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Rendering of map showing Rubio Street and placement of residences.

Rendering of map showing Rubio Street and placement of residences.

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Implementation is one of the most crucial aspects of preservation and requires the presence of hard-working and dedicated interest groups operating effectively and responsibly. The most realistic means of implementation and funding are:

1. Private Investors.

2. Development of non-profit or profit corporations using revolving funds.

3. A redevelopment agency.

Private Investors

Private investors will in all probability be responsible for the majority of restoration in the Barrio area. This is not to say that all monies will have to be supplied by them, for they will be eligible for funds from several private and governmental sources.

Profit and Non-profit Corporation

In carrying out the bulk of restoration and reconstruction there are two alternate methods to be considered--profit or non-profit corporations. There are cities that have both types of controlling agencies. In this case, one agency--profit or non-profit--would be in charge of the actual restoration and reconstruction, while the second agency--profit or non-profit--would be in charge of overall administration. Regardless of which method is used, it is common practice to sell shares of stock and elect a board of directors. Its primary task would be to at all times safeguard the interests of the public. There are particular advantages and disadvantages regarding each type of corporation in securing funds, public support, taxes, and project administration. Before choosing one or the other, careful investigation of each type should be made in order to determine which type would be responsible for many or all of the following areas of activity:

1. To acquire, hold and maintain historic sites and structures.

2. To restore and reconstruct historic buildings, particularly structures with less attractive potential for individual investors.

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3. Promote and locate private developers for property and buildings.

4. To work with private developers in improving, restoring, reconstructing and operating properties within the area.

5. To make long-term, low-interest loans and otherwise assist private developers.

6. To sponsor social events relating to the historic happenings of the area.

7. To construct and operate private parking facilities and an orientation center within the area.

It is extremely important that this corporation be organized as soon as possible to assist in carrying out the restoration work. Some examples of how corporations have been formed and how they operate are as follows:

New Orleans, La.

In the historic French Quarter, the Vieux Carre Property Owners Association, Inc., a non-profit corporation established in 1938, has played the leading role in developing, publicizing and establishing legislation for the Vieux Carre district. A business corporation, the Vieux Carre Restorations, Inc., organized in 1954, buys, restores and sells historic structures in poor condition.

Providence, R.I.

The Providence Preservation Society has been the leader in promoting restoration in Providence. Half of the local share of a detailed Housing and Home Finance Agency Demonstration Study for the College Hill area was raised by the society. The society is a non-profit corporation financed by membership dues, donations and fund drives.

When talking about corporations, it is necessary to give some discussion to revolving funds. This type of funding is one of the more popular and successful types of funding procedures that has been used in conjunction with historic district preservation and restoration. Briefly, a revolving fund consists of cash or other equities, a line of credit or any combination of these owned and administered by a non-profit organization for the express purpose of purchasing and restoring architecturally significant structures. It can also be cash lent by a non-profit organization to individuals or organizations for the same purpose. All proceeds from rentals, sales, interest and dividends must be returned to the fund in order to replenish it. Thus the fund revolves.1

1. A revolving fund tends to focus an organization's attentions and resources.

2. Revolving funds attract donors. Donors like to see their investment at work.

3. The revolving fund can act as a substitute endowment, to which administrative costs can be charged.

4. Revolving funds allow for the purchase of real estate which, in turn, contributes to the political stature of the organization.

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Political power is needed by the organization if effective legislation to control and protect the district is to be created and passed into law.

There are other means and ways of arranging financing for a historic district; however, the revolving fund method has been tried and proven in numerous cities, including Savannah and Pittsburgh.

Redevelopment Agency

If approved by the city, a redevelopment agency would undertake to do the following:

1. Acquire property where designated by an urban renewal plan.

2. Relocate families, individuals and businesses where applicable.

3. Demolish structures where required.

4. Sell land or buildings for reconstruction, restoration or new relocation.

5. Install necessary site improvements and supporting facilities as required by plan.

6. Assure that restoration and reconstruction activities are carried out in accordance with the plan.

Bruce Wiepert

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It has been pointed out many times by many people that one of the techniques which would effectively "save" the Barrio is to "preserve" its structures. Two methods to accomplish this are restoration and rehabilitation. Restoration refers to the process of rebuilding a structure to its original condition or to its condition at a specified point in time in the history of the structure. Rehabilitation refers to the process of rebuilding a structure to improve its condition and efficiency in enclosing either its present function or a new function.

Several projects of restoration or rehabilitation have been carried out in the Tucson area. Economic data on some of these projects are presented below. Several factors contribute in determining the cost of restoration, including the goal of the finished product, the level of complexity of the task and the thoroughness of restoration sought. If work were to be done by professionals, restoration costs for pre-1900 structures of public use in the Tucson area would probably come to over $20.00 per square foot. If a building was restored for private use, the costs for restoration would average between $10.00 and $20.00 per square foot. These figures would be lower in the case of partial restorations. Tax incentives can also be used to reduce costs. Generally, the greatest single cost factor in any restoration project is almost always represented by the price of mechanical systems, i.e., for heating, air-conditioning and plumbing.

The only recent project which comes under the classification of a "restoration" is the Carrillo-Fremont House, located in the Pueblo Center Redevelopment Area, just north of the Barrio. The project was undertaken entirely by professionals. Original estimates were for a total cost of $86,000 or $24.00 per square foot of construction cost. This estimate was based on a survey, listing all repairs which needed to be made. The total amount of money includes the cost of each item, plus the cost of labor involved for the construction trades involved.

Restoration of structures intended for public use always incurs additional costs. The Carrillo-Fremont House, as a public building in the

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form of a museum was no exception. The building had to be redesigned to meet the city building codes; the heating and cooling systems had to meet maximum occupancy requirements; and the building had to conform to acceptable fire-rating standards. To meet code requirements, foundations (which the house lacked) had to be carefully added without disturbing the structure. Considerable expense and time were involved in this procedure alone.

The other method used in preservation is rehabilitation, several examples of which are in Tucson. Generally, this type of work is often done by individual owners over an extended period of time. Here, the work to be accomplished is determined by the owner and often carried out by him using local hired labor when available. An example of this type of work is a house presently being rehabilitated in order to bring it up to minimum living standards. The house was badly deteriorated when purchased; the previous owner had expected that it would be demolished and a new structure built. So far, the rehabilitation process is responsible for a new structure built. So far, the rehabilitation process is responsible for a new kitchen, a new roof, a new bathroom, repatching of the interior walls, completely new wiring, and all new windows. All of this work has been done using local materials and labor without any contracts involved. The total cost of materials and labor for the rehabilitation of this house has been estimated at about $5,000, or $3.57 per square foot above the initial cost of the acquisition of building and land.

Another example of a rehabilitation is provided by one of the houses designed by Trost on Grande Avenue. In this case, the only element worth saving was the exterior shell; the interior being greatly altered. All work was contracted out and included a completely new plumbing system, all new wiring, new windows and partitions, a new kitchen, a new bathroom, a new heating and air-conditioning system. For this house, the cost for materials and labor was about $15,000, or $12.50 per square foot in addition to the cost of acquisition. It should be noted, however, that some of the concepts called for in the rehabilitation were not of a common nature, since the house contains some sophisticated features. The owner estimated that if a simple rehabilitation were performed on a two-bedroom house with one bathroom, the estimate for materials and labor would be around $6,000, which is a rough estimate.

In the above examples, rehabilitation retained the functions for which the structures were originally intended. In another example from the El Presidio area the building's function was changed. In this case, the total structure was 45 by 60 feet and contained four similar apartments, each fronting on the street. Of these four units, three remain. One has been made into an office, one has become a living space, and one is a sleeping space. The last two areas are separated by an open courtyard made by removing the roof of the fourth apartment. All rehabilitation work, which took seven months to complete, was done by the architect/owner, with two full-time helpers assisting most of the time. The laborers were unskilled in construction work, one being a school teacher, the other being a truck driver, but they were most helpful for the heavy work involved. Tools needed to do the work were rented. The aim was to keep

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all costs at a minimum except those where specialized labor was involved. Specialized subcontract costs included a plumber for $2,000, an electrician for $1,500, and a plasterer, who stuccoed the exterior and the courtyard for $1,200. Heating is supplied by individual room units. The original roofing was patched, and another ply added on top, bringing the total rehabilitation costs for this building to about $10,000, or about $2.25 per square foot above the cost of acquisition.

These examples show the wide degree of variation which exists in preservation costs. The major factors which determine the cost of preservation are:

1. Use of the building.
2. Heating and air-conditioning systems.
3. Kitchens.
4. Bathrooms.

Perhaps preservation work in the Barrio Historico could be accomplished through some sort of self-help project using entirely local materials. Finding sources of funding could be a problem, but certainly not an impossible one. (See Program and Legislation chapters of this report.) However, a civic commitment by the City of Tucson to the objectives of this sort of program is absolutely necessary to assure success in the preservation of the historic Barrio.

Savings can often be realized in rehabilitation work by combining projects. Restoring a group of contiguous structures under one ownership eliminates costly separation walls, simplifies construction, and lowers unit costs. Generally, large-scale building operations produce savings through bulk purchase of materials and more effective use of labor.

Delmar Paules

Ronald Watts

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A program of preservation for the Barrio could generate a greatly increased level of economic activities, particularly income from tourism. Some basic facts concerning tourism in this country today are listed below:

1. Tourism is one of the three largest revenue producers in every state in the nation.

2. People are accumulating more leisure time and money today than at any other time in our history.

3. Because of the interstate network, the automobile accounts for 86% of all vacation travel.

4. Where visits to historic sites were a major reason for such travel, 81% of those polled stated sightseeing as a major recreational activity.

5. Tourism creates additional jobs and is a clean industry.

6. Although most tourists vacation within 500 miles of their homes, the greater the distance travelled, the longer the stay and the more money spent.

7. According to the Department of Commerce, any attraction which brings in an average of 24 tourists per day provides an income equivalent to an industry with an annual payroll of $100,000.

Specific factors to be evaluated when considering a program of tourism include:

1. Character of the buildings and landscape.

2. Presence of night activities and entertainment in the area.

3. The extent to which the area is to be promoted.

4. Availability of suitable visitor facilities.

5. Visitor trends in the country as a whole.

The economic benefits of tourism come primarily from the new income which is circulated into the local economy. Under these conditions, the tourist dollar is used two or three times as much as other dollars, generating between $1.50 and $3.00 in sales before it leaves the local economy. In this respect, there is the fact that tourism can create uses which might not otherwise survive. A historic area has cultural and aesthetic values, and such a site adjacent to an area where community atttractions are being offered would create an added incentive for tourists to spend additional time in the Tucson community. It should be emphasized that if tourism were promoted in the Barrio area without a thoroughly and carefully developed program, resultant development pressures could effectively destroy those characteristics of the Barrio which made it a tourist area to begin with. There is no specialized retailing of any kind in the Barrio today. The opening of even a few shops of this sort could help to generate a market for the specialized type of housing the Barrio might offer.

Delmar Paules

Ronald Watts

Rendering of courtyard scene showing renovated residences and courtyard landscaping.

Rendering of courtyard scene showing renovated residences and courtyard landscaping.


1. Arthur P. Zeigler, Jr., "Revolving Funds," AIA Reprint, Pg. 29.

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