Contents


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[page vii]


[page viii]

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Editor's Notes xv
1 Soils, What They Are and How They Form 1
Introduction 1
Definition of Soil 3
Composition of Soils 3
Soil Horizons 6
Soil-Forming Factors and Processes 7
--Factors 7
--Processes 12
2 Geologic Framework of Arizona 15
Introduction 15
Basin and Range Province 17
--General Nature of the Geology 17
--Evolution of Structural Features 21
--Geomorphology and Soils 23
Colorado Plateau Province 26
--General Nature of the Geology 26
--Evolution of Structural Features 26
--Late Cenozoic Volcanism 27
--Geomorphology and Soils 28
3 Climate of Arizona 33
Introduction 33
--Temperature 34
--Precipitation 34
Arizona Climate Zones 35
Climatic Zones of the State Soil Map 38
Soil Temperature Regimes 38
Soil Moisture Regimes 40
Water Balance and Thornthwaite's Climatic Classification 40
Paleoclimate 43
4 Natural Vegetation of Arizona 47
Introduction 47
Bioclimatic Classification of Vegetation 48
--Alpine Tundra 49
--Spruce-Alphine Fir Forest 49
--Montane Conifer Forest 49
--Riparian Deciduous Woodland 50
--Pinyon-Juniper Woodland 50
--Encinal and Mexican Oak-Pine Woodland 51
--Interior Chaparral 51
--Grasslands 51
--Desert Scrub 52
5 Animals and Soil in Arizona 55
Introduction 55
General Role of Animals in the Soil Community 56
Soil Fauna: Classification 56
Role of Animals in the Soil Community 57
--Invertebrates 57
--Vertebrates 60
Effects of Soil on Animals 61
--Animals That Live in the Soil 61
--Animals That Live on the Surface 62
6 The United States Soil Classification System and Its Application in Arizona 63
Introduction 63
Overview of Soil Taxonomy 63
--Diagnostic Horizons 63
--Categories 64
--Nomenclature 65
--Soil Individual 66
Application to Arizona 68
--Orders and Suborders 68
--Soil Families 69
7 Description of the Mapping Units of the Arizona General Soil Map 71
Basis and Development of the Units 71
Mapping Unit Descriptions 72
--HA Hyperthermic Arid Soils 74
--TA Thermic Arid Soils 86
--TS Thermic Semiarid Soils 93
--MA Mesic Arid Soils 114
--MS Mesic Semiarid Soils 122
--MH Mesic Subhumid Soils 134
--FH Frigid Subhumid Soils 142
Appendices 151
Appendix A: Geologic Time Scale 151
Appendix B: Vegetation: Common and Scientific Names 155
Appendix C: Animals: Common and Scientific Names 157
Appendix D: Outline of Soil Taxonomy Nomenclature System 159
Appendix E: Descriptions of Soil Series 161
Appendix F: Glossary 213
List of References 225
Index 235

List of Plates

The unpaginated plate section follows Chapter Five, between pages 62 and 63.

Plate Title
1 Arizona General Soil Map
2 Landform Features and Physiographic Provinces of Arizona
3 Geology of Arizona
4 Generalized Zones of Elevation in Arizona
5 Average Annual Precipitation in Arizona
6 Winter Precipitation as the Percentage of Annual Precipitation in Arizona
7 Mean January Air Temperature in Arizona
8 Mean July Air Temperature in Arizona
9 Potential Annual Evapotranspiration in Arizona
10 Actual Annual Evapotranspiration in Arizona
11 Vegetation Distribution in Arizona
12 The Four Desert Scrub Vegetative Communities in Arizona
13 Average Annual Runoff in Arizona
14 The Four Major Soil Temperature Regimes in Arizona
15 Horizons That Could Occur in a Soil Profile
16 Actual Soil Profile and Associated Vegetation
17 Biotic Provinces in Arizona


[page ix]

List of Figures


[page x]

Figure Title Page
1 Indian Reservations in Arizona 2
2 Generalized Soil Composition Diagram 3
3 Representative Shapes and Sizes of Sand, Silt and Clay 3
4 Soil Texture Triangle 4
5 Crystal Structure of Muscovite Clay 4
6 Crystal Structure of Montmorillonite Clay 5
7 Crystal Structure of Kaolinite Clay 5
8 Representative Diagrams of Forms of Soil Aggregation 5
9 Form of Water in Soil 6
10 Water in an Unsaturated, Coarse-Textured Soil 6
11 Schematic of Various Factors That Affect Soil 8
12 Representative Illustration of the Evolution of Soil 8
13 Generalized Soil Profile 9
14 Effects of Slope and Aspect on Soils 10
15 Green's Peak 11
16 Depth of Carbonate Accumulation in Soils Relative to Parent Material Texture 11
17 Churning Action of Vertisols 13
18 Selected Recreation Areas in Arizona 14
19 Cross Sections of the Physiographic Provinces of Arizona 18
20 Generalized Topography of Arizona 20
21 Cross Section of a Typical Basin and Range Province Valley; Inset, Classic Schematic of Block Faulting 22
22 Generalized Models of Tilted and Listric Block Faulting 23
23 Typical Cross Sections of Arizona Basin and Range Province Valleys and Associated Soil Mapping Units 24
24 Representations of an Anticline, a Monocline and a Syncline 26
25 Map of Volcanic Rock Distribution near the Colorado Plateau 27
26 Schematic Representation of the Evolution of Typical Landforms in the Navajo Section of the Colorado Plateau 30
27 Schematic of Precipitation Distribution from Atmosphere to Soil 33
28 Climates of Arizona 36
29 Generalized Water Cycle in Hyperthermic, Thermic and Some Mesic Regions 37
30 Generalized Water Cylce in a Frigid Subhumid Region 37
31 Frost-Alternation Days in Arizona 39
32 Generalized Annual Moisture Budgets for Soils near 14 Climate Stations in Arizona 42
33 Altitudinal Distribution of the Major Vegetation Zones of the San Francisco Peaks in Northern Arizona 48
34 Altitudinal Distribution of the Major Vegetation Zones of the Santa Catalina Mountains in Southern Arizona 49
35 Low Elevation Riparian Woodland 50
36 Cross Section of the Grand Canyon and Associated Life Forms 56
37 Representative Soil Animals 58
37a Termites 58
37b Harvester Ants 58
37c Spadefoot Toad 58
37d Kangaroo Rat 58
37e Shovel-Nosed Snake 59
38 Soil Microfauna, Mesofauna and Macrofauna Classification 59
39 Diagram of the Hierarchical Soil Classification System 65
40 Diagram Showing Soil Pedon, Polypedon and Other Features Related to a Soilscape 67
41 Explanation of Soil and Rock Symbols in Soilscapes and Profiles 72
42 Representative Hyperthermic Arid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 73
43 Geographic Distribution of Hyperthermic Arid (HA) Soils in Arizona 74
HA1 Torrifluvents Association 75
HA2 Casa Grande-Mohall-La Palma Association 76
HA3 Mohall-Vecont-Pinamt Association 77
HA4 Gunsight-Rillito-Pinal Association 78
HA5 Laveen-Rillito Association 79
HA6 Lithic Camborthids-Rock Outcrop-Lithic Haplargids Association 80
HA7 Laveen-Carrizo-Antho Association 81
HA8 Tremant-Coolidge-Mohall Association 82
HA9 Harqua-Perryville-Gunsight Association 83
HA10 Superstition-Rositas Association 84
44 Representative Thermic Arid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 85
45 Geographic Distribution of Thermic Arid (TA) Soils in Arizona 86
TA1 Torriorthents-Camborthids-Rock Outcrop Association 87
TA2 Anthony-Vinton-Agua Association 88
TA3 Lithic Torriorthents-Rock Outcrop-Lithic Haplargids Association 89
TA4 Latene-Anthony-Tes Hermanos Association 90
TA5 Paleorthids-Calciorthids-Torriorthents Association 91
46 Representative Thermic Semiarid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 92
47 Geographic Distribution of Thermic Semiarid (TS) Soils in Arizona 93
TS1 Torrifluvents-Torripsamments Association 94
TS2 Torrifluvents Association 95
TS3 Tubac-Sonoita-Grabe Association 96
TS4 White House-Bernardino-Hathaway Association 97
TS5 Caralampi-Hathaway Association 98
TS6 Lithic Torriorthents-Lithic Haplustolls-Rock Outcrop Association 99
TS7 White House-Caralampi Association 100
TS8 Caralampi-White House Association 101
TS9 Latene-Nickel-Pinaleno Association 102
TS10 Chiricahua-Cellar Association 103
TS11 Gothard-Crot-Stewart Association 104
TS12 Continental-Latene-Pinaleno Association 105
TS13 Karro-Gothard Association 106
TS14 Nickel-Latene-Cave Association 107
TS15 Bonita-Graham-Rimrock Association 108
TS16 Penthouse-Latene-Cornville Association 109
TS17 Signal-Grabe Association 110
TS18 Graham-Lampshire-House Mountain Association 111
TS19 Anthony-Sonoita Association 112
48 Representative Mesic Arid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 113
49 Geographic Distribution of Mesic Arid (MA) Soils in Arizona 114
MA1 Badland-Torriorthents-Torrifluvents Association 115
MA2 Moenkopie-Shalet-Tours Association 116
MA3 Sheppard-Fruitland-Rock Outcrop Association 117
MA4 Tours-Navajo Association 118
MA5 Torriorthents-Torrifluvents Association 119
MA6 Fruitland-Camborthids-Torrifluvents Association 120
50 Representative Mesic Semiarid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 121
51 Geographic Distribution of Mesic Semiarid (MS) Soils in Arizona 122
MS1 Tortugas-Purner-Jacks Association 123
MS2 Winona-Boysag-Rock Outcrop Association 124
MS3 Palma-Clovis-Trail Association 125
MS4 Rudd-Bandera-Cabezon Association 126
MS5 Roundtop-Boysag Association 127
MS6 Lithic Torriorthents-Lithic Haplargids-Rock Outcrop Association 128
MS7 Cabezon-Thunderbird-Springerville Association 129
MS8 Pastura-Poley-Partri Association 130
MS9 Lonti-Balon-Lynx Association 131
MS10 Pastura-Abra-Lynx Association 132
52 Representative Mesic Subhumid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 133
53 Geographic Distribution of Mesic Subhumid (MH) Soils in Arizona 134
MH1 Casto-Martinez-Canelo Association 135
MH2 Lithic Haplustolls-Lithic Argiustolls-Rock Outcrop Association 136
MH3 Showlow-Disterheff-Cibeque Association 137
MH4 Roundtop-Tortugas-Jacks Association 138
MH5 Overgaard-Elledge-Telephone Association 139
MH6 Pachic Argiustolls-Lynx Association 140
54 Representative Frigid Subhumid Soils Soilscape and Profiles 141
55 Geographic Distribution of Frigid Subhumid (FH) Soils in Arizona 142
FH1 Mirabal-Dandrea-Brolliar Association 143
FH2 Sponseller-Ess-Gordo Association 144
FH3 Soldier-Hogg-McVickers Association 145
FH4 Soldier-Lithic Cryoborolls Association 146
FH5 Mirabal-Baldy-Rock Outcrop Association 147
FH6 Eutroboralfs-Mirabal Association 148
FH7 Cryorthents-Eutroboralfs Association 149
FH8 Gordo-Tatiyee Association 150
A1 Modern Geologic Time Scale, Appendix A 152
A2 Stratigraphic Column of Northern Arizona, Appendix A 153

List of Tables

Table Title Page
1 Comparison of San Francisco Volcanic Field Subdivisions 29
2 Erosional Cycles along the Little Colorado River in Northeastern Arizona 32
3 Computed Coefficients of Variation of Winter, Summer and Yearly Amounts of Precipitation for Four Arizona Climate Stations 34
4 Temperature-Precipitation Zones of the Arizona General Soil Map 38
5 Summary of Site Disturbance Indices for Deer, Elk, Cattle and Horses in the Carson National Forest, New Mexico 62
6 Diagnostic Horizons Common in Arizona Soils 64
7 Names and Important Properties of the Orders 66
8 Soil Order Names and Formative Elements 67
9 Examples of Formative Elements of Suborder Names 67
A The Classical Subdivision of the Quaternary for North America. Appendix A. 154

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