apache County in 1966 and the name was taken from an old townsite.

Some properties of the Cambern soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 3.16 56 30 14 23 88 6.3 1.36
BA 25-35 1.94 47 32 21 26 91 6.7 1.45
Bt 35-55 1.68 39 34 27 32 95 6.8 1.55
R 55-

Camborthids (TA1, MA6). The Camborthids are shallow to moderately deep and well drained. They are medium to moderately coarse in texture and formed in colluvium and residuum from limestone, sandstone and shale. They occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 30 percent and are similar to the Torriorthents except that they have weak B horizons (Cambic horizons).

Canelo (MH1). Aeric Ochraqualfs; clayey-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Canelo soils are deep and somewhat poorly drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick and a very pale brown, very gravelly sandy loam subsurface layer about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The upper subsoil is mottled pinkish white, reddish yellow, white and light gray very gravelly heavy sandy clay loam and very gravelly clay about 46 cm (18 in) thick. The lower subsoil to a depth of more than 150 cm (60 in) is light red and red very cobbly sandy clay with common pinkish gray mottles. The soils are wet and have a temporary perched water table following rainy seasons. Canelo soils occur on the tops and sides of long narrow fan terraces and have slopes


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ranging from 1 to 40 percent. They have moderate available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are slightly to extremely acid throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971 and the name was taken from the Canelo Hills.

Some properties of the Canelo soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-13 1.33 60 32 8 5 80 6.3 1.60
E 13-36 0.58 54 35 11 4 78 6.2 1.35
Btg 36-86 0.46 29 16 55 16 96 4.9 1.47
Bt 86-130 46 12 42 14 75 4.3

Caralampi (TS4, TS5, TS6, TS7, TS8, TS10). Ustollic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Reddish Chestnut). Caralampi soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a dark grayish brown very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown very gravelly sandy clay loam about 53 cm (21 in) thick. The substratum to more than 150 cm (60 in) is light reddish brown very gravelly sandy loam. Caralampi soils occupy the higher and steeper fan terraces with slopes ranging from 10 to 30 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and are usually noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Caralampi soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.58 73 11 16 16 81 5.9 1.25
Bt 5-58 1.41 61 14 25 25 98 5.9 1.42
BCt 58-107 0.31 69 18 13 22 100 6.4 1.54
C 107-142 74 17 9 26 100 6.8 1.63

Carrizo (HA1, HA7). Typic Torriorthents; sandy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Carrizo soils are deep and excessively drained. Typically, they have a brown surface layer about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The underlying material is light grayish brown very gravelly sand to more than 150 cm (60 in). Carrizo soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and very rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the El Centro area of California in 1918.

Some properties of the Carrizo soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-12 0.34 93 4 3 3 2 8.3
C 12-113 0.07 95 3 2 2 1 8.5
2Btb 113-139 0.12 77 8 15 12 T 8.0
3Cb 139-162 0.20 52 32 16 19 T 8.0

Casa Grande (HA2). Typic Natrargids; fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Solonetz). Casa Grande soils are deep and well drained. They typically have thin, reddish yellow sandy loam or loam surface layers and reddish brown sandy clay loam or clay loam subsoils about 5 cm (2 in) thick that are sodic and strongly saline and have a strong lime accumulation in the lower part. The substratum below about 50 to 76 cm (20 to 30 in) is yellowish red and brown loam and sandy loam that is sodic and calcareous to more than 150 cm (60 in). Casa Grande soils occur on generally concave ends of relict basin floors and nearly level low fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 2 percent. They have low available water due to high salt and sodium content. Permeability is slow or very slow. These soils are strongly to very strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Pinal County in 1936 and the name was taken from the town of Casa Grande.


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Some properties of the Casa Grande soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-7 0.29 69 26 5 7 T 8.8 1.70
Btk1 7-36 0.20 49 31 20 18 8 9.3 1.73
Btk2 36-92 48 31 21 12 9 8.8 1.62
Bk 92-165 57 31 12 7 11 9.3 1.73

Casto (MH1). Udic Haplustalfs; loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Casto soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown, very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 3 cm (1 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and reddish gray very gravelly heavy sandy clay loam 69 cm (27 in) thick. The underlying material is pinkish white very gravelly sandy loam to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more. Casto soils occur on the sides and tops of narrow fan terraces and steep sides of broad fan terraces with slopes ranging from 8 to 40 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid in the upper layers and become moderately alkaline and calcareous below depths of about 61 cm (24 in). Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Casto soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 2.2 72 15 13 18 0 6.2 1.15
Bt 3-56 0.97 57 16 27 35 0 5.7 1.51
C 56-152 59 26 15 38 4 7.7 1.30

Cave (TA4, TA5, TS12, TS14). Typic Paleorthids; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Calcisols). Cave soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have pale brown gravelly sandy loam surface layers and thin, pink, gravelly loam subsurface layers that overlie a white indurated lime cemented hardpan at depths ranging from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). The pan is underlain at about 76 cm (30 in) by variably cemented very gravelly sandy loam and loamy sand layers to more than 150 cm (60 in). Cave soils occur on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 15 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity. Permeability is moderately rapid above the pan and very slow through the pan. They are calcareous throughout and are moderately alkaline. Runoff is moderate and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the San Simon Valley in 1936.

Some properties of the Cave soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 1.24 71 22 7 8 1 7.6 1.50
Bw 3-18 0.78 64 27 9 8 1 7.8 1.55
Bkm 18-104 62 27 11 3 47 8.2

Cavelt (HA4, HA7). Typic Paleorthids; loamy, mixed, hyperthermic, shallow (Calcisols). Cavelt soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have light yellowish brown gravelly loam surface layers and light brown gravelly loam subsurface layers that overlie a white indurated lime cemented hardpan at depth ranging from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). The pan is underlain at about 115 cm (46 in) by variably cemented gravelly loam layers to more than 150 cm (60 in). Cavelt soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces and have slopes of 0 to 9 percent. Available water capacity is very low and permeability is moderately rapid above the pan and very slow through the pan. They are moderately alkaline and strongly calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pinal County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Cave series.

Cellar (TA1, TA3, TS6, TS10). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy-skeletal, mixed, nonacid, thermic (Lithosols). Cellar soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 3 cm (1 in) thick. The underlying material is brown very gravelly loam about 18 cm (7 in) thick. Below this at a depth of 20 cm (8 in) is white granite bedrock. Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in).


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Cellar soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 15 to 50 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate to moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Graham County in 1965.

Some properties of the Cellar soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 2.87 69 23 8 12 0 7.2
C 3-20 0.60 78 13 9 9 0 7.4
R 20-

Cherioni (HA6, HA9). Typic Durorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic, shallow (Lithosols). Cherioni soils are very shallow and shallow and well drained. Typically, they have light colored gravelly very fine sandy loam surface layers, gravelly and very gravelly fine sandy loam and very fine sandy loam subsurface layers, and an indurated duripan at depths of 13 to 30 cm (5 to 12 in) and hard bedrock at 15 to 51 cm (6 to 20 in). Cherioni soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 70 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability above the pan. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971.

Chevelon (MH3). Udic Haplustalfs; fine-silty, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Chevelon soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown silt loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown silty clay loam about 63 cm (25 in) thick. Below this at a depth of 76 cm (30 in) is interbedded reddish brown and light gray shale. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Chevelon soils occur on gently undulating to moderately steep hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 25 percent. These soils have medium available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962.

Some properties of the Chevelon soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 1.45 45 40 15 15 10 7.8
Bt 8-63 0.67 30 41 29 11 7.8

Chilson (FH3). Lithic Argiborolls; clayey, mixed (Prairie). Chilson soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark reddish-gray cobbly clay loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 15 cm (6 in) of subsoil is dark reddish gray gravelly clay. The lower 15 cm (6 in) of subsoil is reddish brown cobbly clay. Below this at a depth of 35 cm (14 in) is dark red fine grained sandstone and shale bedrock. Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Chilson soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 20 to 45 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Coconino County in 1965 and the name was taken from stock tank in the area.

Chiminea (TS6). Typic Haplargids; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Lithosols). Chiminea soils are very shallow and shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly fine sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly coarse sandy loam about 33 cm (13 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is reddish brown, pink and pinkish gray highly weathered granite (grus). Depth to weathered bedrock ranges from 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Chiminea soils occur on hillslopes and pediments with slopes of 5 to 25 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1975.

Chiricahua (TA3, TS4, TS6, TS10). Ustollic Haplargids; clayey, mixed, thermic, shallow (Reddish Brown). Chiricahua soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very cobbly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 5 cm (2 in) of subsoil is reddish brown very gravelly clay loam. The lower 30 cm (12 in) of subsoil is reddish brown gravelly clay. Below this is pink and reddish yellow strongly weathered granite or


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quartzite with clay soil material in seams and fractures about 13 cm (5 in) thick. Pink and reddish yellow hard quartzite bedrock is at a depth of 53 cm (21 in). Chiricahua soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 30 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Cochise County in 1936 and the name was taken from the Chiricahua Mountains.

Some properties of the Chiricahua soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 1.73 49 23 28 17 0 7.0 1.47
Bt 10-38 1.97 31 20 49 25 T 6.8 1.57
Btk 38-46 1.84 28 18 54 28 6 7.6 1.58
R 46-

Cibeque (MH3). Calciorthids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Calcisols). Cibeque soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark yellowish brown gravelly loam surface layer about 23 cm (9 in) thick over a yellowish brown gravelly loam upper substratum 94 cm (37 in) thick. The lower substratum is yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Cibeque soils occur on undulating to steep fan terraces with slopes of 5 to 50 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and contain more than 15 percent calcium carbonate. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Gila County in 1966 and the name was taken from an Indian community on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation.

Cipriano (HA4). Typic Durorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic, shallow (Calcisols). Cipriano soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown gravelly loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material is white, fractured, weakly cemented platy fragments and gravel with soil material between plates about 23 cm (9 in) thick. Below this is an indurated silica cemented duripan with laminar cap about 13 cm (5 in) thick. Below the duripan to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is a layer of white and light brown stratified loam and very gravelly loam. Depth to the duripan ranges from 20 to 50 cm (8 to 20 in). Cipriano soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability above the hardpan and very slow permeability through the hardpan. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Pima County on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971.

Some properties of the Cipriano soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.43 73 20 7 6 1 8.0
Bk 5-25 0.32 70 21 9 8 2 8.3
2Bkqm 25-36 77 16 7 12 8.4

Claysprings (TA1, MA1, MA2, MA5). Typic Ustorthents; fine, montmorillonitic (calcareous), mesic, shallow (Regosols). Claysprings soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown clay surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick, underlain by reddish brown and pink clay about 36 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material to more than 150 cm (60 in) is gray, highly fractured, weathered clay shale that becomes harder below about 86 cm (34 in). Claysprings soils occur on gently rolling hillslopes with slopes of 0 to 10 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate to severe. The series was established in Navajo County in 1961 and the name was taken from a village in the county.

Some properties of the Claysprings soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.70 38 22 40 37 13 7.8
C 5-23 0.68 18 18 64 14 7.9
Cr 23-150 0.34 18 20 62 14 7.7


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Clover Springs (FH1, FH2, FH3, FH4, FH8). Cumulic Haplustolls; fine-loamy, mixed, frigid (Alluvial). Clover Springs soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a very dark brown and very dark gray silt loam surface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is brown loam. Clover Springs soils occur on floodplains and low stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1965 and the name was taken from a spring.

Clovis (MA1, MA2, MS3). Ustollic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Clovis soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown fine sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The upper subsoil is brown and light brown sandy clay loam 38 cm (15 in) thick. The lower subsoil and substratum is light brown and pink, calcareous light sandy clay loam and very fine sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Clovis soils occur on nearly level to rolling fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and contain more than 15 percent calcium carbonate in the substratum. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Curry County, New Mexico, in 1956.

Some properties of the Clovis soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-15 0.7 67 21 12 11 0 7.8 1.76
Bt 15-58 0.7 59 13 28 21 0 7.5 1.68
BCk 58-135 0.3 57 19 24 15 16 8.2 1.41
C 135-155 .07 84 12 14 10 5 8.1 1.71

Cogswell (TS11). Pachic Calciustolls; fine, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Cogswell soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick and a brown clay subsurface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material is light brown heavy clay loam about 50 cm (20 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is a buried subsoil layer which is mottled strong brown, reddish yellow and white clay loam. Cogswell soils occur on alluvial fans and old playa margins with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley area in Cochise County in 1948.

Some properties of the Cogswell soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-25 1.60 36 33 31 21 4 7.8
A 25-76 0.74 30 31 39 20 20 8.1
Bk 76-132
Btkb 132-152

Comoro (TS2, TS3, TS8, TS9, TS10, TS11, MH1). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Comoro soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown sandy loam surface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is grayish brown sandy loam and gravelly sandy loam. Comoro soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. They have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1930.


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Some properties of the Comoro soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-25 1.87 61 26 13 15 4 7.7 1.46
A 25-94 0.53 57 30 13 16 4 7.7 1.41
C 95-157 78 18 4 12 T 7.8 1.56

Contine (HA3). Typic Haplargids; fine, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Contine soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The upper 33 cm (13 in) of the subsoil is reddish brown clay. The lower 55 cm (22 in) of the subsoil is light reddish brown clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light reddish brown loam. Contine soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 10 percent. They have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. The calcium carbonate content exceeds 15 percent in some pedons. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Continental series.

Some properties of the Contine soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 0.73 37 38 25 19 T 7.5 1.40
Bt 8-99 0.37 27 33 40 28 2 7.8 1.38
Bkm 99-104 0.12 13 16 71 6 51 8.5 1.60

Continental (TA3, TA4, TS3, TS12, TS14, TS16). Typic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Continental soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a reddish brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly sandy clay loam and clay about 63 cm (25 in) thick. The lower subsoil and substratum is calcareous light reddish brown gravelly and very gravelly sandy clay loam and sandy loam. Continental soils occur on the tops and sideslopes of fan terraces with slopes ranging from 2 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the surface layers and moderately alkaline in the subsoil and substratum. They are strongly calcareous below about 76 cm (30 in). Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is generally slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1931 and the name was taken from a small town south of Tucson.

Some properties of the Continental soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-15 0.70 72 18 10 6 0 6.7 1.46
Bt 15-78 0.60 53 11 36 25 0 7.4 1.48
2BCk 78-183 0.24 66 13 21 35 8 8.4 1.36

Coolidge (HA5, HA8, HA9, HA10). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Coolidge soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a light yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer 33 cm (13 in) thick underlain by yellowish brown sandy loam about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The substratum to more than 150 cm (60 in) is pale brown sandy loam containing many soft and hard lime masses. Coolidge soils occur on nearly level to gently undulating fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 5 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow or medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Pinal County in 1936 and the name was taken from the town of Coolidge.

Cordes (MS6, MS8, MS9, MH2, MH6). Cumulic Haplustolls; coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Cordes soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown sandy loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The upper 78 cm (31 in) of underlying material is brown sandy loam. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brown loamy sand. Cordes soils occur on floodplains and low alluvial fans with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid to rapid permeability. They are mildly to


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moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1971.

Cornville (TS16). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Cornville soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a brown fine sandy loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish red and reddish brown sandy clay loam about 69 cm (27 in) thick. The substratum to 76 to 150 cm (30 to 60 in) is pinkish white gravelly loam high in calcium carbonate. Cornville soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 10 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout, are noncalcareous in the upper part, and are strongly calcareous below about 76 cm (30 in). Runoff is medium to slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965 in the Beaver Creek area.

Some properties of the Cornville soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-8 2.57 51 33 16 15 8 7.9
AB 8-42 0.90 54 30 16 14 7 7.9
Bt 42-104 0.60 38 39 23 18 9 7.9
Bk 104-152 0.29 30 41 29 22 5 8.2

Courthouse (TS6). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Reddish Brown). Courthouse soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a red stony fine sandy loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The underlying material is light red gravelly fine sandy loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. Below this is red highly weathered sandstone with fine sandy loam in cracks and seams about 13 cm (5 in) thick. Red extremely hard calcareous sandstone is at a depth of 36 cm (14 in). Courthouse soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 3 to 35 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Beaver Creek area of Yavapai County in 1965.

Cristobol (HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9). Typic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Solonchak). Cristobol soils are deep and well drained. Typically, the surface is covered with 90 to 95 percent pebbles with desert varnish on top. The surface layer is pale brown extremely gravelly loam about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 20 cm (8 in) of subsoil is red and yellowish red very gravelly clay loam with few fine and medium soft lime masses. The next 38 cm (15 in) of subsoil is yellowish red extremely gravelly clay loam and very gravelly sandy clay loam with common fine and medium soft lime masses and common very fine and fine salt crystals. The lower 25 cm (10 in) of subsoil is reddish yellow very gravelly clay loam with many fine and medium soft lime masses and common very fine salt crystals. The substratum to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brown very gravelly clay loam. Cristobol soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 20 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline, strongly saline and calcareous throughout the profile. Electrical conductivity ranges from 35 to 50 mmhos in the control section. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yuma County in 1977.

Cross (MS4, MS7, MH2). Lithic Argiustolls; clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Cross soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown gravelly clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is dark grayish brown clay about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The underlying material is weakly to strongly cemented basalt gravel and cobble about 13 cm (5 in) thick with a thin 1 cm (.25 in) thick laminar cap in places. Black and very dark gray basalt is at a depth of 48 cm (19 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 20 to 50 cm (8 to 20 in). Cross soils occur on nearly level to rolling basalt hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow to slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous in the lower part of the profile above the bedrock. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1964 and the name was taken from Cross Mountain.

Crot (TS11). Aquic Natrustalfs; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Solonetz). Crot soils are deep and somewhat poorly drained. Typically, they have a light brownish gray sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is brown and mottled light gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light olive gray, olive, and pale yellow, finely stratified sand, fine sandy


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loam and silt loam. The profile is strongly to very strongly alkaline (pH 9.0 to 10.0). Crot soils occur on alkali flats bordering playas with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is very slow. In places a seasonal high water table occurs at a depth of 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft). The soils are calcareous throughout and may be saline. Runoff is very slow and water stands in numerous small playas until it evaporates. The hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Cochise County in the Willcox area in 1971.

Some properties of the Crot soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-13 0.51 73 22 5 6 T 7.8 1.73
Btkn 13-43 0.37 64 14 22 14 8 9.4 1.72
BCgn1 43-51 0.36 80 7 13 10 7 9.7 1.83
BCgn2 51-107 0.05 81 4 15 11 4 9.7 1.82

Cryorthents (FH7). Cryorthents are well drained and shallow to moderately deep. Typically, they have brown gravelly loam or clay loam surface layers and brown or reddish brown loam or clay loam subsurface layers over shale, or interbedded shale and sandstone bedrock at depths of 25 to 75 cm (10 to 30 in). These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. The Cryorthents are on the tops and sides of high plateaus and mesas dissected by deep canyons. Slopes dominantly range from 15 to 50 percent. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate to high.

Dandrea (FH1). Mollic Eutroboralfs; fine, montmorillonitic (Regosols). Dandrea soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin pine needle and oak leaf litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layers are a dark grayish brown gravelly heavy loam about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish yellow gravelly clay loam and brown gravelly clay about 56 cm (22 in) thick. The bedrock, from 74 to more than 125 cm (29 to 50 in), is brown and reddish yellow highly weathered and fractured schist. Depth to the weathered schist ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Dandrea soils occur on hillslopes having 15 to 50 percent slopes. These soils have moderate available water capacity, slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral throughout. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1971.

Deloro (TS6). Aridic Haplustalfs; clayey-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow (Lithosols). Deloro soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very shaly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown extremely shaly heavy clay loam about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The underlying material is variegated red, reddish yellow and weak red highly fractured and weathered phyllite with reddish brown clay loam in fractures. Deloro soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 50 percent. The soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow to slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pinal County in 1977.

Disterheff (MH3). Aridic Paleustalfs; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Disterheff soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown cobbly light sandy clay loam surface layers about 8 cm (3 in) thick and reddish brown calcareous clay loam and clay subsoils about 50 cm (20 in) thick. The underlying material is calcareous pink, cobbly clay loam to 150 cm (60 in). Disterheff soils occur on fan terraces and toeslopes of mesas and plateaus with slopes ranging from 0 to 45 percent. These soils have high available water capacity, slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and are strongly calcareous in the lower subsoil and substratum. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1964.

Some properties of the Disterheff soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 4.59 64 27 9 20 0 6.8
BAt 8-18 1.39 54 26 20 0 6.3
Bt 18-65 0.97 33 17 50 0 6.1
Bk 65-143 0.36 41 25 34 10 7.4


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Dona Ana (TS9, TS12, TS13, TS14). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Dona Ana soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown fine sandy loam or sandy loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown calcareous sandy clay loam about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pinkish white and light reddish brown light sandy clay loam with many carbonate nodules and cylindroids. Depth to the calcic horizon ranges from 30 to 75 cm (12 to 30 in). Dona Ana soils occur on nearly level to gently undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Dona Ana County, New Mexico, in 1942 and the name was taken from the county in which it was established.

Some properties of the Dona Ana soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-4 0.61 65 25 10 8 4 7.6 1.49
Bt 4-46 0.61 57 27 16 9 9 7.7 1.42
Bk 46-69 46 33 21 11 18 7.6 1.40
Btkb 69-100 51 31 18 9 16 7.8 1.48
2Bkb 100-152 59 26 15 8 12 8.5 1.54

Dry Lake (TS11). Typic Calciorthids; sandy over loamy, mixed, thermic (Alluvial). Dry Lake soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown loamy fine sand surface layer about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The upper 70 cm (28 in) of underlying material is light brown loamy fine sand. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is white heavy silt loam. Dry Lake soils occur on nearly level floodplains and alluvial fans adjacent to old playas with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have medium available water capacity and rapid permeability in the upper part but moderately slow permeability in the lower part of the profile. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and noncalcareous in the surface layer and calcareous in the lower underlying material. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1964.

Some properties of the Dry Lake soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-23 0.85 89 6 5 6 1 7.6 1.48
A 23-61 0.68 86 7 7 6 2 7.7 1.64
Bk 61-150 0.46 47 26 27 6 6 7.8 1.44

Duncan (TS11). Typic Nadurargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Solonetz). Duncan soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light gray loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is brown, light brown and pinkish gray clay about 75 cm (30 in) thick over a very pale brown indurated duripan about 13 cm (5 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is a buried layer of mottled reddish brown gravelly clay loam. Depth to the duripan ranges between 50 and 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Duncan soils occur on level to nearly level alkali flats bordering playas with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are strongly to very strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile with filaments and segregations of calcium carbonate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise County, in 1942 and the name was taken from the town of Duncan.

Some properties of the Duncan soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-13 0.81 49 42 9 10 T 8.2 1.69
Bt 13-28 0.95 23 36 41 33 12 8.4 1.59
Btn 28-79 0.53 22 33 45 36 18 9.6 1.59
Bk 79-89 16 33 51 32 44 9.9
Bqknm 89-100 71 16 13 11 80 9.9 2.20
Btkb 100-115 27 31 42 31 28 9.0
Btb 115-150 31 28 41 34 1 8.7 1.52


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Dye (MS1, MH4). Lithic Udic Haplustalfs; clayey, mixed, mesic (Lithosols). Dye soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown fine sandy loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The upper 15 cm (6 in) of the subsoil is reddish brown sandy clay loam. The lower 23 cm (9 in) of the subsoil is yellowish red clay. Below this at a depth of 48 cm (19 in) is pale brown to light brown sandstone. Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Dye soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 30 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1967 and the name was taken from a prominent old ranch.

Eba (TS3, TS12). Typic Haplargids; clayey-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Eba soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown very gravelly loam and clay loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The subsoil is dark red and red very gravelly clay about 58 cm (23 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 125 cm (50 in) is pink very gravelly light clay loam. Eba soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 20 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous in the upper part of the profile. The zone of calcium carbonate accumulation is in the lower subsoil and underlying material and contains more than 15 percent CaCO3. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Ebon (HA3). Typic Haplargids; clayey-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Ebon soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper part of the subsoil is reddish brown very cobbly clay loam about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The lower part of the subsoil is yellowish red and reddish brown very cobbly clay about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The substratum to a depth of 130 cm (52 in) is light reddish brown very cobbly sandy clay loam. Ebon soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 20 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous in the lower subsoil and substratum. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971.

Elfrida (TS11, TS13). Pachic Calciustolls; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Elfrida soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown silty clay loam surface layer about 55 cm (22 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 125 cm (50 in) is pinkish gray and pinkish white clay loam. Elfrida soils occur on nearly level alluvial fans and margins of old lakes with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Depth to the calcic horizon ranges from 40 to 100 cm (16 to 40 in). Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Sulpher Springs Valley, Cochise County, in 1942 and the name was taken from the town of Elfrida.

Some properties of the Elfrida soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-56 1.34 16 54 30 22 6 7.5 1.50
Bk 56-125 0.61 33 40 27 13 32 7.8 1.49

Elledge (MH3, MH5). Typic Hapludalfs; fine, mixed mesic (Planosols). Elledge soils are moderately deep and moderately well to well drained. Typically, they have a thin pine-oak litter on the surface. The surface mineral layer is grayish brown cobbly sandy loam about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sandy loam 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and brownish yellow cobbly clay about 58 cm (23 in) thick. Bedrock at about 76 cm (30 in) is light yellowish brown sandstone with widely spaced fractures. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Elledge soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 2 to 20 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral throughout. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962 in the Holbrook-Showlow area.

Some properties of the Elledge soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm33
A 0-3 5.27 76 16 8 17 74 6.3
E 3-8 1.92 69 22 9 13 64 5.5
Bt 8-53 1.26 28 18 54 44 88 5.7
R 53-


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Ess (FH2). Argic Cryoborolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed (Brown Forest). Ess soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin pine needle and oak leaf litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is dark brown cobbly loam and silt loam about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The subsoil is brown very cobbly heavy silt loam and light clay loam to a depth of more than 150 cm (60 in). Ess soils are on gently rolling to moderately steep hillslopes with slopes ranging from 2 to 20 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate or moderately slow permeability. Reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline throughout the profile. Runoff is slow or medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Paunsaugunt area in Utah in 1969.

Estrella (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial).Estrella soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam surface layer 28 cm (11 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 60 cm (24 in) is light brown loam. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is a buried subsoil which is brown and yellowish red clay loam and gravelly clay loam. Depth to the buried argillic horizon ranges from 50 to 90 cm (20 to 36 in). Estrella soils occur on broad alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability in the upper 60 cm (24 in) and moderately slow permeability in the lower 90 cm (36 in). They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1969.

Eutroboralfs (FH6, FH7). Eutroboralfs are deep or moderately deep to very gravelly volcanic conglomerate materials. Typically, they have a 2.5 cm (1 in) pine needle and leaf litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layers are grayish brown and light brownish gray gravelly loam about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is brown and reddish brown gravelly clay about 50 cm (20 in) thick. The substratum is brown and reddish brown very gravelly clay loam or loam. Eutroboralfs occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 10 to 60 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to medium acid throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate.

Faraway (MS6, MH2, MH6). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Lithosols). Faraway soils are shallow or very shallow and well drained. Typically, the soil profile is a grayish brown very cobbly loam about 20 cm (8 in) thick over light gray rhyolite bedrock having widely spaced fractures. Faraway soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 10 to 80 percent. They have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability above the bedrock. They are medium acid to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in 1971 in Santa Cruz County.

Some properties of the Faraway soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-20 1.29 67 25 8 10 70 5.3 1.40
C 20-33 0.68 69 21 10 11 77 5.1 1.84
R 33-

Forrest (TS3, TS14). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Forrest soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and red clay about 63 cm (25 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is reddish yellow and light brown clay loam and loam. Forrest soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and calcareous in the lower subsoil and underlying material. Depth to the calcic horizon ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise County, in 1948.

Some properties of the Forrest soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 1.10 49 34 17 11 6.3 1.71
Bt 10-79 0.80 35 19 46 25 1 7.3 1.81
Ck 79-180 0.46 50 31 19 9 35 7.9 1.88


[page 180]

Fruitland (MA1, MA3, MA6). Typic Torriorthents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Alluvial). Fruitland soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have pale brown sandy loam surface layers about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The underlying material to more than 150 cm (60 in) is pale brown and light yellowish brown sandy loam. Fruitland soils occur on plateaus and young fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow. The hazard of water erosion is slight and the hazard of wind erosion is moderate. The series was established in San Juan County, New Mexico, in 1965.

Some properties of the Fruitland soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 1.09 47 33 18 32 4 7.4 1.35
C 23-75 0.44 51 32 17 43 3 7.7 1.28
Ab 75-98 1.17 62 23 15 23 4 7.7 1.41
Cb 98-163 0.22 60 26 14 23 5 8.1 1.40

Gachado (HA6). Lithic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Lithosols). Gachado soils are very shallow and shallow and well drained. Typically, they have brown very cobbly loam surface layers; yellowish red gravelly sandy clay loam and heavy clay loam subsoils, and dark gray igneous bedrock at 23 to 50 cm (9 to 20 in). Gachado soils are on low hills and toeslopes of hills and mountains with slopes of 0 to 40 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout and are calcareous in the lower subsoil. Surface runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971.

Some properties of the Gachado soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.36 54 31 15 18 T 7.6 1.30
Bt 5-21 0.34 40 26 34 32 T 7.6 1.42
BCtk 21-33 0.41 44 22 34 28 2 8.3 1.39
R 33-

Gaddes (MS6, MH2). Ustollic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Regosols). Gaddes soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly sandy clay loam and clay loam about 55 cm (22 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 135 cm (54 in) is reddish brown highly weathered granite (grus). Gaddes soils occur on undulating to steep granite hillslopes with slopes of 3 to 35 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are slightly acid to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Gaddes soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.48 67 25 8 10 100 6.8
Bt 5-60 0.61 46 22 32 45 96 6.8 1.58
Cr 60- 0.19 73 16 11 20 89 7.4 1.70

Gadsden (HA1). Vertic Haplustolls; fine, montmorillonitic, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Gadsden soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay surface layer about 73 cm (29 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is brown clay and clay loam. Gadsden soils occur on level to slightly concave low stream terraces and floodplains with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Yuma Valley area in 1957.


[page 181]

Gila (TA2, TA4, TS2, TS12). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Gila soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 165 cm (66 in) is brown loam, silt loam and gravelly sandy loam. Gila soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping floodplains and low alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Salt River Valley in 1900 and the name was taken from Gila County.

Gilman (HA1, HA2, HA5, HA7). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Gilman soils are deep and well drained. They typically have pale brown loam and very fine sandy loam surface layers about 33 cm (13 in) thick, and pale brown, stratified loam, very fine sandy loam, loam or silt loam subsurface layers to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Gilman soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping floodplains and low alluvial fans with slopes ranging from 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity, moderate permeability and low shrink-swell potential. Reaction is moderately alkaline and they are moderately calcareous throughout. Some areas are saline. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established on the Gila River Project in 1936.

Some properties of the Gilman soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-38 0.36 68 22 10 17 1 7.8 1.70
C 38-99 50 37 13 17 3 8.1 1.48

Glenbar (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Glenbar soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown clay loam surface layer about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brown and pale brown clay loam and silty clay loam. Glenbar soils occur on floodplains and low stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow to slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established on the Gila River Project in 1937.

Glendale (TA2, TS2, TS9, TS13). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Glendale soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brownish gray loam surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 105 cm (42 in) is grayish brown clay loam and silty clay loam. Glendale soils occur on floodplains and low stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1946.

Gordo (FH1, FH8). Argic Pachic Cryoborolls; fine-loamy, mixed (Brown Forest). Gordo soils are moderately deep and deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin litter of pine needles and aspen leaves on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is dark brown silt loam about 50 cm (20 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly heavy loam about 50 cm (20 in) thick. This is underlain to more than 150 cm (60 in) by reddish brown highly weathered basalt gravel, cobble and cinders. Depth to weathered parent material ranges from about 66 to 130 cm (26 to 52 in). Gordo soils are on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 25 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. These soils are medium acid to neutral and noncalcareous. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Apache County in 1965.

Gothard (TS11, TS13). Typic Natrargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Solonetz). Gothard soils are deep and moderately well drained. Typically, they have a light brownish gray and light gray fine sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is grayish brown, pale brown and pink clay loam and loam about 94 cm (37 in) thick. The underlying material is light gray and olive brown, stratified, sandy loam, loamy sand and sandy clay loam to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more. Gothard soils occur on low fan terraces bordering playas with slopes ranging from 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity but water is restricted to plants by high sodium content. Permeability is very slow. The soils are strongly to very strongly alkaline (pH 9.0 to 10.0) and may be saline. They are usually calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise County, in 1942.


[page 182]

Some properties of the Gothard soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-13 0.56 61 30 9 9.0 2 9.0 1.63
Bt 13-28 0.65 42 29 29 20.8 6 9.0 1.56
Bk 28-61 0.22 39 37 24 20.3 15 9.9 1.72
2Btkb 61-107 0.12 42 30 28 13.0 24 10.0 1.93
2Ckb 107-130 0.05 70 14 16 14.7 2 9.9 1.74

Grabe (TS2, TS3, TS13, TS14, TS17, MH1). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Grabe soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have grayish brown loam surface layers about 40 cm (16 in) thick over grayish brown stratified loam and very fine sandy loam substrata to more than 150 cm (60 in). Grabe soils occur on broad floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and contain small amounts of lime throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Grabe soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-100 0.97 43 40 17 19 3 7.6 1.48
C 100-150 0.26 73 19 8 8 3 7.8 1.63

Graham (TS6, TS15, TS17, TS18). Lithic Arguistolls; clayey, montmorillonitic, thermic (Reddish Chestnut). Graham soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown cobbly clay loam surface layer about 2.5 cm (1 in) thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown gravelly clay loam and clay about 33 cm (13 in) thick. This is underlain by basalt bedrock that has a few fractures. Graham soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 50 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and may be slightly calcareous in the lower part. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Graham County in 1936 and the name was taken from the county.

Some properties of the Graham soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 4.10 27 39 34 0 6.4
Bt 3-35 2.33 19 31 50 2 7.5
R 35-

Guest (TS2, TS3, TS4, TS11, TS14, TS15, TS17, TS18). Vertic Torrifluvents; fine, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Guest soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown and grayish brown clay surface and subsurface layers from 0 to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Guest soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965.

Some properties of the Guest soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-20 1.09 26 34 40 28 1 7.8 1.67
A 20-100 0.61 21 35 44 27 2 7.8 1.83
AC 100-120 0.39 23 33 44 26 5 7.7 1.75
Btkb 120-150 38 20 42 24 19 7.6 1.79


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Gunsight (HA4, HA6, HA9). Typic Calciorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Gunsight soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown very gravelly loam or sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is pink very gravelly loam about 20 cm (8 in) thick. The underlying material is white and pinkish gray very gravelly loam or sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Gunsight soils occur on old fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 15 percent. These soils have low available water capacity, moderately rapid permeability and are moderately alkaline and strongly calcareous throughout. The profile generally contains more than 50 percent gravel and cobble and the substratum may be intermittently cemented by calcium carbonate. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971.

Some properties of the Gunsight soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.26 57 36 7 12 3 8.5 1.02
Bw 5-25 0.27 56 37 7 11 12 8.5 1.03
Ck 25-140 49 37 14 11 27 8.1 1.18

Hantz (TS13). Typic Torrifluvents; fine, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Hantz soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brownish gray silty clay surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brownish gray silty clay. Hantz soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 4 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965.

Harqua (HA2, HA4, HA9, HA10). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Solonchak). Harqua soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a desert pavement of varnished gravel on the surface. The surface layer is light brown gravelly loam about 2.5 cm (1 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish red gravelly clay loam about 34 cm (15 in) thick that is strongly saline. The underlying material to more than 150 cm (60 in) is pink, gravelly sandy loam, loam or clay loam. Harqua soils occur on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 5 percent. The soils have low available water capacity restricted by salt and slow permeability. The soils are moderately to strongly alkaline and have zones of high lime content at 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in 1971.

Some properties of the Harqua soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-8 0.10 39 44 17 22 6 9.7 1.55
Btn 8-30 0.19 41 32 27 21 2 8.4 1.58
2Btk 30-71 59 23 18 9 6 8.3 1.54
3Bk 71-114 46 37 17 10 12 8.7 1.23

Harrisburg (TA2). Typic Paleorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Harrisburg soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a yellowish red light fine sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 90 cm (36 in) is yellowish red fine sandy loam. Below this to a depth of 110 cm (44 in) is an indurated carbonate hardpan. Harrisburg soils occur on mesas with slopes of 1 to 10 percent. Available water capacity is low and permeability is moderately rapid to the hardpan. These soils are mildly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Virgin River Valley in southwestern Utah in 1936.

Hathaway (TS4, TS5, TS7, TS8, TS14). Aridic Calciustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Hathaway soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick underlain by pale brown and pinkish gray, calcareous, very gravelly sandy loam and loamy sand to more than 150 cm (60 in). Hathaway soils occur on long, narrow fan terraces with slopes ranging from 10 to 60 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout with zones of high lime below 18 to 40 cm (7 to 16 in). They have medium runoff and the hazard of erosion is medium. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.


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Some properties of the Hathaway soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 2.51 62 19 19 19 10 7.9 1.16
Bk 25-99 1.10 64 22 14 15 19 8.0 1.40
2Bk 99-117 61 27 12 17 13 8.2 1.72

Hogg (FH1, FH3). Mollic Eutroboralfs; fine, mixed, mesic (Western Brown Forest). Hogg soils are moderately deep and deep and well drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of grayish brown fine sandy loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is brown and reddish brown clay and stony clay about 123 cm (49 in) thick over white limestone bedrock. Depth to the limestone bedrock ranges from about 100 to 150 cm (40 to 60 in). Hogg soils occur on gently undulating plateaus and mesas with slopes ranging from 2 to 10 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. Reaction is mildly to moderately alkaline. Runoff is slow to medium and hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in the Beaver Creek area in 1965.

Some properties of the Hogg soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 3.91 39 33 28 29 0 6.4 1.70
Bt 10-75 1.28 31 15 54 41 13.0 6.9 1.76

Holtville (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; clayey over loamy, montmorillonitic (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Holtville soils are deep and well drained under natural condition, but perched water tables are common where the soil is irrigated. Typically, they have a light brown silty clay surface layer about 43 cm (17 in) thick. The upper 18 cm (7 in) of underlying material is light brown silty clay. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is very pale brown stratified silt loam and loamy very fine sand. Holtville soils occur on floodplains and lakebeds with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Imperial County, California, in 1918.

House Mountain (TA3, TS6, TS18). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy, mixed, nonacid, thermic (Lithosols). House Mountain soils are shallow and well drained. They typically have a brown cobbly and stony loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick and brown cobbly and stony light clay loam subsoils about 25 cm (10 in) thick. Dark gray fractured basalt bedrock occurs below about 30 cm (12 in). House Mountain soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 2 to 50 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and are usually noncalcareous. Depth to bedrock is 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to medium. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965.

Hubert (MS3). Typic Calciustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Brown). Hubert soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam and gravelly loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is light brownish gray gravelly heavy loam about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The upper 83 cm (33 in) of underlying material is white gravelly loam. The lower portion of the underlying material to a depth of 263 cm (105 in) is pinkish white very gravelly clay loam. Hubert soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 9 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Percent of calcium carbonate in the underlying material (Ck horizons) range from 15 to 40 percent. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Apache County in 1962 and the name was taken from an old homestead.

Indio (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-silty, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Indio soils are deep and well to moderately well drained. Typically, they have a light brownish gray very fine sandy loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brownish gray stratified very fine sandy loam and silt loam. Indio soils occur on lake beds, alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Riverside County, California, in 1923 and the name was taken from the town of Indio.


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Ives (MA2, MA4, MA5, MA6, MS3). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Alluvial). Ives soils are deep and well drained. They typically have brown fine sandy loam surface layers about 20 cm (8 in) thick over brown fine sandy loam thinly stratified with loamy fine sand, loam and silt loam to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Ives soils occur on floodplains and low alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in the Winslow area, Coconino County, in 1921.

Some properties of the Ives soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-150 0.03 84 10 6 27 2 8.1

Jacks (MS1, MS5, MS6, MH4, MH5). Udic Haplustalfs; fine, mixed, mesic (Brown). Jacks soils are moderately deep to deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin layer of pine needles over a reddish brown fine sandy loam surface layer 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish red clay and stony clay 98 cm (39 in) thick over massive calcareous sandstone bedrock. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 125 cm (20 to 50 in). Jacks soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 0 to 45 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and are usually noncalcareous above the bedrock. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1965 in the Beaver Creek area.

Jacques (MS7, MH3, MH4). Cumulic Haplustolls; fine, mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Jacques soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown clay loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is dark brown and dark yellowish brown clay. Jacques soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962.

Some properties of the Jacques soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 1.11 36 30 34 32 1 7.4
C 25-110 0.95 38 23 39 2 7.5

Jocity (MA1, MA2, MA4, MA5, MS3, MH5). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Alluvial). Jocity soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish gray sandy clay loam surface layer about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The underlying material is reddish gray sandy clay loam about 80 cm (32 in) thick over gray fine sandy loam that extends to 150 cm (60 in). Jocity soils occur on nearly level to undulating alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Navajo County in 1961 and the name is a coined word taken from Joseph City.

Some properties of the Jocity soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 0.26 58 16 26 32 3 8.1 1.46
C 23-148 0.26 49 21 30 35 3 7.9 1.56

Karro (TS11, TS13). Ustollic Calciorthids; fine-loamy, carbonatic, thermic (Calcisols). Karro soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have light brownish gray and pale brown loam surface layers about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The underlying material is pale brown and light gray calcareous loam and clay loam to 150 cm (60 in) or more and contains more than 40 percent calcium carbonate in the form of soft masses and hard nodules. Karro


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soils occur on nearly level fan terraces at the margins of lakebeds with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately to very strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Cochise County in 1921 in the San Simon area.

Some properties of the Karro soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-30 1.26 50 38 12 13 6 7.9 1.34
Bk 30-188 .26 37 46 17 9 52 8.1 1.42

Kimbrough (TS14). Petrocalcic Calciustolls; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Lithosols). Kimbrough soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown gravelly loam surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 90 cm (36 in) is an indurated lime cemented hardpan. Depth to the hardpan ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Kimbrough soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. The soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in Lea County, New Mexico, in 1936.

Some properties of the Kimbrough soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-28 2.89 48 35 17 16 16 7.9 1.40
Bkm 28-38 0.65 6 60 8.1
2C 38-53 1.33 52 32 16 13 26 8.0
3Bk 53-103 0.10 5 27 8.4
4C 103-113 0.05 86 10 4 10 1 8.8

Kofa (HA1). Vertic Torrifluvents; clayey over sandy or sandy-skeletal, montmorillonitic (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Kofa soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown clay surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The upper 40 cm (16 in) of the underlying material is pale brown clay. The lower portion of the underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is very pale brown sand. Thickness of the clayey layer over the sand ranges from 55 to 90 cm (22 to 36 in). When dry these soils have cracks 1 cm (0.4 in) or more wide at a depth of 50 cm (20 in). Kofa soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Yuma-Wellton area, Yuma County, in 1977 and the name was taken from the Kofa Mountains.

Krentz (TS15). Entic Haplustolls, cindery, thermic (Reddish Brown). Krentz soils are shallow and very shallow and well to somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown gravelly loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The upper 10 cm (4 in) of underlying material is dark grayish brown cindery loam. The lower portion of the underlying material is unconsolidated cinder and ash about 15 cm (6 in) thick. Depth to the layer of cinders ranges from 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Krentz soils occur on sideslopes of cinder cones with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are slightly to moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley area, Cochise County, in 1959 and the name was taken from a crater.

Lagunita (HA1, HA7). Typic Torripsamments; mixed, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Lagunita soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically they have a pale brown loamy sand surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pale brown loamy sand. Very fine black sandy biotite flakes are present in thin strata throughout the profile. Lagunita soils occur on floodplains and drainageways with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. This soil is subject to wind erosion. The series was established in Yuma County in 1978.


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Lampshire (TA3, TS6, TS18). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Lithosols). Lampshire soils are very shallow and shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown very cobbly loam profile about 20 cm (8 in) deep over pinkish gray, widely fractured dacite bedrock. Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Lampshire soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 50 to 90 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and are noncalcareous throughout the profile. The hazard of erosion is slight and runoff is medium to rapid. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Lampshire soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 2.23 56 29 15 18 2 7.2 1.11
R 25-

La Palma (HA2). Typic Durargids; fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Solonetz). La Palma soils are moderately deep and well drained. They typically have a light brown very fine sandy loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick over a yellowish red and brown light clay loam subsoil about 33 cm (13 in) thick. Below this is light brown loam containing many durinodes. This grades at about 68 cm (27 in) into an indurated silica and lime cemented duripan many centimeters thick. La Palma soils occur on stream terraces and fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 3 percent. These soils have low available water capacity restricted by alkali and depth and have slow permeability. They are very strongly alkaline (sodic) and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pinal County in 1936.

Some properties of the La Palma soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-12 0.26 65 30 5 7 1 8.8 1.32
Btkn 12-31 0.27 62 20 18 10 10 9.0 1.80
Bctk 31-51 0.14 58 24 18 18 9 8.5 1.69
Bkqm 51- 8 61 9.0 2.23

Latene (TA4, TS9, TS11, TS14, TS16). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Latene soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a light brown loam surface layer, about 46 cm (18 in) thick underlain by pink gravelly loam or sandy loam to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Latene soils occur on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 8 percent. Available water capacity is high and permeability is moderate. These soils are moderately alkaline and strongly calcareous throughout. The gravel in the lower layer consists mostly of lime concretions. Surface runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Valencia County, New Mexico, in 1971.

Laveen (HA2, HA3, HA4, HA5, HA7). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Laveen soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown loam surface layer about 33 cm (13 in) thick underlain by light brown loam with common soft lime masses about 48 cm (19 in) thick. The underlying material from 80 to more than 150 cm (32 to 60 in) is light brown and pink loam with many soft and hard lime nodules. Laveen soils occur on stream terraces and low fan terraces with slopes ranging from 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Salt River Valley near Phoenix in 1926 and the name was taken from the town of Laveen.

Some properties of the Laveen soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-20 0.39 54 34 12 10 5 8.2 1.48
Bw 20-38 0.29 50 36 14 10 7 8.0 1.40
Bk 38-168 0.15 47 36 17 8 20 8.3 1.52


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Lehmans (TA3, TS6). Lithic Haplargids; clayey, montmorillonitic, thermic (Lithosols). Lehmans soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly clay loam surface layer about 2.5 cm (1 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown and brown gravelly clay and clay about 33 cm (13 in) thick. Pale red, reddish gray and red fractured extremely hard andesite is at a depth of 36 cm (14 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Lehmans soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 60 percent. They have low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965.

Some properties of the Lehmans soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-4 0.92 67 22 11 9 6.9 1.29
Bt 4-13 1.45 41 14 45 21 6.4 1.18
R 13-

Ligurta (HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy mixed, hyperthermic (Solanchak). Ligurta soils are deep and well drained. Typically, the surface is covered with pebbles coated with desert varnish. The surface layer is very pale brown extremely gravelly loam about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 33 cm (13 in) of the subsoil is reddish yellow and yellowish red gravelly clay loam. The lower portion of the subsoil to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light reddish brown gravelly clay loam, clay loam and loam. Common very fine and fine salt crystals are present in the subsoil. Electrical conductivity of the saturation extract ranges from 25 to more than 100 mmhos. Ligurta soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 6 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alklaine and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Yuma-Wellton area, Yuma County, in 1977.

Some properties of the Ligurta soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.09 32 49 19 15 13 9.0 1.56
Btkz 5-53 0.14 54 28 18 8 11 7.9 1.51
BCtkz 53-94 0.12 72 17 11 7 9 7.7 1.46

Limpia (TS18). Pachic Argiustolls; clayey-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Reddish Chestnut). Limpia soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark reddish gray very cobbly loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The subsoil to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is reddish brown very cobbly clay. Limpia soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 50 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Jeff Davis County, Texas, in 1971.

Lithic Cryoborolls (FH4). Lithic Cryoborolls are shallow soils over limestone or calcareous sandstone bedrock. Typically, they are dark colored and have gravelly medium textured surface layers and cobbly or very cobbly, loamy subsurface layers with bedrock at 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). These soils are intermingled with rock outcrop on the breaks and steep sideslopes of the dissecting canyons and drainageways. Slopes range from 5 to 50 percent. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate.

Lithic Haplargids (HA6, TA3, MS6). Lithic Haplargids commonly have brown or reddish brown, gravelly or cobbly loam or clay loam surface layers and reddish brown gravelly or cobbly clay loam or clay subsoils over bedrock at depths ranging from about 20 to 50 cm (8 to 20 in). Reaction ranges from slightly acid to neutral on the surface and neutral to moderately alkaline in the subsoil. Representative soils in this subgroup and closely related subgroups are the Arp, Boysag, Chiricahua, Gaddes, Lehmans and Luzena soils. The Lithic Haplargids are usually on the foot slopes and saddles having slopes of 5 to about 45 percent. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate.

Lithic Torriorthents (TA3, TS6, MS6). Lithic Torriorthents range in color from pale brown to dark brown and light reddish brown to dark reddish brown. Textures of the profiles range from very gravelly to extremely stony


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sandy loam or loam. Depth to bedrock is usually 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline and from noncalcareous on igneous rocks to strongly calcareous on limestone and other sedimentary rocks. Representative soils in this subgroup are the Cellar, House Mountain, Moano and Moenkopie soils. Also included are the darker Faraway and Tortugas soils (Lithic Haplustolls) and the Barkerville and Mokiak soils on decomposing granite (Typic Ustorthents and Aridic Arguistolls). The Lithic Torriorthents and associated soils are on the steeper hillslopes and mountainslopes with slopes dominantly 15 to more than 60 percent. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate.

Lomitas (HA6, HA9). Lithic Camborthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Lithosols). Lomitas soils are shallow and well drained. They typically have a surface cover of 50 to 75 percent gravel, cobbles and stones, and have very stony or very cobbly loam surface layers, and very gravelly loam subsoils with bedrock at 30 to 50 cm (12 to 20 in). They occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 40 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Pima County, in 1971.

Some properties of the Lomitas soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 0.65 53 38 9 11 1 8.2 1.33
Bw 5-25 0.53 48 40 12 12 5 8.2 1.45
Bk 25-33 0.68 49 37 14 8 31 8.3 1.65
R 33-

Lonti (MS6, MS9, MS10). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Lonti soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a grayish brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is dark brown gravelly sandy clay loam 8 cm (3 in) thick and reddish brown gravelly light clay and clay loam 100 cm (40 in) thick. The underlying material from a depth of about 114 to more than 150 cm (45 to 60 in) is pink and light reddish brown, calcareous, gravelly sandy clay loam. Lonti soils occur on nearly level to rolling tops of fan terraces and the steep sideslopes of fan terraces with slopes ranging from 1 to 45 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral in the upper layers and moderately alkaline and calcareous below depths ranging from 45 to 120 cm (18 to 48 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to medium. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1971.

Some properties of the Lonti soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 2.80 59 23 18 16 91 6.9 1.56
Bt 5-103 0.48 52 13 35 28 93 7.0 1.48
C 103-158 0.05 64 17 19 24 100 8.2 1.55
Ck 158-185 0.05 65 15 20 21 100 8.1 1.61

Luth (FH1, FH2, FH3, FH4, FH8). Typic Haplustolls; fine, mixed, frigid (Alluvial). Luth soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark brown silt loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The underlying material to depths of 178 cm (71 in) or more is brown and dark brown clay loam or clay. Luth soils occur on floodplains and low stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow to slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Coconino County in 1965 and the name was taken from a stock pond.

Luzena (MS6, MH2). Lithic Argiustolls; clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Luzena soils are shallow and well drained. They typically have a brown or grayish brown cobbly loam or clay loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick and reddish brown clay or gravelly clay subsoils over hard bedrock at 18 to 50 cm (7 to 20 in). Luzena soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 60 percent. These soils have low or very low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral in reaction and are non-calcareous


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throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Cochise County in 1936.

Some properties of the Luzena soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 2.62 60 23 17 14 0 5.9 1.25
Bt 8-43 1.79 23 15 62 37 1 7.2 1.63
R 43-

Lynx (MS1, MS2, MS5, MS6, MS7, MS8, MS9, MS10, MH2, MH3, MH4, MH5, MH6). Cumulic Haplustolls; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Lynx soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. Below this, and extending to a depth of more than 150 cm (60 in), is brown and dark grayish brown light clay loam that may be thinly stratified with gravelly sandy loam in the lower part. Lynx soils occur on floodplains and low alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout and may be slightly calcareous in the lower part of the profile. Runoff is slow. Erosion hazard is generally slight, but some areas adjacent to entrenched drainageways are gullied. Some areas are subject to rare or frequent flooding in wet seasons. The series was established in the Beaver Creek area, Yavapai County, in 1965.

Some properties of the Lynx soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-150 2.55 16 68 16 7 8.2

Mabray (TS6). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, thermic (Lithosols). Mabray soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have dark grayish brown very gravelly or very cobbly loam profiles overlying extremely hard, widely fractured, limestone bedrock at about 30 cm (12 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). Mabray soils occur on steep hillslopes of limestone or marble with slopes ranging from 15 to 70 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and contain more than 40 percent calcium carbonate. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Mabray soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 2.82 48 34 18 21 7 7.6 1.25
Bk 23-33 1.87 47 31 22 32 67 7.6 1.35
R 33-

Maripo (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Maripo soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown sandy loam surface layer about 33 cm (13 in) thick. The upper 53 cm (21 in) of the underlying material is pale brown sandy loam. The lower portion to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is brown gravelly sand. Depth to the gravelly sand or sand horizons ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Maripo soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are neutral to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1972.

Martinez (MH1). Udic Haplustalfs; very fine, kaolinitic, mesic (Reddish Brown). Martinez soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown gravelly loam and clay loam surface layers about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The subsoil is dark brown and yellowish brown heavy clay 73 cm (29 in) thick. The substratum from 88 to more than 150 cm (35 to 60 in) is mottled yellowish brown and red gravelly sandy clay. Martinez soils occur on high old fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and very slow permeability.


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They are strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the upper layers and become moderately alkaline and may be slightly calcareous in the lower layers. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Some properties of the Martinez soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-15 1.84 44 30 26 12 62 5.4 1.5
Bt 15-89 0.94 19 8 71 27 98 7.7 1.58
BCt 89-117 49 12 39 21 100 8.1 1.55

McAllister (TS3, TS13). Ustollic Haplargids; fine-loamy mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). McAllister soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The subsoil is brown and light brown clay loam about 88 cm (35 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 180 cm (72 in) is light brown fine sandy loam. McAllister soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Depth to calcic horizon (with more than 15 percent CaCO3) ranges from 50 to 90 cm (20 to 36 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley area, Cochise County, in 1948.

McVickers (FH3). Typic Cryoboralfs; fine, montmorillonitic (Gray Wooded). McVickers soils are moderately deep to deep and well drained. They typically have 5 cm (2 in) of decomposing pine litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layers are brown and very pale brown very fine sandy loam about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The upper subsoil is pink loam 18 cm (7 in) thick underlain by reddish brown and reddish yellow clay 63 cm (25 in) thick over sandstone bedrock at 130 cm (52 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 75 to 175 cm (30 to 70 in). McVickers soils occur on undulating to rolling plateaus with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have high available water capacity, slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in the Long Valley area in 1960 and the name was taken from a spring in the area.

Some properties of the McVickers soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-30 1.53 47 46 7 10 68 6.2 1.55
BA 30-35 0.43 53 33 13 8 77 6.1 1.7
Bt 35-78 0.41 38 24 38 27 87 5.8 1.85
BCt 78-108 0.12 52 26 21 18 93 6.2 1.76
R 108-

Millard (MH3). Typic Haplustalfs; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Brown). Millard soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown gravelly loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is light reddish brown and yellowish red light clay loam about 55 cm (22 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) the substratum is light reddish brown and reddish yellow gravelly loam. Millard soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 10 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are mildly alkaline and calcareous in the subsoil and substratum. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Richfield area of Utah in 1947.

Some properties of the Millard soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 1.50 65 26 9 13 0 6.9
Bt 23-105 0.77 76 8 16 0 7.2
BC 105-150 0.10 84 1 15 1 6.9

Millett (MS3). Ustollic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Millett soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The


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subsoil is reddish brown gravelly sandy clay loam and light clay loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 100 cm (40 in) is pinkish gray gravelly loam and reddish brown very gravelly sandy clay loam. Thickness of the solum is less than 50 cm (20 in). Millett soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 5 to 25 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Navajo County in 1961.

Some properties of the Millett soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 1.04 71 14 15 9 1 7.8
Bt 10-38 0.88 59 17 24 15 T 7.8 1.59
Bkl 38-69 0.56 83 9 8 2 18 7.9
2Bk 69-144 0.05 93 4 3 3 6 8.3

Mirabal (FH1, FH2, FH5, FH6). Typic Ustorthents; loamy-skeletal, mixed, nonacid, frigid (Gray Wooded). Mirabal soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin litter of pine needles and leaf litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is grayish brown, strongly weathered very cobbly and stony sandy loam about 58 cm (23 in) thick over granite bedrock. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 88 cm (20 to 35 in). Mirabal soils occur on mountainslopes with slopes ranging from 5 to 70 percent. Intermixed with Mirabal soils are small areas of shallow and very shallow soils and rock outcrop. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are medium acid to neutral throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Valencia County, New Mexico, in the Zuni Mountain area in 1964.

Some properties of the Mirabal soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 2.8 75 18 7 12 47 5.0 1.16
C 8-65 0.75 60 24 16 10 65 4.8 1.63
R 65-

Moano (TA3, MS6, MH2). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic (Lithosols). Moano soils are shallow to very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly loam surface layer about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 35 cm (14 in) is olive to olive brown hard fractured phyllite and schist with thin tongues of soil material in the fractures. Pale yellow extremely hard schist bedrock is at a depth of 35 cm (14 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 15 to 40 cm (6 to 16 in). Moano soils occur on gently rolling to steep hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 60 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noneffervescent throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1960 and the name was taken from Rancho Moano.

Some properties of the Moano soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 4.49 40 42 18 24 89 7.1 0.91
AC 8-23 2.43 39 37 24 32 89 6.9 1.39
Cr 23-35

Moapa (TA5). Typic Torripsamments; mixed, thermic (Regosols). Moapa soils are moderately deep and excessively drained. Typically, they have a light yellowish brown fine sand surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The underlying material is light yellowish brown fine sand about 65 cm (26 in) thick. White sandstone is at a depth of 75 cm (30 in). Moapa soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 8 to 30 percent. These soils have very low available


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water capacity and very rapid permeability to the bedrock. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. These soils are subject to wind erosion. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1970.

Moenkopie (TA1, MA1, MA2, MA3, MS1, MS2, MS3, MS6). Torriorthents; loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Lithosols). Moenkopie soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown loamy sand surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The next layer is reddish brown sandy loam about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The bedrock at about 23 cm (9 in) is hard, widely fractured sandstone. Moenkopie soils occur on hillslopes and plateaus with slopes ranging from 1 to 15 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous. Depth to bedrock ranges from 13 to 50 cm (5 to 20 in). They have slow to moderate runoff and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Navajo County in the Winslow area in 1921.

Some properties of the Moenkopie soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-26 0.65 76 12 12 5 14 8.6 1.59
C 26-48 0.51 60 26 14 5 20 8.5 1.47
R 48-

Mohall (HA2, HA3, HA5, HA8). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Mohall soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have reddish yellow or light brown sandy loam, loam or clay loam surface layers about 25 cm (10 in) thick and reddish brown or brown clay loam subsoils about 75 cm (30 in) thick over brown loam or sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Mohall soils occur on nearly level to gently undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout and have zones of high lime accumulation below 50 or 60 cm (20 to 24 in). Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Mohave series.

Some properties of the Mohall soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-13 .73 60 24 16 12 T 7.6 1.61
Bt 13-46 .24 50 23 27 18 T 8.2 1.64
Btk 46-109 .09 36 34 30 20 13 8.9 1.57
BCtk 109-180 32 44 24 17 16 9.4 1.67

Mohave (TA4, TS12). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Mohave soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown and light yellowish brown sandy loam surface layer about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The subsoil is brown heavy loam and clay loam about 110 cm (44 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is reddish brown loamy coarse sand. Mohave soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous in the surface horizons. Depth to carbonates ranges from 30 to 90 cm (12 to 36 in) and depth to the calcic horizon with more than 15 percent CaCO3 ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Middle Gila River Valley in 1917.

Some properties of the Mohave soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 1.43 48 27 25 20 1 7.7 1.45
Bt 8-46 0.36 50 19 31 17 4 7.6 1.50
Btk 46-81 44 26 30 16 9 7.9 1.50
BCk 81-102 44 23 33 19 15 8.3 1.45
2Ck 102-140 51 19 30 11 46 8.6 1.45


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Mokiak (MS6, MH2). Aridic Argiustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Regosols). Mokiak soils are moderately deep and well darined. Typically, they have a brown very cobbly and cobbly sandy loam surface layer about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown and light yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 68 cm (27 in) thick overlying fractured gneiss and schist bedrock at a depth of 95 cm (38 in). Mokiak soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 50 to 70 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Washington County, Utah, in 1972.

Mormon Mesa (TA5). Typic Paleorthids; loamy, carbonatic, thermic, shallow (Calcisols). Mormon Mesa soils are shallow and well drained. They typically have light reddish brown fine sandy loam surface and subsurface layers underlain at about 40 cm (16 in) by a pink and white indurated lime cemented hardpan meters thick. Morman Mesa soils occur on tops of old fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. They have very low available water capacity. Permeability is moderately rapid above the pan and very slow through the pan. These soils are very strongly calcareous, more than 40 percent calcium carbonate, and are moderate to strongly alkaline. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1939.

Navajo (MA1, MA4, MA5). Vertic Torrifluvents; fine, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Alluvial). Navajo soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown silty clay surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. This is underlain by reddish brown silty clay and clay substrata to more than 150 cm (60 in). Navajo soils occur on floodplains, alluvial fans and playas with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout and are commonly saline. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight except along entrenched streams where they are subject to piping and gullying. They are subject to very brief seasonal flooding. The series was established in Navajo County in 1921 and the name was taken from that county.

Some properties of the Navajo soils
Horizon Depth(cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-13 0.87 3 44 53 18 1 7.1 1.68
C 13-150 0.39 2 38 60 27 2 7.6 1.78

Nickel (TA2, TA4, TA5, TS3, TS4, TS6, TS9, TS12, TS14, TS16). Typic Calciorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Nickel soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a pale brown very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 18 cm (7 in) thick underlain to 150 cm (60 in) or more by light brownish gray very gravelly sandy loam that is weakly cemented by calcium carbonate. Nickel soils occur on fan terraces with slopes ranging from 8 to 30 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. The soils are moderately alkaline and strongly calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and erosion hazard is slight. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1939.

Some properties of the Nickel soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 1.05 74 19 7 7 5 8.6 1.43
Bw 10-25 0.97 65 23 12 8 5 8.5 1.47
Bk 25-100 0.70 50 31 19 7 36 8.5 1.30
C 100-122 72 15 13 6 11 8.7

Nolam (TS5, TS7). Ustollic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Nolam soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have light brown very gravelly fine sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is red and reddish brown very gravelly sandy clay loam about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The upper part of the underlying material is calcareous pink and light brown very gravelly sandy loam about 58 cm (23 in) thick. The lower part of the underlying material to a depth of 198 cm (79 in) is brown and very pale brown very gravelly loamy sand and very gravelly sand. Nolam soils occur on rolling fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and


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calcareous in the subsoil and underlying material. The upper boundary of the calcic horizon occurs within 100 cm (40 in) of the surface. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Dona Ana County, New Mexico, in 1972.

Oracle (TS6, TS8, TS10). Ustollic Haplargids; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Reddish Brown). Oracle soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown fine gravelly clay loam that becomes very gravelly in the lower part. The substratum below about 48 cm (18 in) to more than 150 cm (60 in) is strongly weathered, highly fractured coarse grained granite. Oracle soils occur on hillslopes with slopes ranging from 15 to 25 percent. They have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are slightly acid to mildly alkaline and are noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pinal County in 1952 and the name was taken from the town of Oracle.

Some properties of the Oracle soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 1.21 73 15 12 8 85 6.3
Bt 23-81 0.66 68 7 25 16 98 7.1
Cr 81-168

Overgaard (MH5, FH3, FH6). Typic Cryoboralfs; fine, mixed (Gray Wooded). Overgaard soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin layer of pine needle and oak leaf litter on the surface. The surface mineral layers are grayish brown over light brownish gray gravelly loam about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is brown and reddish brown gravelly light clay 80 cm (32 in) thick. The underlying material is mottled brown and reddish brown very gravelly clay loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Overgaard soils occur on undulating terraces and hillslopes with slopes ranging from 2 to 50 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral throughout and are noncalcareous. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962.

Some properties of the Overgaard soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 1.22 75 16 9 19 0 6.4
Bt 23-68 1.00 45 18 37 0 6.4
C 68-170 0.49 52 22 26 0 6.9

Pachic Argiustolls (MH6). Pachic Argiustolls typically have brown loam surface layers about 15 cm (6 in) thick and brown clay loam and clay subsoils to 150 cm (60 in) deep or more. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to neutral in the upper layers and become moderately alkaline and calcareous below about 75 cm (30 in). These soils are on undulating to rolling fan terraces with dominant slopes of 2 to 8 percent. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight.

Palma (MA2, MA3, MS3). Ustollic Haplargids; coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Palma soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a brown loamy sand surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown sandy loam and brown sandy loam about 45 cm (18 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of more than 100 cm (40 in) is light brown calcareous fine sandy loam. Palma soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout and have zones of high lime in the substratum. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The hazard of wind erosion is moderate. The series was established in Colorado in 1970.

Some properties of the Palma soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 0.39 93 3 4 5 0 8.0 1.73
Bt 8-53 0.44 86 3 11 10 0 7.5 1.67
Bk 53-103 0.20 88 3 9 8 3 8.3 1.60
2Bkb 103-183 0.28 81 6 13 10 4 8.5 1.77


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Palomino (FH3, FH4). Lithic Cryoboralfs; loamy-mixed (Lithosols). Palomino soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a 5 cm (2 in) layer of pine needles on the surface. The surface mineral layer is brown extremely stony fine sandy loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown extremely stony sandy clay loam about 30 cm (12 in) thick. Strong brown sandstone is at a depth of 38 cm (15 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 30 to 50 cm (12 to 20 in). Palomino soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 30 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate to moderately slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Coconino County in 1965 and the name was taken from Palomino Lake.

Palos Verdes (TS7, TS9, TS19). Haplic Durargids; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Red Desert). Palos Verdes soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly sandy clay loam about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The substratum is yellowish red and reddish brown gravelly sandy loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The next layer is a pinkish white and pink strongly cemented duripan about 48 cm (19 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is pinkish white and pink gravelly loamy coarse sand. Depth to the duripan ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Palos Verdes soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately slow permeability to the pan and very slow through the pan. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and calcareous in the substratum and in the duripan and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1931.

Some properties of the Palo Verdes soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 0.66 65 28 7 6.7 0 7.9 1.69
BA 3-8 0.53 61 26 13 8.3 0 8.0
Bt 8-38 0.41 54 14 32 10 1 7.5 1.54
Bkn 38-48 50 27 23 10 28 8.3 1.53
Bkqm 48-97 65 21 14 6 29 8.5 1.44
Bkq 97-163 78 12 10 6 10 8.5 1.67

Pantano (TS6). Typic Calciorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow (Calcisols). Pantano soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown extremely gravelly loam surface layer about 2.5 cm (1 in) thick. The subsurface layer is brown very gravelly loam about 23 cm (9 in) thick. The upper 15 cm (6 in) of the underlying material is white and pale brown calcareous extremely gravelly loam. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is gray highly fractured schist bedrock. Depth to highly fractured rock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Pantano soils occur on pediments and hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 60 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1974 and the name was taken from a large wash.

Partri (MS8). Aridic Argiustolls; fine, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Partri soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown loam surface layer 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay loam and clay about 65 cm (26 in) thick. The underlying material to more than 150 cm (60 in) is white, weakly lime cemented gravelly clay loam. Depth to the zone of high lime is 50 to 90 cm (20 to 36 in). Partri soils occur on nearly level to gently undulating fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. They have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout and contain more than 15 percent lime in the substratum. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1971.

Pastura (MS1, MS4, MS6, MS8, MS10). Ustollic Paleorthids; loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow (Lithosols). Pastura soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, the upper 28 cm (11 in) is pale brown and brown gravelly loam underlain by a pinkish white indurated lime hardpan several inches thick. The upper laminated layer is underlain by variably lime cemented gravelly and cobbly materials to more than 150 cm (60 in). Depth to the pan ranges from 20 to 50 cm (8 to 20 in). Pastura soils occur on fan terraces and toeslopes of limestone hills with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability to the pan. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Torrance County, New Mexico, in 1970.


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Some properties of the Pastura soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 1.90 42 36 22 24 11 7.8
Bw 10-33 1.82 35 36 29 24 21 7.6
Bk 33-50 1.38 37 35 28 25 23 7.8
Bkm 50- 0.75 37 36 27 9 64 8.0

Penthouse (TS16). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Penthouse soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a brown cobbly clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay about 60 cm (24 in) thick. The substratum, 68 to 150 cm (27 to 60 in), is pink, very cobbly clay loam that is weakly cemented and high in calcium carbonate. Penthouse soils occur on the tops of old fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and very slow permeability. They are mildly alkaline in the surface and moderately alkaline in the lower layers and contain more than 15 percent calcium carbonate in the substratum. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965 and the name was taken from Penthouse Tank.

Perryville (HA4, HA5, HA9). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, carbonatic, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Perryville soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of very pale brown gravelly loam about 20 cm (8 in) thick. This is underlain by light brown gravelly loam or sandy loam to 150 cm (60 in) or more containing 20 to 35 percent gravel and lime nodules and more than 40 percent calcium carbonate. Perryville soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. The soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Organ Pipe National Monument area, Pima County, in 1971.

Some properties of the Perryville soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-23 0.38 43 40 17 9 19 7.9 1.32
Bk 23-97 0.12 38 45 17 7 40 7.9 0.90

Pima (TS2, TS3, TS4, TS13, TS14, TS15, TS17, TS18). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-silty, mixed, thermic (Alluvial). Pima soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a dark grayish brown clay loam surface layer about 66 cm (26 in) thick over stratified grayish brown loam and fine sandy loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). Pima soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. The soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and slightly calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is generally slight. The series was established in the Middle Gila River Valley area in 1917.

Some properties of the Pima soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH Bd g/cm3
Ap 0-30 2.43 5 57 38 35 3 7.5 1.25
A 30-119 1.24 15 53 32 30 4 7.5 1.30
C 119-152 34 43 23 22 2 7.5 1.38

Pimer (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Pimer soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown light clay loam surface layer about 38 cm (15 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is brown clay loam and silty clay loam. Pimer soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. This series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Pima series.

Some properties of the Pimer soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-38 1.15 13 58 29 31 2 7.7 1.65
C 38-178 0.24 11 65 24 26 4 7.8 1.44


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Pinal (HA4). Typic Durorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Pinal soils are shallow and well drained. They typically have a light brown gravelly very fine sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsurface layer is light brown gravelly very fine sandy loam about 43 cm (17 in) thick. This is underlain by a lime and silica cemented duripan from about 48 to more than 75 cm (19 to 30 in). Pinal soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 9 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability in the upper part of the profile and very slow permeability in the duripan. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Middle Gila River Valley area in 1917 and the name was taken from Pinal County.

Pinaleno (TA3, TA4, TS3, TS4, TS6, TS9, TS12, TS14, TS19). Typic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed; thermic (Red Desert). Pinaleno soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown very gravelly sandy clay loam about 70 cm (28 in). The underlying material from about 76 to more than 150 cm (30 to 60 in) is reddish brown and pinkish gray very gravelly sandy loam and loamy sand. Pinaleno soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 25 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate or moderately slow permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline throughout and usually have zones of high lime in the lower subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1969.

Some properties of the Pinaleno soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 0.80 71 18 11 11 T 7.6 1.02
Bt 3-32 0.73 63 10 27 20 2 8.1 1.45
Btk 32-61 0.65 61 19 20 12 19 8.1
Bk 61-160 0.26 75 14 11 11 15 8.2 1.10

Pinamt (HA3, HA6, HA8). Typic Haplargids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Pinamt soils are deep and well drained. They typically have light brown very gravelly or very cobbly sandy loam or loam surface layers about 15 cm (6 in) thick, and yellowish red very gravelly sandy clay loam subsoils about 75 cm (30 in) thick over very pale brown calcareous very gravelly sandy loam substrata to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Pinamt soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 20 percent. Available water capacity is low and permeability is moderately slow. The soils are moderately alkaline throughout and are slightly calcareous in the surface layers. They have a zone of high lime in the lower horizons. Surface runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Pinaleno series.

Some properties of the Pinamt soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-7 0.36 63 19 8 8 T 7.6 1.60
BA 7-22 0.20 74 17 9 8 T 7.8 1.64
Bt 22-35 0.26 64 23 13 11 T 7.8 1.60
2Bt 35-81 0.43 63 16 21 17 1 8.2 1.60
3BCt 81-117 0.12 73 10 17 15 T 8.1 1.62
3Ck 117-170 0.09 70 12 8 9 10 8.4 1.50

Poley (MS2, MS6, MS8, MS10). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, mesic (Reddish Brown). Poley soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is yellowish red clay and sandy clay loam about 56 cm (22 in) thick. The substratum is white, weakly cemented, very cobbly coarse sandy loam. Depth to the zone of high lime is 50 to 90 cm (20 to 36 in). Poley soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline throughout and contain more than 15 percent calcium carbonate in the substratum. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1964.


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Purgatory (MA2). Typic Gypsiorthids; fine-loamy, gypsic, mesic (Regosols). Purgatory soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a yellowish red gravelly fine sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 30 cm (12 in) of underlying material is variegated pink and yellowish red sandy loam with common gypsum crystals. The lower 50 cm (20 in) of underlying material is variegated light gray clay loam with common gypsum crystals. Below this to a depth of 125 cm (50 in) is variegated thin bedded shale. Depth to bedrock layers from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Purgatory soils occur on mesas with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in the Virgin River area on the Utah-Arizona border in 1936.

Some properties of the Purgatory soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g 2H2O% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 1.39 64 30 6 9 25 7.5 1.10
By 3-58 0.44 22 63 15 6 53 7.8 1.30
Cy 58-118 0.07 5 82 13 5 30 8.3 1.40
C 118-143 0.10 16 78 6 4 9 8.6 1.40

Purner (MS1). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy, mixed, mesic (Lithosols). Purner soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have reddish brown gravelly loam surface layers about 23 cm (9 in) thick over white, strongly lime cemented gravelly loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The bedrock is dark gray and pinkish gray limestone that is capped with a lime hardpan. Depth to bedrock ranges from 18 to 46 cm (7 to 18 in). Purner soils occur on gently rolling limestone hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 10 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1964 and the name was taken from a well-known ranch.

Retriever (TS6). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy, carbonatic, thermic (Lithosols). Retriever soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown gravelly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The underlying material is light brown gravelly loam and gravelly clay loam about 30 cm (12 in) thick. Below this at a depth of 35 cm (14 in) is white extremely hard limestone. Depth to limestone ranges from 18 to 50 cm (7 to 20 in). Retriever soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Beaver Creek area in Yavapai County in 1965.

Rillino (TA2, TS9, TS14, TS16). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Rillino soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a light brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 28 cm (11 in) thick. The underlying layer is light brown and pinkish gray weakly lime cemented gravelly loam about 95 cm (38 in) thick. Below this to 150 cm (60 in) or more is light brown stratified gravelly sandy loam and very gravelly loamy sand. Rillino soils occur on undulating fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1973 as the thermic equivalent of the Rillito series.

Some properties of the Rillino soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-13 1.05 52 30 18 17 9 7.7
Bw 13-25 1.02 49 26 25 21 16 7.6
2Bk1 25-46 1.17 35 36 29 21 27 7.6
2Bk2 46-152 0.37 60 23 17 17 30 7.7

Rillito (HA3, HA4, HA5,HA6, HA7, HA8, HA9, HA10). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Rillito soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a thin, light brown gravelly sandy loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick and a pink gravelly subsurface layer over underlying materials of white and


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pinkish gray gravelly loam, sandy loam or loamy sand from about 30 to more than 150 cm (12 to 60 in). Rillito soils occur on nearly level to gently undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have low to moderate available water capacity and moderate or moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and strongly calcareous throughout. The substratum averages 15 to 35 percent gravel and hard lime nodules that may be weakly cemented by calcium carbonate. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1945 and the name was taken from the Rillito River.

Some properties of the Rillito soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-6 0.19 66 28 6 9 6 8.5 1.16
Bw 6-35 0.29 60 29 11 10 12 8.4 1.19
Bk 35-122 0.29 51 32 17 7 37 8.3 1.4

Rimrock (TS15, TS17, TS18). Typic Chromusterts; fine, montmorillonitic, thermic (Brown Grumusols). Rimrock soils are moderately deep to deep and well drained. Typically, they have reddish brown granular clay surface layers about 5 cm (2 in) thick. This is underlain by reddish brown clay about 80 cm (32 in) thick. Basalt bedrock with widely spaced fractures occurs at about 85 cm (34 in). Rimrock soils occur on nearly level to rolling basalt flows with slopes of 0 to 10 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and very slow permeability. They crack widely and deeply when dry and swell when wet. They are moderately alkaline and are calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight although short pipes may develop where water follows cracks. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1960 and the name was taken from the Rimrock Post Office near where the soil was originally mapped.

Rock Outcrop (HA4, HA6, TA1, TA3, TA5, TS4, TS6, TS10, TS15, TS18, MA2, MA3, MA6, MS1, MS2, MS4, MS5, MS6, MS7, MH2, MH4, MH5, MH6, FH1, FH2, FH3, FH4, FH5, FH6, FH7). Rock outcrop occurs mainly as steep or very steep peaks, ledges and escarpments. In some areas it occurs as low ridges or boulder piles or on pediment surfaces with less than 15 percent slope. rock outcrop is barren of vegetation and has rapid runoff. The rock type is highly variable and may be granite, gneiss, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, basalt, limestone, sandstone, shale or conglomerate.

Romero (TS6, TS10). Typic Ustorthents; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow (Regosols). Romero soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a dark grayish brown very gravelly sandy loam and fine sandy loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The upper 18 cm (7 in) of underlying material is strongly weathered granite (grus) with soil material from the surface layer in the fractures. Below this to a depth of 180 cm (72 in) is pale brown, very pale brown and light yellowish brown weathered granite (grus). Depth to highly fractured granite ranges from 13 to 50 cm (5 to 20 in). Romero soils occur on gently rolling to steep hillslopes and pediments with slopes of 5 to 60 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are neutral to slightly acid and noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pima County in 1975.

Rond (MS5, MS6, MH4). Typic Argiustolls; fine, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Rond soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The upper 28 cm (11 in) of the subsoil is dark reddish gray gravelly heavy clay loam. The lower 85 cm (34 in) of the subsoil is reddish brown and yellowish red gravelly clay. The underlying material is mottled weak red gravelly clay loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. Below that is grayish brown limestone bedrock. Depth to bedrock is greater than 100 cm (40 in). Rond soils occur on hillslopes and fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 30 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous in the upper part of the profile and calcareous in the lower subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in Gila County in 1967.

Rositas (HA10). Typic Torripsamments; mixed, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Rositas soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have very pale brown fine sand surface layers, about 23 cm (9 in) thick over similar colored fine sand underlying layers to more than 150 cm (60 in) that are thinly laminated with strata of loamy fine sand 0.1 to 0.5 cm (0.04 to 0.2 in) thick. Rositas soils occur on sand dunes with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is very slow and the hazard of water erosion is slight. The hazard of wind erosion is severe if the natural surface and cover are disturbed. The series was established in Imperial County, California, in 1918.


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Some properties of the Rositas soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3 pH BD g/cm3
A 0-53 0.63 86 11 3 T 8.
C 53-165 0.17 84 12 4 1.0 7.8

Roundtop (MS5, MH4, MH5). Typic Argiustolls; fine, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Roundtop soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a dark reddish gray gravelly clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly heavy clay loam and gravelly clay about 84 cm (33 in) thick. The bedrock is grayish brown fractured cherty limestone. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Roundtop soils occur on rolling plains and hillslopes with slopes ranging from 2 to 30 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline in the upper layers and moderately alkaline and calcareous below about 38 cm (15 in). Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Gila County in 1964 and the name was taken from a local mountain.

Rudd (MS4, MS7). Lithic Calciustolls; loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic (Calcisols). Rudd soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The next layer is dark grayish brown gravelly heavy loam 20 cm (8 in) thick underlain by grayish brown, very gravelly, calcareous loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The bedrock at about 33 cm (13 in) is dark gray basalt with lime coatings on rock faces and in the fractures. Depth to bedrock ranges from about 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Rudd soils are on nearly level to gently rolling basalt mesas with slopes of 0 to 8 percent, but a few escarpments are up to 45 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Apache County in 1971 and the name was taken from a local creek.

Some properties of the Rudd soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 3.33 46 28 26 22 19 8.1
Bk 25-33 4.13 45 27 28 19 40 8.0 1.19
R 33-

Rune (MS6, MS8). Cumulic Haplustolls; fine, mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Rune soils are deep and well drained. Typically, the upper 5 cm (2 in) of the surface layer is reddish brown loam. The lower 53 cm (21 in) of the surface layer is reddish brown clay loam. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is reddish brown clay. Rune soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have high water holding capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1962.

St. Thomas (TA5, TS6). Lithic Torriorthents; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, thermic (Lithosols). St. Thomas soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a very pale brown cobbly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 30 cm (12 in) is very pale brown cobbly loam. Below this is light gray extremely hard limestone with a thin capping of secondary calcium carbonate. Depth to bedrock ranges from 10 to 48 cm (4 to 19 in). St. Thomas soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 15 to 50 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1970.

Sanchez (FH3). Lithic Eutroboralfs; loamy-skeletal, mixed (Lithosols). Sanchez soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, a 5 cm (2 in) layer of pine needles and twigs covers the soil surface. The surface layer is pinkish gray gravelly sandy loam about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The upper 13 cm (5 in) of subsoil is pinkish gray sandy clay loam. The lower 25 cm (10 in) of subsoil is pinkish gray channery clay loam and channery sandy clay loam. Below this at a depth of 43 cm (17 in) is pinkish gray fine grained sandstone. Depth to bedrock ranges from 28 to 50 cm (11 to 20 in). Sanchez soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 25 percent. These soils have low available water capacity


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and moderately slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral and noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Zuni Mountain area in McKinley County, New Mexico, in 1964.

Schrap (TS6). Ustic Torriorthents; loamy-skeletal, mixed (nonacid), thermic (Lithosols). Schrap soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very channery clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The upper 35 cm (14 in) of underlying material is gray weathered shale. The lower portion of underlying material to a depth of 68 cm (27 in) is yellowish brown, brown, reddish yellow and olive shale bedrock. Depth to the weathered shale ranges from 8 to 30 cm (3 to 12 in). Schrap soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 50 percent. These soils are neutral to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Shalet (TA1, MA1, MA2, MA3, MA5). Typic Torriorthents; loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic, shallow (Lithosols). Shalet soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown light clay loam surface layer about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The next layer is yellowish red clay loam about 20 cm (8 in) thick that is underlain by weathered, highly fractured shale to more than 150 cm (60 in). Depth to the shale ranges from 10 to 38 cm (4 to 15 in). Shalet soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 20 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and slow permeability. They are strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout and commonly are high in gypsum. Runoff is rapid and erosion hazard is moderate. The series was established in Washington County, Utah, in 1972.

Sheppard (MA1, MA3, MS3). Typic Torripsamments; mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Sheppard soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of reddish yellow fine sand about 30 cm (12 in) thick. This is underlain by reddish yellow loamy fine sand to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Sheppard soils occur on gently undulating to rolling sand dunes with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and are slightly calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow. The hazard of water erosion is slight, but the hazard of wind erosion is high. The series was established in Uinta River Valley area of Utah in 1925.

Some properties of the Sheppard soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 0.39 96 2 2 2 6.9
C 25-175 0.25 95 2 3 3 7.2

Showlow (MS8, MH3, MH5, MH6). Aridic Argiustolls; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Showlow soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown and dark grayish brown gravelly loam surface layers about 8 cm (3 in) thick over a reddish brown clay loam and clay subsoil 70 cm (28 in) thick. The underlying material is reddish brown gravelly and very gravelly, calcareous, sandy clay loam to 150 cm (60 in). Showlow soils occur on nearly level to rolling fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 20 percent. These soils have high available water capacity, slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. Reaction is neutral in the upper part and mildly to moderately alkaline and calcareous below about 60 cm (24 in). Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962 in the Holbrook-Showlow area.

Some properties of the Showlow soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 2.75 41 43 16 20 0 6.9 1.56
Bt1 8-60 1.20 28 34 38 44 0 7.1 1.64
Bt2 60-78 0.73 22 20 58 59 T 7.5 1.68
Bk 78-130 0.24 71 5 24 27 1 7.6 1.68

Siesta (FH2). Mollic Cryoboralfs; fine, montmorillonitic (Reddish Prairie). Siesta soils are moderately deep and deep and well drained. Typically, they have a 2.5 cm (1 in) layer of partially decomposed pine needles on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is dark reddish gray cobbly silt loam about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsurface layer is reddish brown light clay loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The upper 40 cm (16 in) of the subsoil is reddish


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brown clay. The lower 63 cm (25 in) of the subsoil is red gravelly clay and gravelly clay loam. Vesicular basalt and cinders are at a depth of 115 cm (46 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 60 to 150 cm (24 to 60 in). Siesta soils occur on cinder cones with slopes of 2 to 20 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Beaver Creek area of Coconino County in 1965.

Some properties of the Siesta soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-15 3.52 19 55 26 21 1 6.0
BA 15-30 2.29 17 53 30 22 1 5.9
Bt 30-200 0.84 12 26 62 46 2 7.3

Signal (TS5, TS17). Aridic Paleustolls; clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, thermic (Red Desert). Signal soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is dark brown very gravelly clay loam over reddish brown very gravelly clay about 75 cm (30 in) thick. The underlying material, from 80 to 150 cm (32 to 60 in) is brown and pink, calcareous, very gravelly sandy loam and loamy sand. Signal soils occur on old fan terraces with slopes of 4 to 15 percent They have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. These soils are medium acid to mildly alkaline in the upper part and moderately alkaline and calcareous below about 55 cm (22 in). The series was established in Graham County in 1937.

Some properties of the Signal soils
Horizo Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-15 1.50 55 20 25 22 6.1
Bt 15-51 1.27 38 12 50 40 7.1
BCk 51-119 0.07 73 7 20 31 2 8.2

Sizer (FH2). Argic Cryoborolls; fine-loamy over fragmental, mixed (Reddish Chestnut). Sizer soils are shallow and moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a 2.5 cm (1 in) layer of pine litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is dark grayish brown and brown gravelly silt loam about 20 cm (8 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly light clay loam about 25 cm (10 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) are gray and dark brown cinders with very gravelly sandy loam material filling the fractures and spaces between the cinders. Depth to the cinders ranges from 35 to 100 cm (14 to 40 in). Sizer soils occur on cinder cones with slopes of 6 to 30 percent. They have moderate available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to mildly alkaline and noneffervescent throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in 1965.

Soldier (FH3, FH4). Glossic Cryoboralfs; fine, montmorillonitic (Planosols). Soldier soils are deep and moderately well to well drained. Typically, they have a 5 cm (2 in) litter of pine needles on the soil surface. The upper surface mineral layer is brown cobbly loam, about 5 cm (2 in) thick underlain by light brownish gray and very pale brown cobbly loam and very cobbly sandy loam 43 cm (17 in) thick. The upper subsoil is reddish brown clay and cobbly clay about 48 cm (19 in) thick. The lower subsoil from 75 to more than 150 cm (30 to 60 in) is mottled reddish and yellowish brown and reddish yellow cobbly clay. Soldier soils occur on undulating to steep fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 25 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity. They have moderately rapid infiltration rates in the upper parts and very slow permeability and high shrink-swell in the lower parts. They are neutral to very strongly acid throughout the profile. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1960 and the name was taken from Soldier Canyon.


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Some properties of the Soldier soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 8.25 26 62 12 31 44 5.5 1.16
E 10-38 3.2 25 58 17 23 36 5.4 1.30
Bt 38-70 0.85 29 18 53 31 49 4.4 1.57
BC 70-110+ 0.53 43 23 34 20 35 4.5 1.63

Sonoita (TS3, TS19). Typic Haplargids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Sonoita soils are deep and well drained. They typically have brown or reddish brown sandy loam or gravelly sandy loam surface layers about 10 cm (4 in) thick over reddish brown gravelly sandy loam and light sandy clay loam subsoils to more than 150 cm (60 in). Sonoita soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are medium acid to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous in the upper layers and moderately alkaline and may or may not be calcareous in the lower layers. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1930 and the name was taken from the town of Sonoita.

Some properties of the Sonoita soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 0.53 74 19 7 7.8 0 6.5 1.63
Bt 23-91 0.39 69 17 14 9.0 0 7.2 1.55
BCtk 91-135 66 20 14 9.3 2 8.3 1.71

Sontag (TS15). Typic Argiustolls; fine, montmorillonitic, thermic (Reddish Brown). Sontag soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown gravelly clay loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown clay about 70 cm (28 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 110 cm (44 in) is yellowish red and reddish yellow cobbly clay loam. Sontag soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to mildly alkaline and noncalcareous in the upper part and calcareous in the lower subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Cochise County in 1965.

Sponseller (FH2). Argic Cryoborolls; fine-loamy, mixed (Brown Forest). Sponseller soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a thin layer of decomposing pine litter and cinder gravel on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is reddish brown gravelly loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay loam and gravelly and cobbly clay loam 96 cm (38 in) thick. This is underlain from 105 to more than 150 cm (42 to 60 in) by decomposing cinders, basalt cobble and fractured bedrock. Depth to the parent rock ranges from 100 to 150 cm (40 to 60 in). Sponseller soils occur on basalt flows and cinder cones with slopes of 3 to 40 percent. These soils have moderate to high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Navajo County in 1962.

Some properties of the Sponseller soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-10 2.14 28 53 19 11 0 6.8
Bt1 10-28 1.31 24 45 31 1 6.2
Bt2 28-105 1.19 29 35 36 T 6.5
Cr 105-

Springerville (MS1, MS4, MS7, MS9). Udic Chromusterts; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Grumusols). Springerville soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have brown stony or cobbly silty clay surface layers 10 cm (4 in) thick over brown silty clay subsurface layers 90 cm (36 in) thick underlain by basalt bedrock. Depth to bedrock


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ranges from 100 to 175 cm (40 to 70 in). Springerville soils occur on toeslopes and terraces having gently undulating microrelief due to shrinking and swelling (gilgai). Slopes are dominantly 1 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity, slow to very slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and are usually slightly calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Navajo County in 1961 and the name was taken from the town of Springerville.

Some properties of the Springerville soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 1.40 6 41 53 52 0 6.6 1.78
C 5-115 0.87 7 39 54 54 5 7.0 1.88
R 115-

Stellar (TS14). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Stellar soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a pinkish gray clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay about 50 cm (20 in) thick. The substratum is pinkish white and light reddish brown clay loam about 13 cm (5 in) thick. The upper 23 cm (9 in) of the underlying material is calcareous pink and light brown clay loam. The lower part of the underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is calcareous light brown and pinkish white sandy clay loam. A calcic horizon is present between 50 and 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Stellar soils occur on fan terraces and toeslopes of alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the lower subsoil, substratum and underlying material. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established on the Desert Soil-Geomorphology Project in Dona Ana County, New Mexico in 1971.

Some properties of the Stellar soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-23 1.96 24 42 34 29 1 7.9 1.44
Bt 23-69 1.21 29 26 45 28 T 8.0 1.50
BCtk 69-152 0.44 62 16 22 13 3 8.2 1.55

Stewart (TS11). Typic Durorthids; loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow (Solonchak). Stewart soils are shallow and very shallow and somewhat poorly drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of light gray loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The subsoil is brown fine sandy loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick. Below this is a light colored, indurated lime-silica cemented hardpan about 33 cm (13 in) thick. This is underlain by finely stratified light gray and pale yellow fine sand and loam to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Stewart soils occur on low terraces bordering playas with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. The profile is very strongly alkaline (pH 9.4 to 10.0). Available water capacity is very low and permeability is very slow. Runoff is very slow and small playas and hummocky areas are common. Water stands in the playas until it evaporates. Water erosion is slight but there is a hazard of wind erosion in disturbed areas. The series was established in the Sulphur Springs Valley area in Cochise County in 1941.

Some properties of the Stewart soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-15 0.60 55 35 10 14 4 9.5 1.64
Bn 15-23 0.39 56 25 18 35 4 9.7 1.56
Bnqm 23-56 62 31 7 24 1 9.8 1.63
Bnq 56-107 62 27 11 15 2 9.6 1.71

Superstition (HA10). Typic Calciorthids; sandy, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Superstition soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Typically, they have light brown loamy sand or sand surface and subsurface layers about 58 cm (23 in) thick. Below this to more than 150 cm (60 in) is light brown loamy sand or sand


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containing calcium carbonate in the form of soft lime masses and hard concretions. Superstition soils occur on terrace and mesa tops with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is very slow. The water erosion hazard is slight but the hazard of wind erosion is severe. The series was established in the El Centro area of California in 1918.

Some properties of the Superstition soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-16 0.03 95 4 1 2 2 8.2
Bw 16-89 0.02 91 6 3 3 3 8.1
2Bk 89-124 83 10 7 6 7 8.4
2C 124-180 94 3 3 3 5 8.3

Tatiyee (FH8). Argic Cryoborolls; clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic (Prairie). Tatiyee soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have very dark grayish brown gravelly loam and gravelly clay loam surface layers about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The subsoil is brown very gravelly clay grading to very gravelly clay loam to depths of 150 cm (60 in) or more. Tatiyee soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have moderate to high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid in the upper part and neutral in the lower part. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in the Paunsaugunt area in Utah in 1969.

Telephone (MH4, MH5). Lithic Ustorthents; loamy-skeletal, mixed, nonacid, mesic (Lithosols). Telephone soils are shallow or very shallow and well drained. Typically, there is a thin pine needle and oak leaf litter on the soil surface. The surface mineral layer is light brownish gray very cobbly sandy loam about 10 cm (4 in) thick. This is underlain by light gray very cobbly sandy loam about 33 cm (13 in) thick and light gray sandstone bedrock with widely spaced fractures. Depth to the bedrock ranges from 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Telephone soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 15 to 75 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability above the bedrock. They are medium to slightly acid, contain 35 to 80 percent rock fragments and are noncalcareous. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The Telephone series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1971.

Thunderbird (MS1, MS4, MS7, MH6). Aridic Argiustolls; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Prairie). Thunderbird soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a grayish brown cobbly clay loam surface layer 5 cm (2 in) thick over a grayish brown clay subsoil 65 cm (26 in) thick. This is underlain by brown gravelly clay loam 8 cm (3 in) thick and basalt bedrock at about 78 cm (31 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Thunderbird soils occur on mesa tops and hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity, slow or very slow permeability and high shrink-swell potential. They are neutral to moderately alkaline in the upper layers, moderately alkaline in the lower subsoil and calcareous just above the bedrock. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1967 and the name was taken from a mythical bird by that name.

Some properties of the Thunderbird soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 4.85 22 57 21 23 0 6.8
Bt 5-70 1.34 10 43 47 40 0 7.4 1.62
Bk 70-78 0.63 36 38 26 54 9 8.0
R 78-

Tobler (TA2). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic (Alluvial). Tobler soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a red fine sandy loam to silty clay loam surface layer about 33 cm (13 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is red fine sandy loam. Tobler soils occur on alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 1 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout the profile. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Utah in 1973.


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Toltec (HA2). Entic Durorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Calcisols). Toltec soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a pale brown loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The underlying material is light brown loam and very fine sandy loam to a depth of 90 cm (36 in) over a pinkish gray strongly cemented silica-lime duripan about 35 cm (14 in) thick. Below the duripan to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is pinkish gray fine sandy loam. Depth to the duripan ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Toltec soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate permeability to the duripan and slow permeability in the duripan. They are mildly to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Pinal County in 1936.

Tonopah (TA5). Typic Calciorthids; sandy-skeletal, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Tonopah soils are deep excessively drained. Typically, they have light brown very cobbly sandy loam surface layers about 15 cm (6 in) thick. Below this to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) is light brown extremely gravelly sand. A calcic horizon is present between 45 and 75 cm (18 and 30 in). Tonopah soils occur on fan terrace remnants with slopes of 0 to 15 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and very rapid permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Clark County, Nevada, in 1923.

Torrifluvents (HA3, HA4, HA6, TA5, TS1, TS2, TS5, TS6, TS7, TS9, TO10, TS12, TS16, TS19, MA1, MA1, MA5, MA6, MS5). Torrifluvents typically have pale brown sandy loam or loamy sand surface layers overlying stratified sandy loam, loamy sand, and thin silty or gravelly layers to 150 cm (60 in) or more. These soils have moderate to low available water capacity and moderately rapid to rapid permeability. They are on floodplains and lower alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. Runoff is slow and the hazard of water erosion is generally slight except for piping and bank cutting along entrenched streambeds. They are moderately susceptible to wind erosion. These soils are subject to very brief seasonal flooding.

Torripsamments (TS1). Torripsamments have pale brown loamy sand surface layers overlying stratified layers of loamy sand, fine sand and loamy fine sand to 150 cm (60 in) or more. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They occur on alluvial fans and sand dunes with slopes of up to 5 percent. Many areas are hummocky and subject to wind erosion in disturbed or overgrazed areas. Runoff is slow and the hazard of water erosion is slight.

Tortugas (MS1, MS2, MS6, MH2, MH4, MH5). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, mesic (Lithosols). Tortugas soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have grayish brown very cobbly loam profiles about 30 cm (12 in) thick over gray limestone with widely spaced fractures. Depth to bedrock ranges from 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Tortugas soils occur on gently rolling to very steep hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 70 percent. Available water capacity is very low and permeability is moderate. These soils are moderately alkaline and calcareous. Runoff is medium to high and erosion hazard is slight to moderate. The series was established on the Gila River Project in 1936.

Tours (MA1, MA2, MA4, MA5, MA6, MS2, MS3, MS6, MH3, MH4, MH5). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), mesic (Alluvial). Tours soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a reddish brown clay loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. This is underlain to more than 150 cm (60 in) by reddish brown, stratified, clay loam, light clay loam and silty clay loam. Tours soils occur on alluvial fans and floodplains with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Some areas are saline. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. They are subject to gullying along entrenched drainageways and to very brief seasonal flooding. The series was established in the Beryl-Enterprise area in Utah in 1958.

Some properties of the Tours soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 1.84 16 36 47 15 11 8.0
C 3-151 0.80 12 55 33 12 13 7.9 1.51

Trail (MA2, MA4, MA5, MS3). Typic Torrifluvents; sandy, mixed, mesic (Alluvial). Trail soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. They typically have a reddish brown loamy fine sand surface layer about 20 cm (8 in) thick over yellowish red loamy fine sand substrata that is thinly stratified with sandy loam and fine sand to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Trail soils occur on floodplains and alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have


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moderate available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and are calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow. The hazard of water erosion is slight and the hazard of wind erosion is moderate to severe. They are subject to very brief seasonal flooding. The series was established in Navajo County in 1957.

Some properties of the Trail soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 0.102 93 2 5 4 2 8.6
C 8-147 0.30 85 10 5 7 4 8.7 1.45

Tremant (HA2, HA3, HA5, HA8). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Tremant soils are deep and well drained. They typically have thin, brown, gravelly loam or sandy loam surface layers and reddish brown gravelly clay loam or gravelly sandy clay loam subsoils. The substratum from about 58 to 150 cm (23 to 60 in) is pink gravelly loam high in lime. Tremant soils occur on nearly level to undulating fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have a moderate available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout and have zones of high lime in the lower subsoil and substratum. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is generally slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Tres Hermanos series.

Tres Hermanos (TA3, TA4, TS3, TS9, TS12, TS14, TS19). Typic Haplargids; fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (Red Desert). Tres Hermanos soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a light brown gravelly sandy loam or sandy clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown calcareous gravelly light clay loam about 60 cm (24 in) thick. The substratum to more than 150 cm (60 in) is pink very gravelly loam high in lime. Tres Hermanos soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 2 to 15 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity, moderate permeability and moderate shrink-swell. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Sierra County, New Mexico, in 1942.

Some properties of the Tres Hermanos soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-3 0.54 65 23 12 9 5 8.5 1.56
Bt 3-43 0.60 58 25 17 11 11 8.1 1.46
Btk 43-114 46 31 23 8 29 8.8 1.48
BCtk 114-147 62 21 17 7 17 8.4 1.50
2C 147-160 40 32 28 16 17 8.5 1.45

Trix (HA1). Typic Torrifluvents; fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Trix soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown clay loam surface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The underlying material is light brown clay loam about 25 cm (10 in) thick. Below this is a buried argillic horizon. The upper 33 cm (13 cm) of the buried horizon is light reddish brown clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 150 cm (60 cm ) is light brown loam. Depth to the buried argillic horizon ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Trix soils occur on floodplains and low stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 1 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1969.

Tubac (TS3, TS19). Typic Paleargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Brown). Tubac soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have reddish brown gravelly sandy loam and loam surface layers about 35 cm (14 in) thick underlain abruptly by dark red clay subsoils about 43 cm (17 in) thick. This is underlain to 150 cm (60 in) or more by reddish brown calcareous gravelly sandy clay loam. Tubac soils are on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral in the surface layers and moderately alkaline in the subsoil and substratum. They are usually noncalcareous in the surface and upper subsoil, but become calcareous below about 50 cm (20 in). Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Santa Cruz County in 1930 and the name was taken from the town of Tubac.


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Some properties of the Tubac soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-28 0.61 61 28 11 8 0 6.4 1.52
Bt 28-53 0.44 36 12 52 31 1 7.7 1.45
Btk 53-112 0.07 61 15 24 19 T 7.7 1.50
C 112-178 0.03 83 6 11 14 T 7.6 1.4

Tusayan (MS2). Typic Calciorthids; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, mesic (Calcisols). Tusayan soils are moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick. The subsoil is light brownish gray and brown gravelly clay loam and very gravelly loam. The underlying material to a depth of 73 cm (29 in) is light brown very gravelly loam. Below this is light brown calcareous sandstone. Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Tusayan soils occur on hillslopes and fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 8 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderate to strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Coconino County in 1975.

Some properties of the Tusayan soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-25 0.99 11 8.4
Bw 25-41 1.08 58 23 19 25 8.3
Bk1 41-69 0.92 61 24 15 34 8.4
Bk2 69-74 0.65 59 27 14 54 8.5
R 74-

Valencia (HA1, HA8, TS18). Typic Torrifluvents; coarse-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic (Alluvial). Valencia soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a brown sandy loam surface layer about 25 cm (10 in) thick and a light brown subsurface layer about 40 cm (16 in) thick over a buried substratum that is brown sandy clay loam and clay loam to a depth of 150 cm (60 in). Valencia soils occur on alluvial fans with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability in the upper part and moderately slow permeability in the buried part. The soils are moderately alkaline and are mildly calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in 1969 in Maricopa County.

Vecont (HA2, HA3). Typic Haplargids; fine, mixed, hyperthermic (Red Desert). Vecont soils are deep and well drained. They typically have brown clay loam or clay surface layers about 35 cm (14 in) thick, reddish brown clay subsoils about 68 cm (27 in) thick and a reddish brown clay loam substratum to more than 150 cm (60 in). Vecont soils occur on low alluvial fans and stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. The soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are moderately alkaline and weakly to strongly calcareous throughout. Surface runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is generally slight. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971.

Some properties of the Vecont soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-28 0.92 36 23 41 23 1 8.7 1.76
Bt 28-74 0.30 34 24 42 23 2 9.1 1.90
BCtk 74-178 0.17 30 26 43 23 6 9.2 1.80

Venezia (MS7). Lithic Haplustolls; loamy, mixed, mesic (Lithosols). Venezia soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very stony loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 25 cm (10 in) is brown heavy loam. Dark gray extremely hard basalt is at a depth of 25 cm (10 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 13 to 40 cm (5 to 16 in). Venezia soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 5 to 40 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight.


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The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965 and the name was taken from a small settlement between Prescott and Crown King.

Vint (HA1, HA7). Typic Torrifluvents; sandy, mixed, hyperthermic (Alluvial). Vint soils are deep and well drained. They typically have pale brown loamy fine sand surface layers about 40 cm (16 in) thick over pale brown loamy fine sand to more than 150 cm (60 in) that is very thinly stratified with silt loam, loam or very fine sandy loam. Vint soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 3 percent. These soils have low available water capacity, rapid permeability and are moderately alkaline and calcareous. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is slight, but they are subject to wind erosion. The series was established in Maricopa County in 1971 as the hyperthermic equivalent of the Vinton series.

Some properties of the Vint soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
Ap 0-36 0.41 87 9 4 8 T 8.1 1.27
C 36-114 92 5 3 8 T
2C 114-157 97 2 1 6 T

Vinton (TA2, TS2). Typic Torrifluvents; sandy, mixed, thermic (Alluvial). Vinton soils are deep and well drained. They typically have brown loamy sand surface layers 15 to 40 cm (6 to 16 in) thick and yellowish brown loamy sand or loamy fine sand subsurface layers to 150 cm (60 in) or more. Vinton soils occur on floodplains with slopes of 0 to 2 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. They have slow runoff and a low water erosion hazard, but they are subject to wind erosion. The series was established in New Mexico in 1940.

Waldroup (MS7). Udic Rhodustalfs; fine, montmorillonitic, mesic (Brown). Waldroup soils are deep and moderately deep and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown silty clay loam and gravelly silty clay loam surface layer about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown and weak red clay and gravelly clay about 70 cm (28 in) thick. The upper 8 cm (3 in) of underlying material is reddish brown and gray very gravelly clay loam. The lower portion of underlying material to a depth of 125 cm (50 in) is mottled red, gray and yellowish red weathered cinders. Waldroup soils occur on cinder cones and basalt flows with slopes of 2 to 50 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and calcareous in the underlying material. Runoff is medium to rapid and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1965.

Welring (MS2). Lithic Ustic Torriorthents; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, mesic (Lithosols). Welring soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a brown very gravelly loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The underlying material is pale brown gravelly loam and very gravelly loam about 40 cm (16 in) thick. Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of 48 cm (19 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 25 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in). Welring soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 30 to 70 percent. These soils have low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly to moderately alkaline and calcareous below the surface layer. Runoff is rapid and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Washington County, Utah, in 1972.

White House (TS4, TS5, TS7, TS8, TS10, TS15, MH1). Ustollic Haplargids; fine, mixed, thermic (Reddish Chestnut). White House soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a surface layer of brown gravelly loam, about 8 cm (3 in) thick over a reddish brown and dark red clay upper subsoil that grades at about 65 cm (26 in) to yellowish red, lime mottled, gravelly sandy clay loam to more than 150 cm (60 in). White House soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 35 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are medium acid to neutral in the upper layers and moderately alkaline and calcareous below about 50 cm (20 in). Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Pima County in 1931.

Some properties of the White House soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 1.88 46 38 16 12 0 5.3 1.42
Bt 8-56 1.46 22 22 56 30 0 6.8 1.56
Btk 56-124 0.29 37 24 39 45 8 8.1 1.52
BCk 124-157 54 18 28 43 1 7.9 1.45
Ck 157-198 52 24 24 43 1 7.8 1.36


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Whitlock (TA4, TS9, TS12). Typic Calciorthids; coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic (Calcisols). Whitlock soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown sandy loam surface layer about 30 cm (12 in) thick. The upper 43 cm (17 in) of underlying material is pink sandy loam. The lower portion of underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is light brown sand. Depth to the calcic horizon, which has more than 15 percent calcium carbonate, ranges from 25 to 70 cm (10 to 28 in). Whitlock soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 0 to 5 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderately rapid permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium to slow and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Graham County in 1936 and the name was taken from the Whitlock Mountains.

Wildcat (FH3). Aquic Eutroboralfs; fine, montmorillonitic (Planosols). Wildcat soils are moderately deep to deep and somewhat poorly drained. Typically they have a 1 cm (0.4 in) layer of partially decomposed pine needles and leaves on the surface. The surface mineral layer is light brownish gray and light gray gravelly fine sandy loam and loam about 18 cm (7 in) thick. The subsoil is mottled brown, red, light brownish gray and reddish yellow clay about 63 cm (25 in) thick. Very pale brown and red sandstone is at a depth of 80 cm (32 in). Depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 125 cm (20 to 50 in). Wildcat soils occur on hillslopes with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and slow permeability. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline and noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Coconino County in 1960 and the name was taken from a nearby spring.

Some properties of the Wildcat soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
E 0-18 1.79 43 46 11 11 68 6.0 1.58
Bt 18-60 1.17 21 28 51 40 79 5.0 1.93
R 60-

Wineg (MS9, MS10). Typic Argiustolls; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Brown). Wineg soils are deep and well drained. They typically have a grayish brown sandy loam surface layer about 5 cm (2 in) thick. The subsoil is dark brown clay loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick and the substratum is light brown gravelly sandy clay loam about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is pinkish gray and pink sandy loam. Wineg soils occur on fan terraces with slopes of 1 to 15 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and calcareous in the underlying material. A calcic horizon with more than 15 percent calcium carbonate is between 33 and 100 cm (13 to 40 in). Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The series was established in Yavapai County in 1962.

Winkel (TA5). Typic Paleorthids; loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow (Calcisols). Winkel soils are shallow and well drained. Typically, they have a reddish brown gravelly fine sandy loam surface layer about 15 cm (6 in) thick. The underlying material is light reddish brown very cobbly fine sandy loam about 25 cm (10 in) thick. An indurated carbonate hardpan is at a depth of 40 cm (16 in). Depth to the hardpan ranges from 28 to 48 cm (11 to 19 in). Winkel soils occur on mesas with slopes of 1 to 10 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability above the hardpan. They are strongly alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is slow to medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Washington County, Utah, in 1972.

Winona (MS2, MS5). Lithic Ustollic Calciorthids; loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, mesic (Lithosols). Winona soils are shallow and very shallow and well drained. They typically have brown, gravelly and cobbly loam surface layers about 30 cm (12 in) thick that grades to yellowish brown cobbly loam about 8 cm (3 in) thick overlying pale yellow, massive, dense limestone. Depth to bedrock ranges from 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in). Winona soils occur on limestone and calcareous sandstone hillslopes with slopes of 2 to 45 percent. These soils have very low available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are moderately alkaline and calcareous throughout. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight to moderate. The series was established in Coconino County in 1967 in the Long Valley area.

Some properties of the Winona soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-5 2.55 55 32 13 20 3 7.7
Bk 5-38 2.84 48 29 23 23 27 7.9
R 38-


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Zeniff (MH3). Typic Haplustalfs; fine-loamy, mixed, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Zeniff soils are deep and well drained. Typically, they have a light brown fine sandy loam surface layer about 35 cm (14 in) thick. The subsoil is brown loam and silt loam to 150 cm (60 in). Zeniff soils occur on stream terraces with slopes of 0 to 10 percent. These soils have high available water capacity and moderate permeability. They are mildly alkaline and dominantly noncalcareous throughout. Runoff is slow and the hazard of erosion is high. The series was established in the Holbrook-Showlow area, Navajo County, in 1957.

Some properties of the Zeniff soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g CaCO3% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-35 1.44 54 33 13 17 0 7.2
Bt 35-150 1.28 32 46 24 0 7.3

Ziegler (MS4, MS7). Aridic Argiustolls; clayey over fragmental, montmorillonitic, mesic (Reddish Chestnut). Ziegler soils are moderately deep and well drained. They typically have a reddish brown gravelly clay loam surface layer about 8 cm (3 in) thick. The subsoil is reddish brown gravelly clay, gravelly clay loam and very gravelly clay loam about 53 cm (21 in) thick. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm (60 in) or more is light reddish brown and gray cinders. Depth to cinders ranges from 50 to 100 cm (20 to 40 in). Ziegler soils occur on cinder cones with slopes of 1 to 40 percent. These soils have moderate available water capacity and moderate to moderately slow permeability. They are neutral to moderately alkaline and calcareous in the lower subsoil and underlying material. Runoff is medium and the hazard of erosion is slight. The series was established in Apache County in 1966.

Some properties of the Ziegler soils
Horizon Depth (cm) O.M.% Sand% Silt% Clay% CEC meq/100g B.S.% pH BD g/cm3
A 0-8 3.36 18 60 22 26 78 6.5
Bt 8-68 1.45 18 30 52 50 90 6.9
Cr 68-90 0.29 87 9 4 92 7.8

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