14. INDIANS.


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After leaving Owen's River Valley no Indians were seen until Ivanpah was reached; here there are quite a number, who, for the most part, are employed by the miners to carry water to the mines, This idea of labor is not applicable to the men, as they as a general thing are perfectly contented


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to enjoy the fruits of the labors of their squaws; some few, however, who have been for a long time with the whites, work at times, but it is safe to state only when compelled by hunger. They belong to the tribe of Pi-Utes, or Pah-Utes, as do also the Indians at Cottonwood Springs, Vegas, along the Muddy, and at Saint George. At present those at Ivanpah are perfectly harmless, but only from realizing the superiority of the whites over them. Two years ago, when the mining camp was occupied by only a few men, the majority having gone to Visalia and Los Angeles for provisions, they entered the town and compelled the few people left behind to cook for them what little in the way of provisions was left. Fortunately the wagons arrived while this was going on, and the Indians were driven off; they returned in a few days, however, and asked for food. At the time I passed through I should judge there were nearly one hundred in all encamped about Ivanpah.

At Cottonwood Springs and at Las Vegas there are quite a large number, who move backward and forward between the two places, according to their fancy. They have small farms or gardens, and besides the corn, pumpkins, melons, &c., raised by themselves, obtain scanty supplies from the Vegas ranches for what little work they do. Occasionally they commit some depredation, but the prompt and severe punishment they always receive from the whites, when found out, as a general thing keeps them quiet. I should estimate that these met with at Cottonwood Springs and Las Vegas would number about two hundred. They lead a life of perfect indolence, with a few exceptions, and seem to prefer their present precarious mode of living to one the security of which must depend upon their own exertions and labors.

But little change has taken place among the Indians along the Muddy, except that, not feeling the restraint formerly put upon them by the presence of the Mormons, they are now extremely impudent and bold. They are great beggars, and on several occasions strongly hinted their intentions of taking what they wanted if their demands were not complied with; this, however, was never attempted, and I think it only requires the presence of five or six determined men to keep them at a respectful distance. They are well supplied, and the facilities afforded them for raising grain are not equaled by those of any other band in this portionof Nevada.

The Indians at Saint George are quiet and peaceable, many of them working regularly for the Mormons. Long and continued association with the whites has accomplished this perfect change in their character. It was observed, however, that the converts had generally been raised from infancy away from immediate contact with their own people. Many of the Indians referred to have horses and ponies, and all are usually well clothed.

At Tin-na-kah Spring a deserted rancheria with a small garden was seen, but no Indians were met until Cañon Springs were reached; these belonged to the Hualapais tribe, and seemed very much frightened at seeing us. They had all left their rancherias when we came up, and were out in the hills; they came in after awhile and began begging. Between Tin-na-kah and the crossing of New River, several broad, well-beaten trails were seen, all seeming to converge toward some point on New Biver, near the Colorado. I afterward learned that this locality was formerly a great hiding-place for the Hualapais, when hard pushed during the war which resulted in their being partially brought to terms, so much so, in fact, that many of them now submit to receiving from the Government, as gifts, that which they formerly insisted upon taking in their own way.

The Hualapais at Truxton Springs are not so wild as those seen at Cañon Springs. They nearly all are fed at Beale Springs by the Government, and are consequently more accustomed to the sight of white men. I can give no estimate of their number, as they were coming and going all the time we were there.

To the east, in the vicinity of Diamond Creek, a small band was met with, known as the Seviches. They are a finely developed race, bold and warlike, and regard the approach of the white


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man into their territory with jealous distrust. They always left their rancherias as we approached and hid themselves in the hills; they would afterward come suddenly into camp, and, although manifesting a seemingly great desire to shake hands with every one, would evince their doubts by always asking what we wanted, coupling with this question a rather peremptory request for tobacco. These Indians have gardens at Peach Spring and at the head of Diamond Creek. Their country is well supplied with game, and they all appeared capable of taking care of themselves. They did not allow the squaws to come in sight at all.

No Indians were seen again until reaching Camp Verde, although throughout Chino and Agua Fria Valley they frequently commit depredations. The ranchmen always take their rifles with them; and it is a common occurrence for herders to be picked off, or men shot, while at work in the fields. The Apache-Mohaves roam through this region, and their country extends east to the mountains beyond the Verde River. At the post of that name several hundred were being fed. Quite a large number were found at Beaver Creek, and although then en route to the post to get their five days' allowance, showed great insolence to a small advanced guard that preceded the party. I have since learned that these Indians have all left the reservation.

At Camp Apache nearly twelve hundred were being fed, and seemed peaceable and well contented. Last May, however, they drove off the herds, and for a long time remained away from the post. These Indians belong to the Coyotero, or White Mountain Apache tribe, and have committed many depredations in this country, and even as far south as the roads leading out from Tucson.

The next tribe to the south are the Pinal Apaches, who live in the country about the Pinal Mountains. Noue of them were seen; they are very wild and warlike, refusing to go upon reservations or have any communicaon whatever with white men. Their country is very rough, and scouting parties encounter great difficulties in hunting them.

The general character of the Apache Indians is too well understood to require any further mention from me than that my experience in their country leads me to conclude that their bloodthirsty nature has not been overdrawn. In time, perhaps, civilizing influences might render them less wild and barbarous than they now are; but this change I do not consider as likely to happen except in the case of those taken at an early age from their own people.

In conclusion, I would express my indebtedness to the different assistants who were with me for their co-operation and valuable aid in bringing the labors of the season to so successful a termination.

Respectfully submitted.

DANIEL W. LOCKWOOD,

First Lieutenant of Engineers.

Lieutenant GEO. M. WHEELER,

Corps of Engineers.

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