CHAPTER XIII. INDIAN TROUBLE'S (Continued).


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MIKE BURNS' STORY OF “THE PINOLE TREATY”—PIMAS AND MARICOPAS DECEIVE THE WHITES—GIVE APACHES BAD NAME—APACHE BOW AND ARROW MAKING—FIGHT WITH SOLDIERS BETWEEN FLORENCE AND MCDOWELL—INDIAN OPINION OF SOLDIERS AS FIGHTERS.

‘‘

“This great treachery to the Mohave-Apaches was told me by an Indian by the name of Kwanga-cuma-ma, meaning ‘Hitting Head,’ or ‘Chicken Neck,’ which name he bears to this day.

“There were camps of all kinds of Apaches, some having just arrived from beyond where the Roosevelt Dam now is, from what is called by the Mexicans ‘Sierra Anchas.’ We Mohaves call those mountains ‘Ewee-tha-quaw-wai,’ which means ‘Wide Ranges of Rocks.’ These were Tonto-Mohaves, we being related to the Tontos, and their roaming ground was from Four Peaks along the Matazal ranges, the Tonto Basin in beyond Payson to the Sierra Anchas. When the tropical fruits ripen they come over to the Superstition Mountains, and along the Salt River Valley.

“They camped on the rim of a row of ranges between the Superstitions and what is called Fish Creek. The camps were in four distinct parts, a few miles from each other, but the middle one contained the most in number, and above near to the top of a mountain was a large camp, that of the big chief, Delacha. Some parties were out hunting deer, and some were out catching rabbits or rats. They were only armed with


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bows and arrows. They left their camps without fear of meeting enemies because they had never harmed anybody only once in a while some parties would go out to steal ponies which they needed for food.

“Some of the parties returned and said that they had seen some armed horsemen down the valley, and that they knew there were some Pimas and Maricopas with them because when they were in hearing distance some of the Indians had called to them saying that they were out to make a treaty with all of the people in the country and that they need not be afraid; that they were to come to the camp without arms, and they were assured they would not be molested; that the soldiers had brought all sorts of articles to give the Indians as presents, so as to assure them of their friendship. When all of the hunting parties returned, word was sent around to the other camps. Some of the Indians were in favor of going to make the treaty with the soldiers, saying that they were getting very tired of hiding out in the hills and always having to be on the watch lest their enemies jump them in their sleep, so they thought it was getting time when they could be at rest, and they did get rest, too. They said they wished to be at peace with everybody and get rest and quiet, and those men have never seen another day from that time.

“Some of the Indians went to the chief's camp and told him about the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas, who were also accompanied by two Yuma-Apaches. The Maricopas took the two Yuma-Apaches along in order to be able to pretend that all the other Indians had been


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treated all right, and these two Indians were used to persuade the Mohaves to come in and be good people, and have plenty to eat and all the clothing they needed. The Tonto-Apaches came to one of the camps and talked at length, and said that as they had been among the Mohaves all their lives, they were willing to go and see what the soldiers and other Indians had to say to them; that even if it were a trap they were willing to take the punishment with the rest of the people. These Tonto-Apaches were two, father-in-law and son-in-law, and it is said that they both wore buckskin shirts and pants, decorated with brass buttons. Many of the men were willing to go down, but the big chief, Dela-Cha, stood over on a rocky point shouting to those who were already seated close to where the soldiers were, telling them that it was all foolishness to believe that those Pimas and Maricopas came to his country to meet them and make a treaty of friendship; that they had always been his enemies, and so had the soldiers, as they had never kept any of their promises, and he told these Indians that they would be lucky if any of them ever came out of there alive. He said: ‘For me, where I am standing now, is close enough for me.’

“Just then an old man who had been away from the camp for a day or two came in, and noticed the excitement of everybody, old and young, in the camp, and asked them what the trouble was, and some one told him the news, and also told him that three of his sons had gone out with the parties to visit the soldiers. When he had learned all of the news the women asked him to rest a little and have something to eat. He said: ‘I need nothing to eat now. I am going


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down to where my sons are and will die with them before the sun goes over the hills, and there is no use to eat.’ When he was told that those who went down to have the council with the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas were told not to take with them any arms of any kind, he said: ‘Those people are my enemies and I am going down there with my bow and arrows on me, and I am going to protect myself. Those who went down there without arms are foolish, as foolish as a child.’

“But one man came out of that massacre alive. He was living here until about three years ago, when he died, over a hundred years old. He received three bullet wounds in the massacre but recovered from them. He was the one who told me about the affair. His name was Way-ga-thy-match-jah, or ‘Lean to him a woman,’ but afterwards he was called Maw-wot-ta-ot-gau, ‘A small round looking flour.’ He was named that at the San Carlos Agency where many Indians came to receive rations of sugar, coffee, beef, beans and flour. He must have been given a very small sack of flour. He only drew rations for himself and wife, and many of the others drew for large families, so his rations were very small.

“Maw-wot-ta-ot-gau was in the first party which went to meet the soldiers and he was given two pails and shown down towards the creek, so that he understood that he was to get some water, so he went and brought in water twice. More Indians came in and then he noticed that the soldiers were going away in twos and threes, having their blankets under their arms, and then he heard from the hills that the soldiers were getting ready to surround the Indians, and


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he also noticed that the Pimas and Maricopas never had unsaddled their horses, so the next time he went down to the creek for water, he left the pails there, and went across the creek and stationed himself about a hundred and fifty yards from where the rest of the crowd were seated. Two long strips of white sheeting had been put down for the Indians to sit on. Some of the Soldiers opened some packages of tobacco, and some calico, and had taken some of it out to give to the Indians. The Pimas and Maricopas were closing in, pretending to be watching as the presents were given out. I was sitting on a rock on the other side of the creek, a rock about the size of the body of a man, and didn't know that there was anything hidden behind it, but there was a spear lying there. Just then an Indian left the row of Indians who were sitting on the ground and came across the creek. He started to climb over a rock to go towards the hills from where we came, but before he got over a soldier came to him and pulled him down from the rock, and the soldier reached behind him and pulled his pistol out, but before he could fire the Indian reached under his shirt and pulled out his long-bladed knife, at the same time taking hold of the soldier's shoulder, and he struck the soldier right down the throat. The soldier fell backwards and the pistol was discharged as he fell. The Pimas and Maricopas and the soldiers closed in upon the other Indians, who attempted to escape, but volleys of shot were poured into them so that hardly any of them escaped sound in body. It is strange that no notice was taken of me. I was sitting there on a little rock and the first thing I knew I was behind the rock and just had my head so that I


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could see across it. I noticed that an Indian had been shot down and that a Pima or a Maricopa was hitting him on the head to finish him. Just then the Pima or Maricopa reached for another stone, and the other Indian grabbed the spear which was behind the rock I was behind, and thrust it right through the Pima or Maricopa, and started to run away to the hills. The spear was shot out of his hand, but he got away into a little rocky, bushy ravine. I ran too, and fell under a bush and covered myself with leaves, and laid there as if I were dead, and stayed there until after it became dark.

“After I woke up I walked toward where I thought the camp was, but it was a hard trip. I did not see anybody, and the camp seemed deserted, and someone had already destroyed the belongings of those whom they supposed to be dead. I finally came to our camp and found that my family had also destroyed the things which had belonged to those they thought dead, and had moved their camp farther up the mountains. I learned from other Indians that all the camps had banded together with the big chief, Dela-cha, intending to ambush the raiders down below where there was a deep gulch through which the road led. Dela-cha had some young men out watching the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas, with orders to let him know just when the soldiers started to move camp on their return homeward. Before midnight the soldiers moved down the creek, and the Indians were an posted down at the deep gulch, where they could hear the horses' hoofs. Dela-cha told his men to creep up close to the road behind some bushes and rocks which were within a few yards of the road. Some of the


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warriors were posted at the end of the gulch to give the signal when the last of the party should have entered it, and it happened that the soldiers were the rear guard of the party. The Apaches had only bows and arrows, but they made every shot count at that time; they never knew just how many they killed, but they captured three, and must have killed and wounded a great many.

“As I have said, there were two Tonto-Apaches with the party, who were dressed in buckskin shirts and pants. Both were killed and it was found afterwards that they had been stripped of their buckskin clothing and all they had on. The old man who went down there with his bow and arrows after having been told that his three sons had gone down, stood the soldiers and Pimas and Maricopas off for a long time, by shooting with his bow and arrows, He finally turned and ran up the hill, but a bullet struck him in the back of his head when he reached the top of the hill. He seemed at that time to be out of reach of the bullets, but one reached him and killed him. He was criticized by some of the Indians afterwards for not staying near his boys and trying to protect them, then if he had been killed with the boys, it would have been expected.

“Here, before these very Apaches had ever seen a white man, or had ever had any opportunity to do him harrm, they were set upon and massacred. The whites were misled by the Pimas and Maricopas who lived in the Gila and Salt River Valleys, and who were the deadly enemies of the Apaches. These Pimas and Maricopas led the white men to believe that the


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Apaches were a bad and bloodthirsty people who lived in the mountains and only came down from there when they wanted to steal or kill people. The Apaches and the Pimas and Maricopas had been deadly enemies for years. The Pimas used to steal up on the Apaches in the night and mash their heads while they were asleep, men, women and children. Many were killed in this manner. The Pimas would also set fire to the camps of the Apaches after killing off the inhabitants in the middle of winter. One time the Maricopas killed a young couple who had just been married, and left the dead man and the dead woman together just as if they had been sleeping, with their arms around each other, after stripping them naked. Treatment like this will, of course, make any human being feel like getting even in some way. The Apaches, however, did not have many weapons to protect themselves; they only had bows and arrows. The arrows were made of sticks, with a little sharp stone in the end, and would not carry very far, the longest distance they would shoot being about a hundred and fifty yards, and they would do but little harm at that. Sometimes the arrows were made out of cane that grew along the river banks or around a spring of water. It took quite a lot of ingenuity to make them; they had to be of a certain length to fit the party who was going to use them, and also according to the size of the bow. The canes would first be cut and then dried, and then cut again to the proper length. Some men had long arms and some short, and it was usually the custom to measure the arrows according to the length of their arms. Then


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they would be taken to an old man who had a small blue stone, about four inches long, and one and a half to two inches thick, and having on each side a little hollow space, not very deep, but the size of an arrow and the whole length of the stone, with a little ridge in between the two hollow spaces. This stone was put close to a fire to become heated, but was not overheated. It was then put on a larger stone and the old man would rub the stick along it lengthways, and whenever there was a knot to be straightened out, he would rub it crossways on the middle. He would look through often with one eye as if sighting, and would keep on with this process until the arrow would be as smooth and straight as could be. The owner of the arrows was supposed to have everything in readiness, lots of feathers, and so on. The feathers used were mostly black hawk feathers, but every man wanted eagle feathers if they could get them. It was hard to catch the eagles, however. About the only way was to find a nest and take out the young and keep them until they grew feathers, when they would pull the feathers out, and in course of time, the feathers would grow again. The same method had to be pursued with the hawks, and when a man owned some birds he would take good care of them, feed them well, etc., and the other Indians would come to him and buy feathers. They valued the eagle feathers most, however, because there is a legend among the Indians that the eagle takes people and everything he comes across to his lair up in the mountains to feed his young with, and also that the great eagle commands the weather and the winds.


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It is said that if the great father eagle is seen coming down from the heights of the mountains or rocks that it will be black, misty weather on that day and he will be sure to catch a human being and take him home. Medicine men always had eagle feathers on their persons if they could get them and they would give anything for a few white eagle feathers for dressing for their medicine sticks for spiritual help.

“No one would think that a small straight stick would hurt anything or kill anybody, or that a small flat white stone would be harmful, or that small green weeds grown under the shade of certain trees could be made into poison to put on the end of an arrow to kill. This is the way the arrows would be treated. If a quiver full of arrows was examined it would be found that the sharp stones at the end of the arrow would be covered with a bluish-black substance. This was the poison and I have often heard soldiers say that after a fight was over they would find that they had been struck or scratched with an arrow, and that that part of their body would swell up and blister as if they were burnt. This would finally result in death as they had no cure for it.

“The poisons are made from all kinds of poison insects. The Indians would even catch snakes and cut off their heads and use their poison fangs. Lots of spiders were poisonous and a good many of the weeds which grew around. They would put them with a fresh deer gall, fasten it with a little stick, and bury it under the ground and build a fire over it, and do this sometimes for two or three days, when it would be so rotten that it would smell


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bad, and the Indians would not dare to touch it, but would pick it up with small sticks and tie it to the limb of a tree some distance from camp. Everybody would be warned not to go near it or touch it. In the course of a few weeks it would be dry and hard, just like a blackened coal, and it was then wrapped up in a piece of rag. When they wanted to use it, it was rubbed on a stone with a little water, and the tips of the arrows would be dipped in this and laid away to dry. The arrow heads were made of a hard flint, which would be put close to a fire to make it chip easy, and then it would be worked down to the shape and size desired.

“The bow was made from a mulberry tree which is cut down at certain seasons of the year, and it must be free from knots. To make it hard and springy it has to be buried under a fire in shallow dirt which is wet. It is then taken out to a tree and bent between two limbs and then whittled into the size and shape which its owner desires it to be. It is then strung with the sinews of some animal, a deer, horse or steer, anything large enough to furnish a sinew long enough and strong enough for the string. This string has to be twisted very tight and strong, and a careful Indian would carry along with him a spare string coiled around his waist, and would also have an extra stick for a bow. These they carried to use in case of an emergency when they were out on raids or on the warpath against other Indians. They did not go on the warpath against the whites as they had no ill feelings against them at first, but the treatment they received, particularly the massacre near the foothills of the


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Superstition Mountains, turned them into hostiles against the whites and others. Before that the Apaches lived in the mountains and in the valleys between them, frequently visiting other camps of Indians, crossing the Verde River to the western slopes without fear of being molested, by other Indians or white men. They only killed wild game and small game, and the women folks would gather the fruits from the trees and everything they could find to eat from the different kinds of plants, such as the century plant. They would get it and cook it at special times during the year, and it would be prepared and put away for future use where the wet weather could not harm it, for if it were wet it would melt or get stringy and weedy and have no taste.

“After that massacre, and for several years afterwards, the Indians got together and had councils of war, and decided that it was time to make war on the whites. At times some of the Indian men would drop into Fort McDowell after that place had been firmly established by the soldiers as a post. They used to go in there to pick up things which were thrown away, such as clothing which was partly worn out and which would be lying around the post, or rags, and when the soldiers saw those Indians coming, they would go out with their guns and herd them in and lock them in the guard-house. If the Indians started to run the soldiers would shoot them, and sometimes they would kill all of them, and their people who were left behind in the camp would wonder what had become of them, because sometimes none of the party escaped alive to return home to tell them. After


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the government established McDowell and stationed the military there, the Indians could not go across from their own camps without danger of being attacked by the Pimas and Maricopas and being wiped out.

“A small band of Indians went to the camp of some soldiers just below where the mining camp of Superior is. This party walked right into the soldiers' camp, not expecting that anything would happen to them, but the soldiers saw that there were but a few Indians, and they grabbed hold of the men and cut their heads off and burnt the corpses. Some other Indians happened to see the occurrence from a distance, and after the soldiers had left the camp they went there to see if they could find the bodies of their relatives, but could only find small pieces of bone in the ashes. So they went to the Pinal mountains to tell the news, went up the head of the Salt River near where the Roosevelt Dam now is, and also to the Tonto Basin, and called a council of war to be held near the Superstition Mountains. There was a camp there containing a great number of warriors, practically the only remnants of the Indians from the massacres which had occurred to their people during the previous years. They held the council and made up their minds to war on anybody they might meet, Pimas, Maricopas, or white men and soldiers. There must have been about thirty-five men under Dela-cha. They started out and came to a road running from Florence to Fort McDowell. Some of the young men were out on a hill towards Florence, and two or three of them came and said that there were three wagons coming with


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many soldiers following behind, and also some in front of the wagons. There were no hills or large rocks that the Indians could get behind for protection and they were armed with bows and arrows only. Some of them, though, had spears. So the chief told them not to be scared, but to be men, to fight as men for vengeance for the wrongs done to them by the soldiers and others, and that they must hold their places to a man to show their enemies that they, too, could kill; that they must win their battle with the soldiers and take something home so that their few old people and their children could rejoice over the victory. Particularly must they take home with them the clothing of the soldiers whom they might kill. So they watched the wagon train closely and counted how many soldiers there were. Soon some runners came in and said that there were three wagons, six soldiers ahead of the train, and about six or eight soldiers back of it, making in all about fifteen soldiers and three other men on the wagons. The chief said to count them again and make sure there were no soldiers in the wagons. The runners went back and told the watchmen of the chief's instructions, and were assured that there were no soldiers in the wagons, that the wagons had no covers and there was only some stuff in them, and the men driving them were riding the mules. The runners returned to the chief, and the watchmen too, as the wagons were within a mile of the party, and they told the chief to find them a hiding place quick. They saw a wide sandwash on the road, and much brush on each side of the road in which they could hide so that they would be


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almost within reaching distance of the party passing along the road, The chief ordered them to hurry back to the big wash. Taking stock of their arms they found that there were only three guns in the party, and these were old-fashioned flintlock guns. It was arranged that the men having these guns were to fire first. By this time they could hear the sound of the horses' hoofs, and the soldiers and the wagons were right on top of them. The soldiers were riding by twos. The Indians having the guns, fired, and the others armed with bows and arrows commenced shooting at the horses, and also at the soldiers. Four of the soldiers dropped off their horses, and the others tried to escape, but several of them were shot with arrows in the back. The soldiers who were behind the wagons commenced shooting, but the Indians who were armed with the guns had reloaded and commenced firing at them. The escaping soldiers were pursued for some distance over the desert, but, fearing that they would be met by a large body of soldiers, the Indians abandoned the pursuit and returned to the scene of the ambush, where they found four dead soldiers and two dead teamsters. One of the teamsters escaped with the rest of the soldiers. The Indians got all the mules that were hitched to the wagons, stripped the soldiers of everything they had on them, and got about twenty guns and some pistols. They threw away everything that was on the wagons; opened the sacks of flour, coffee, sugar and beans, and dumped them on the ground. The only things they took besides the clothing and guns were tobacco and empty sacks. They


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found two sound horses, and most of the mules were sound, so there were nearly enough animals for all to ride, riding double. They set fire to the wagons and returned to their camp, taking the road near what is called ‘Gold Field,’ towards the Needle Rocks, to their camp. When they reached their camp there was great rejoicing there that the warriors had returned safely and had been victorious. Next day the two horses and nearly twenty mules were killed for meat, and all the things that the warriors had brought back with them were taken from them. It is customary upon the return of young men from the warpath, and especially if it is their first experience and they are victorious, not to keep anything they got off their dead enemies. It is not considered good policy by the Indians. The old folks wondered why they had not taken the scalps of the dead men, but the warriors said that there was no hair on their heads, so that it was not worth the trouble to cut the scalps off.

“They were told to be on the watch because the soldiers would be coming after them, and sure enough, about three days after their return, some runners came in and said that there was a lot of soldiers coming about twenty miles away. There was a tableland above the camp, and the old folks and children were taken up there so as to be out of the way if the camp was attacked by the soldiers. Most all of the Indians moved up there as there was a rough cliff projecting over the camp, and those who had guns and pistols were to stay and wait for the soldiers to get to the camp. There was a deep and rocky gulch with a creek running through it, and the


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soldiers had to cross that before they could get to the camp, and the Indians were ready to fire on anybody they might see. The soldiers could not see the Indians, and while they were dismounting their horses and preparing to set fire to the camp, the Indian boys opened fire on them and the soldiers were scattered in all directions. Some fell dead, and some ran away, leaving their horses. The Indians kept firing on the soldiers, and the soldiers fired several volleys in the direction where the shots were coming from, but could not see any Indians to shoot. Further up on the bluffs, however, on the tops of the hills, could be seen groups of Indians waving red blankets at the soldiers and daring them to come up, but the soldiers only made haste to go back the way they came. The next day the Indians went back to the camp and found much blood and two dead horses. Some of the Indians said that they had seen two of the soldiers drop on the ground, and others tried to make them get up, but they had to leave them there because the Indians were shooting at them, but afterwards the dead must have been picked up and carried away.

“While some of the Indians were looking around the old camp to see what the soldiers had left, there was great rejoicing to find two guns and a pistol which the soldiers had left behind. I was only a small lad then but can remember that place and the happening. I was with the old men, the women, and the children, and we were told to go away up to another high hill, and we were up on the rim of the rocks like mountain sheep or an eagle, looking down over the rocks, and when the sounds of shots were heard, the old folks would tell us children to get back over the rocks because the bullets would go a


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long way and would kill people. But all the shots we heard were shots fired at the soldiers by our own people. The old folks, however, did not know who was doing this shooting.

“Shortly after this affair some Tonto Apaches visited us, and after a few days the whole camp was separated, one party going to the Salt River country, another going towards the Pinal Mountains, and another large party moved over to the upper range of the Superstition Mountains. This was done so that if the soldiers should come back in force there would be no Indians there.

“From that time on it was shown that the soldiers were not very good fighters; they could kill Indians when they came within gun reach and had no weapons to protect themselves. If the Indians were armed to the teeth like the soldiers were, with breech loading guns, pistols and sabres, with plenty of ammunition and a pack train, the soldiers would not stand up to them. But where the Indians only had bows and arrows, and if the bows were broken or the arrows all shot, they would be without weapons, the soldiers could probably have gotten the best of them. If the Indians had all had firearms when the hostilities broke out, it would have been a different proposition, and the settlements in this country would not have been made so fast, neither would the Indians have been taken prisoners of war and placed on reservations against their wishes and without making a fair deal with them. For several years afterwards, on the upper ranges of the country, beyond the Matazal Mountains, many Indians came together and agreed to keep up the war against the whites in the western country. They planned to go


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the south side of the Bradshaw mountains, passing the Hot Springs, just above the site of the town of Wickenburg. This was done by a party who saw four men in the creek, and they agreed to kill them when they returned to their camp, and to take their belongings. One of the Mohave-Apaches, named Waw-a-quattia, found a small sized Navajo blanket which he had left behind him at the time of the massacre some years before, which he was wearing when he went to the council with the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas. He was one of the party who escaped, but he had to leave his blanket in order that he might run fast. The next day other parties were out scouring the country and brought in some spoils too, and said that they had killed two Mexicans. They intended to go over to Date Creek to make a raid on the Indians who were camping around that post, and those Indians had given aid to the soldiers by leading them through the country, and they were especially aiding the Pimas and Maricopas. They all claimed, however, that they had never done any killing.

”Some of the party by this time were pretty hungry and ragged, some of them being almost barefoot, and it was decided to turn north and follow the Hassayampa until they struck the road going to Prescott. On this road they met six white men, mounted on horses. They attacked them and killed four of them, and the other two escaped toward Prescott. They found that two of the dead men were dressed in the buckskin suits and moccasins worn by the two Tonto-Apaches who had been killed in the massacre some years previous, and they then found that they had come across the very parties who


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had assisted in that massacre. This goes to show that all the outrages on the Indians were not done by the soldiers, but by the first white men who came into the country, some of them being the volunteers from California.

“None of the Indians had been wounded or killed in these last fights, and they decided to return to their homes. Near Pine Flat they found a few head of cattle and drove them across the Agua Fria, and killed them. Packing the meat on their backs they went to the Bloody Basin country, and crossed the Verde River, and in a couple of days they were at home again.

“This little sketch of history about what was done to the Indians by the soldiers, and the first killing of the Apaches by the Pimas and Maricopas, shows the way the Apaches were subdued. The Pimas and Maricopas were the Indians who lived in the valley of the Gila and the valley of the Salt River, and they were the first Indians in Arizona to meet the white man, and it was supposed that they were friendly to everybody, but they certainly were not to the Apaches. The Pimas and Maricopas massacred the Apaches many times, killing them in the night, then they would always run, even if there were three or four hundred of them. Apaches always called the Pimas crows, because they would dance around and dodge from one place to another until they were out of sight. But they were very brave when three or four hundred of them came across a few old men and women and children. They would attack them and beat their heads to a jelly and not let one escape alive. For my part I think the Pima and Maricopa Indians are the most cowardly of the Indians of the southwest. But credit should be given to the


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Apache. He has stood his ground and preserved his home and his family for a long period of years, creeping from one mountain to another in the night, hiding from his enemies, until he could creep up on some sleeping soldiers, killing some and driving off a few head of horses. Then he was denounced as a ‘Bloodthirsty Apache.’ There is always a time in the history of man when the duty of protecting himself and his family is imposed upon him; a time when there has been so much wrong done to him that he would not be a man if he did not make an effort to protect himself, his family and his home from his enemies.

“I am an Apache Indian, and I take the stand now and always have, that the Apache is a brave man, They were not a very numerous people, but they preferred to be exterminated rather than submit to injustices or to be taken captives, and they would hold out until the last arrow was shot, or their bows broken, then they would have nothing left to fight with but their hands, and they would rather have them cut off than live to see their country taken away from them. The soldiers were not their only enemies; there were many Indian aliens who fought with the soldiers, such as the Pimas, the Maricopas, the Yuma-Apaches, the Mohaves on the Colorado, the Wallapais and the Navajos. In addition to these there were the Mexicans and the volunteers from California. The regular soldiers who were stationed at Fort McDowell, Camp Date Creek, Camp Wickenburg, Camp Del Rio, Fort Whipple, Camp Verde, Fort Reno, Fort Thomas, Fort Grant, and, right in the center of the White Mountain Apaches, Fort Apache; Fort Bowie, Fort Lowell near Tucson, Fort Huachucha, Fort


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Yuma and Fort Mohave, also were the enemies of the Indians, and came to fight the friendless Apache. There were thousands of white men to fight the Apaches, but they had to hire many thousands of Indians to show the soldiers through the Apache country and help track the Apaches, and also to show the soldiers the paths and waterholes. If the soldiers had not had the assistance of the other Indians to fight the Apaches, they would have had a very hard time fighting them. The only way they could get the best of them was to get them to come in on the pretense that the Government wanted to make peace with them, and that they must come in and make a treaty and meet the soldiers without arms, and when the soldiers got them into the camp, they would make good Indians of them by dropping them when they were sitting around on the ground. The soldiers did not like to go out and hunt them in the woods and stand the hard times; sometimes they could not find water for themselves or their animals; sometimes they would be out in the hills and get into some rough country where they could not go any farther and would have to go back the same way they came. The soldiers did very little harm to the Indians. Once in the winter of 1872, the soldiers passed right by a camp of Indians on a thick flat of cedar; it was snowing and the wind was blowing right into the soldiers' faces. They never looked down on the ground to see if there were any tracks of the Indians, and went right on by. They always had to have Indians to guide them and to fight the Apaches in their style, and also to find them waterholes. Only for the aid of the Indians the soldiers were worth nothing.

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