CHAPTER VII. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S TREATMENT OF ARIZONA.


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CONGRESS DISREGARDS APPEALS OF ARIZONA FOR AID—SYLVESTER MOWRY'S PROTEST AGAINST GOVERNMENT TAKING OVER MINES—JUDGE HOWELL'S LETTERS—NAVIGATION OF COLORADO RIVER—ACTIVITIES OF DELEGATE CHAS. D. POSTON IN CONGRESS—HIS SPEECH IN CONGRESS.

It shows how utterly regardless Congress was of the needs of Arizona when it is stated that none of the memorials set forth in the preceding chapter were acted upon. It was right that the per diem of members of the Legislature should be increased, because three dollars a day in currency did not pay their board in Prescott at that time. Board alone, without room rent, was from fifteen to twenty dollars in gold per week, and the increase in the salaries of the officers asked for was certainly not exorbitant.

The gathering in of the Indians along the Colorado River upon one reservation where they could be protected from the aggressions of the whites, and which would have afforded the whites protection against the raids of the Indians, was certainly something which Congress should have acted upon immediately, for while Congress set aside seventy-five thousand acres on the Colorado for an Indian Reservation, it made no provision whatever, so far as I can find, for a survey, the digging of canals for irrigating and the settlement of the Indians upon the reservation, consequently, for all practical purposes the


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setting aside of the land was useless. The Indians were left to roam at will over their former territory, and, being without means of subsistence, were compelled to prey upon their white neighbors, which resulted in the uprising of what Carleton called the peaceful tribes and the inauguration of a war which for ferocity and brutality is not paralleled by the war which ended in the subjugation of the Apaches, and lasted for at least ten years until they were finally conquered by General Crook and placed upon the reservations. Had Congress acted upon the advice of Arizona's delegate, thousands of lives would have been saved and millions of dollars worth of property have been preserved to the white settlers and that part of the country would have been more rapid in its development.

The exploration of the Colorado River by Lieut. Ives was undertaken by the Government to ascertain if a feasible route could not be found by which Salt Lake City could draw her supplies from the head waters of the Colorado. This was demonstrated, and the town of Callville, near the Virgin River, was established, and was a forwarding point into Salt Lake City for many years, but Congress would appropriate no money to improve the navigation of the Colorado River, nor did it act upon the petition asking for an appropriation of $250,000 to aid in subduing the Apaches, notwithstanding at this time the United States troops were practically withdrawn from the Territory, and the defense of their homes and holdings was left almost entirely in the hands of the settlers.

It will be seen by the correspondence of General Carleton that he advised the taking over of


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mining properties in Arizona and New Mexico by the government, and leasing them to operators, and also, by the Governor's message, that he advised the Legislature to enact a law that any prospector who discovered a mining property, should locate a claim adjoining the discovery claim for the Territory, this claim to be sold and a sum accumulated therefrom for the raising of militia to operate against the Apaches. At that time there was a good deal of discussion over this matter in Congress, probably arising from the letters of General Carleton.

Sylvester Mowry, in a letter to the New York World, under date of April 25th, 1864, says that: “In July, 1863, the President of the United States directed the United States Marshal for the Northern District of California to take possession of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine. General Wright, commanding the Department of the acific, was ordered to furnish troops to enforce the seizure. The Marshal and the troops proceeded on their errand, and found the mine fortified against attack. Did they seize the mine? By no means. The excitement throughout the State was intense. The present Governor, F. F. Low, leading bankers, merchants and capitalists, telegraphed to Washington, ‘For God's sake, withdraw the order to seize the New Almaden, or there will be a revolution in the state,’ and the President of the United States recalled the order.”

In the same letter Mr. Mowry says: “A resolution has been introduced in the House of Representatives authorizing the President of the United States to take possession of the mines of Colorado and Arizona. Various other propositions


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have been made, all looking to the best mode of devising a revenue from the mineral lands for the support of the general government.” He vigorously protested against the seizure of the mines by the government or the imposition of any unnecessary and burdensome taxation, and, pertinently, asked the question:

‘‘

“Why does not the resolution include the State of California and the Territories of Nevada, Idaho and New Mexico. In all these the precious metals are mined to a great extent on public lands. If the President is to take possession, in the name of the United States, of a mine in Arizona or Colorado, it follows by inevitable logic that he must do so throughout all the public lands.”

’’

This letter was followed by one to the “New York Herald,” printed May 4th, 1864, upon the same subject, in which Mr. Mowry particularly referred to a proposition made by Senator Conness of California, proposing that a tax of 5% be levied upon all bullion, gold or silver, refined at the mint, coupled with a law prohibiting the exportation of unstamped bullion, which amounted to a tax of five per cent upon the gross proceeds of all mines.

These resolutions in Congress failed of passage, and are only noted here to show the conviction at that time, which was shared in by General Carleton, that the government could raise sufficient money from the operation of the placers and other mines of Arizona to pay the National debt, and it was only natural that Governor Goodwin should share to some extent in this feeling, and desire that Arizona should derive a large income from her mines through the sale of


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claims located by every discoverer of a mining property.

It is a fact, I think, that can hardly be questioned, that those who accepted office in Arizona under the Federal Government, did not do so for the meagre salaries allowed, but expected to grow up with the country and to establish their individual fortunes through the acquisition of mining property. To one of them this certainly was an incentive, as the following letters written by Judge Howell, the author of the Howell code, to his friend in Michigan, show:

‘‘

“Territory of Arizona.

“Office of the United States Supreme Court.

“Tucson, 19 Feb 864.

“Hon. Wm. A. Richmond,

“Dear Sir:—Your favor of Nov.—from New York reached me by express, en route from Fort Whipple to this place on the 13th inst.

“The express contained several letters for John, whom I left at the fort for the purpose of going into the mines with Surveyor-General Bashford. The Walker mines where they go are so destitute of water, that I think they will soon return. John has a full three months' supply for any place.

“I tendered him the Clerkship of this (First Judicial District) and before I left he informed me he would accept, and be here within four weeks. I think he can make it worth a thousand dollars a year, and will enable him to make a standpoint to emerge from when circumstances justify.

“This country is fabulously rich in gold and silver, but by far the richest portion is kept from

JUDGE WM. T. HOWELL.


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being worked by the hostility of the Indians. Should a systematic, effective policy of protection be adopted, the world would be astonished at the result. The treasures are untold, and the government can safely issue five hundred millions more of ‘Greenbacks’ and look to this region for their redemption with confidence, if the miners can only have the privilege of protecting themselves by an organization to be known as ‘Miners’ Corps' and furnished with ammunition and rations, without wages, and placed under the general charge of competent superintendents.

“They would clear the country, (say 2,000 men), pay themselves from the earth, and prove more efficient than three times that number of armed troops.

“Theorize as much as you please, and some such measure must be adopted before it will prove effective.

“The presage has gone forth that the Apaches are unconquered, but the miners have ‘cleaned them out’ wherever they have gone in force, and they are the only men that have ever succeeded in doing so.

“As I cannot answer half the letters of inquiry I receive, I may yet write on the subject for general information.

“Very truly yours,

“W. T. HOWELL.”

“Tucson, 9 March, 1864.

“Hon. Wm. A. Richmond,

“Dear Sir:—Your favor of the 4th January is just received by express.

“As I informed you in my last, John is yet in the mines, but I expect to hear from him daily. He has the refusal of the Clerkship here, worth


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more than all the other Clerkships in the Territory.

“Now for minerals: I have travelled five hundred miles in the Territory, and been fifty days on the road. While Indian hostilities continue, the silver mines of the southern portion are much surer and safer than any other, as we have sufficient protection to work them. Every day further develops their richness and extent. Southern Arizona and Sonora contain the mother deposits of silver on this continent. A silver mine once opened and tested is a safe and permanent investment. The deeper you go the wider and richer. Gold leads are apt to run out, break off suddenly, and become ‘spotted,’ as it is termed.

“Now for the modus operandi:

“Mines are discovered, tested, found rich and stock immediately created and sold in such a diluted condition that the investment is unprofitable. For instance, the expense of travel agencies, discovery, testing and all would not exceed from ten to twenty thousand dollars by nonresidents. If the stock was made from one to two hundred thousand dollars, according to the test, it would be profitable, but instead of that it ranges from a quarter to two millions of dollars, and the whole profits absorbed in the first instance. Now for a ‘peep behind the curtain.’ A resident here having the facilities can procure a mountaineer or miner to furnish him a lead for which after it is opened and proves good, he will have to pay him from one to four hundred dollars. A shaft can be sunk fifty feet from 4 to 7 dollars per foot. The depth of thirty feet secures the mine against all the world, and at that


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depth you can judge of its extent and richness. If you proceed, a simple machine and two mules, which will test and pay as you go, will be all that is necessary. If all is right at thirty feet, at fifty you have a mine the stock of which at one hundred thousand dollars, would be worth more than dollar for dollar, and be permanent.

“All this would cost not to exceed fifteen hundred dollars by a resident here and not more than one thousand if lucky the first trial. This is the real —the Wall Street speculators the ideal .

“Keep out of Wall Street, as the fountain head can be reached much cheaper through the right channel.

“This information is for your benefit—not to be made public, but to those only who wish to try their luck.

“The best way to reach here is by water on the Pacific side. From San Francisco to the nearest port on the Gulf, and then by land. As this country has been overrun by Indians until now, and, consequently, produce is scarce, I cannot advise a large influx of population unless by way of California, and they should bring their supplies with them from that State.

“As our express does not go east under ten weeks, I send this via San Francisco as an experiment. Will attend to any matters and render any assistance in my power.

“Yours very truly,

“W. T. HOWELL.”

’’

In our day the author of such a letter would be subject to indictment for fraudulent use of the mails.


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Vein mining at that time was little understood. Holes in the ground in Nevada, in the Reese River and other districts, not over ten feet deep, were being sold at from fifteen thousand and to fifty thousand dollars each, and, naturally, the furore extended to every terrritory where mineral was found.

The Governor in his message called attention to the navigation of the Colorado River. As before stated, a memorial was passed by the Legislature asking Congress to appropriate money for its improvement, which, like everything else coming from Arizona in the way of a petition to the Government, to alleviate conditions there, was passed over in silence. The Colorado River, as is seen by the memorial, was navigable as high as Callville, a post established near the mouth of the Grand Canyon, which was the shipping point for several years into Utah. Mining, as we have seen, was being prosecuted to a great extent along this river up to Bill Williams' Fork.

About the latter part of the year 1863, or some time in 1864, the date not being fully established, Capt. W. H. Hardy, one of the pioneers of Mohave County, established a ferry and toll road, and also a store, at Hardyville, which, for about nine months in the year, was the head of navigation on the Colorado River, and which was about 150 miles from Yuma. Freight was discharged at this point and transferred by team to Prescott and other points in the north.

The town of Ehrenberg, first designated as Mineral City, according to Hinton, was founded by an association in March, 1863, of which Herman Ehrenberg was elected surveyor. In 1867


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it was resurveyed, and called Ehrenberg. A ferry was established there in 1862, and from this point goods were transferred to Weaver and other points in Arizona.

In order to encourage the California Volunteers to make a little money on the side, General Carleton, in a communication to the Adjutant-General of the United States Army at Washington, D. C., said:

‘‘

“I have sent four companies of California Volunteers to garrison Fort West, in the Pinos Altos gold regions. I beg to ask authority to let, say, one-fourth of the command at a time have one month's furlough to work in the gold mines on their own account. In this way the mines and the country will become developed, while the troops will become contented to remain in service where the temptation to leave is very great.”

’’

Comparatively little is generally known of the activities of Charles D. Poston, Arizona's first Delegate to Congress, but the Congressional Globe, covering the 2d Session of the 38th Congress, shows that the “Father of Arizona,” as Mr. Poston was known lovingly to his contemporaries, did all that was possible for one in his position, and secured from an unwilling government everything possible for Arizona. On December 13th, 1864, he introduced, by unanimous consent, a bill to provide for the settlement of private land claims in the Territory of Arizona; which was read a first and second time by its title, and referred to the Committee on Private Land Claims. On December 21st, 1864, he introduced, also by unanimous consent, the following resolution, which was read, considered, and agreed to:


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‘‘

“Resolved: That the Committee on Foreign Affairs be directed to inquire into the expediency of making an appropriation for the purpose of colonizing the Friendly Indians of Arizona on a reservation to be selected from the public lands.”

’’

January 25th, 1865, was a busy day for Mr. Poston. On that day, by unanimous consent, he submitted the following resolution, which was read, considered, and agreed to:

‘‘

“Resolved: That the Committee on Public Lands be, and they are hereby, instructed to inquire into the expediency of adopting the code of mining laws passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona hereto appended.”

’’

The papers accompanying the resolution were ordered to be printed.

On the same day, Delegate Poston presented the memorial and joint resolution of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking Congress to increase the pay of members of the Legislative Assembly and Territorial Judges, and other officials; which were referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and ordered to be printed.

At the same time Mr. Poston presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking of Congress an appropriation of $150,009 for placing the Indians of the Colorado on a reservation; which was referred to the Committee of Ways and Means, and ordered to be printed.

Mr. Poston also presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Arizona, asking an appropriation of $150,000 for the improvement of the navigation of the Colorado River; which was


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referred to the Committee on Commerce, and ordered to be printed.

He also presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking of Congress an appropriation of $250,000 in aid of the war against the Apaches; which was referred to the Committee on Military Affairs, and ordered to be printed.

He also presented the following resolutions and memorials of the Legislature of the Territory of Arizona: Requesting arms; which was referred to the Committee on Military Affairs and ordered to be printed. Resolution requesting mail facilities; which was referred to the Committee on the Postoffice and Post Roads, and ordered to be printed. Joint resolution instructing the Delegate from the Territory to ask of Congress the appointment of commissioners to fix the boundary line of the Territory of Arizona and other Territories; which was referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. A memorial asking for a change of the boundary line between Arizona and the State of California, which was referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed.

On February 3rd, 1865, Mr. Poston, by unanimous consent, introduced a bill for the organization of the Territory of Arizona into a land district; which was read a first and second time, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

In the discussion on the General Appropriations Bill, on the 2nd day of March, 1865, Mr. Poston moved to amend the bill by inserting the following clause:

‘‘

“For colonizing friendly Indians in Arizona on a reservation on the Colorado River and supplying


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them with implements of husbandry and seeds to enable them to become self-sustaining, the sum of $150,000, to be extended under the direction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,” and, on the same day, Mr. Poston made the following speech in Congress:

“Mr. Chairman, Arizona, more than any other Territory of the United States, rises to the dignity of historic fame; it is even prehistoric, reaching far back into the dim traditions of the Aztecs. As everywhere else on earth, the history of man is here distinctly marked by the struggle between civilization and barbarism. The Aztecs lived in continual warfare with the barbarous tribes of the mountains, and their descendants to this day maintain the warfare bequeathed to them by their ancestors. The Aztecs were peaceable, industrious Indians, living by the pursuits of agriculture, dwelling in communities, and exercising a system of government with eminent principles of justice. The barbarians of the mountains were their natural foes and finally drove them into southern Mexico, leaving only a few degenerate descendants in the north.

“The Spanish explorers found a very interesting race of Indians in that part of the continent now belonging to the United States and designated as the Territory of Arizona. A knowledge of this remote people was first given to the European world by the romantic expedition of Cabeza de Vaca, who crossed the continent from the savannas of Florida, to the mountains of New Mexico in 1538. In these remote regions he found a people bearing evidences of European origin and practicing many of the arts of civilization.


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They were supposed to be the descendants of the colony of the Welsh Prince Madoc who sailed from Wales for the New World in the eleventh century—celebrated in song by Southey. They are now called Moquis, and I beg leave to call attention to their present condition as described in an official report of Colonel Christopher Carson, first cavalry, New Mexican Volunteers.

“‘Headquarters Navajo Expedition,

“‘December 6, 1863.

“‘Captain: I have the honor to report for the information of the department commander, that on the 15th ultimo I left this post with companies C. D. G. H. & L., first cavalry, New Mexican volunteers dismounted, for the purpose of exploring the country west of the Oribi villages, and if possible to chastise the Navajos inhabiting that region. On the 16th I detached thirty men with Sergeant Herrera, of Company C. first cavalry, New Mexican volunteers on a fresh trail which intersected our route. The sergeant followed the trail for twenty miles when he overtook a small party of Navajos, two of whom he killed, wounded two, and captured fifty head of sheep and one horse. En route the party came on a village lately deserted, which they destroyed. The energy and zeal displayed by the sergeant and his party on this occasion merit my warmest approbation.

“‘On the 21st arrived at Moqui village. I found on my arrival that the inhabitants of all the villages, except the Oribis, had a misunderstanding with the Navajos, owing to some injustice perpetrated by the latter. I took advantage of this feeling, and succeeded in obtaining representatives


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from all the villages, Oribi excepted, to accompany me on the warpath. My object in insisting upon parties of these people accompanying me was simply to involve them so far that they could not retract; to bind them to us, and place them in antagonism to the Navajos. They were of some service, and manifested a great desire to aid in every respect. While on this subject I would respectfully represent that these people, numbering some four thousand souls, are in a most deplorable condition, from the fact that the country for several miles around their village, is quite barren and is entirely destitute of vegetation.

“‘They have no water for purposes of irrigation, and their only dependence for subsistence is on the little corn they raise when the weather is propitious, which is not always the case in this latitude. They are a peaceable people, have never robbed or murdered the people of New Mexico, and are in every way worthy of the fostering care of the government. Of the bounty so unsparingly bestowed by it on other Pueblo Indians, ay, even on the marauding bands, they have never tasted, and I earnestly recommend that the attention of the Indian Bureau be called to this matter. I understand that a couple of years' annuities for the Navajos, not distributed, are in the possession of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Santa Fe, and I consider that if such an arrangement would be legal, these goods would be well bestowed on these people.

“‘C. CARSON,

“‘Colonel First Cavalry, New Mexican Volunteers,

“‘Captain Benjamin C. Cutler, A. A. G.’


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“In antagonism to these interesting people, we have the barbarous Apaches, the Bedouins of the desert and the robbers of the mountains.

“Time immemorial their hand has been against every man, every man's hand against them; they disdain to labor, and live by robbery and plunder. For three centuries they have stayed the progress of civilization in that part of the continent, and now hold its richest mineral treasures from the grasp of the white man. They have successfully defended their mountain homes against the Spaniards, the Mexicans, and the Americans. A few hardy and enterprising Americans have been endeavoring to penetrate that El Dorado for several years, but for want of military support and on account of the desolating war which has spread its ravages to the confines of Arizona, they are yet prevented from exploring that inviting field of mineral wealth. The subjugation or extermination of this merciless tribe is a measure of stern justice which ought not to be delayed. Their subjugation would open to our hardy miners an unexplored gold field north of the Gila, which the Spaniards considered the true El Dorado. A sickly sympathy for a few beastly savages should not stand in the way of the development of our rich gold fields, or the protection of our enterprising frontiersmen. The settlers around the Capital (Prescott) have kept one hundred men in the field for more than a year at their own expense; their leader, Colonel King Woolsey, has been ruined by the Apaches, and adopted this method of retaliation. They have waited in vain for the protection of the military branch of the government,


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and were forced in self-defense to take the matter in their own hands.

“The Pimas and Maricopas are a confederated tribe, living on the Gila River, one hundred and eighty miles from its confluence with the Colorado. They are an agricultural people, living entirely by the cultivation of the soil, and number some seven thousand five hundred souls. They have always been friendly to the Americans, and boast that up to this day they do not know the color of the white man's blood. They hold one of the strongest positions on the continent, accessible only after crossing deserts in every direction, and have here defended their homes and fields against barbarous Apaches from time immemorial. The early Spanish explorers found them here in 1540, and ruined houses of grand proportions attest their occupation for thousands of years before the Spaniards came. To the north for several hundred miles ruined cities, fortifications, and the remains of irrigating canals, indicate the places formerly occupied by a race now passed away without having left any history. The researches of the antiquarian are in vain, and the degenerate Indian of the present day answers all questions about past grandeur with the mystic name of Montezuma. The Pimas know no more of their origin than if they had come out of the ground, as their tradition intimates. They have no religion, and worship no deity, unless a habit of hailing the rising sun with an oration may be the remains of some sun-worshipping tribe. They are exceedingly jealous of their females; and their chastity, as far as outside barbarians are concerned, remains, with a few exceptions, unimpeachable.


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They have a very good tract of land, set apart by metes and bounds plainly marked, have their irrigating canals in good condition, and present every evidence of a thrifty population, producing more than they consume. They number some seven thousand five hundred. They deserve the highest consideration of this Congress. It would have been impossible for the government troops in that Territory to have subsisted there but for the supplies furnished by these Indians. They are, in fact, the laboring population of that Territory. They produce supplies both for the Army and for the miners. They were colonized by the Spanish Jesuits a hundred and fifty years ago, and they are monuments of the civilization and prosperity of that country at that time. They have cultivated the land there from time immemorial. When the Spaniards entered that country three hundred and forty years ago, they found these Indians in a high state of civilization. It is a good country for agricultural purposes, and during my administration of Indian affairs in that Territory the last year, I had the pleasure of contributing something to the improvement of those Indians, by giving them cotton seed, hoes, spades, shovels, &c.

“The Papagoes are a branch of the great Pima tribe, speaking the same language and having the same manners and customs, modified by civilization; the only difference is, that upon being baptized, they were originally called Vapconia, in their language Christians, which has been corrupted into Papagoes; they also cut their hair short and wear a hat, and such clothing as they


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can get. The Papagoes all live south of the Gila River, in that arid triangle known as the western part of the Gadsden Purchase. Their lot is cast in an ungrateful soil; but the softness of the climate reconciles them to their location, and contentment is their happiness. The fruit of the Cereus Giganteus furnishes them with bread and molasses; they plant in the rainy season, raise cattle, hunt, and labor in the harvest fields. Their principal settlement is around the old mission church of San Xavier del Bac, nine miles south of Tucson. The mission was founded by the Jesuits in 1670, and is the grandest architectural monument in northern Mexico. Upon the expulsion of the Jesuits from Mexico they gave the Indians a solemn injunction to preserve the church, promising to return at a future day. It was a strange coincidence that two Jesuit fathers from the Santa Clara College, in California, accompanied us to their long-neglected neophytes. They were received by the Indians with great demonstrations of joy; and, amid the ringing of bells and explosion of fireworks, entered into possession of the long-neglected mission of San Xavier. These pious fathers immediately commenced laboring with the zeal and fidelity of their order, and in a few days had the mass regularly chanted by the Papago maidens, with the peculiar softness of their language. Every facility was rendered the holy fathers in holding intercourse with the Indians, and a great improvement was soon perceptible in their deportment and habits. They seemed entering upon a new era of moral and material prosperity refreshing to witness. The captain, Jose Victoriana Solorse, is a highly intelligent Indian, and is


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exercising a beneficent influence on the tribe. The family relations of the Papagoes are conducted with morality, and their women are examples of chastity and industry. These deserving people should have additional aid to enable them to colonize the straggling members of the tribe; their principal wants are agricultural implements, carts, wheelbarrows, axes and hoes. With the necessary aids in agricultural implements they can soon produce a surplus to exchange for clothing and the comforts of life, so that they will be an advantage to the community instead of a tax upon the government. They number about five thousand souls living within our boundaries.

“Now I come to the Indians of (the) Colorado. They never reaped the benefit of the Spanish colonization, because the Spaniards never extended their conquests north of the Gila. They are of the same family, and are affiliated with the Pimas, and desire to live in the same manner. But they have no means of exercising their industry. As far as that portion of our Indian country is concerned, they never have had an officer of the government among them until the last year. As Superintendent of Indian Affairs, I called the confederated tribes of the Colorado in council together. The council was attended by the principal chiefs and head men of the Yumas, Mohaves, Yavapais, Hualapais, and Chemihuevis. These tribes have an aggregate of ten thousand souls living near the banks of the Colorado, from Fort Yuma to Fort Mobave. They cultivate the bottom lands of the Colorado River, where an overflow affords sufficient moisture; the failure of an overflow, which sometimes


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happens, is considered a great calamity, and breeds a famine. Their resources from game, fish, and wild fruits have been very much curtailed by the influx of Americans, and it would be dangerous for them to visit their former hunting-grounds. The fruit of the mesquite tree, an acacia flourishing in this latitude, has been the staff of life to the Indians of the Colorado. A prolific mesquite will yield ten bushels of beans in the hull; the beans are pounded in a mortar and made into cakes of bread for the winter season, and a kind of whisky is also made of the bean before it becomes dry and hard. This resource for the Indians has been very much reduced since the irruption of the Americans and Mexicans, as the mesquite bean is more nutritious and less dangerous for animals in that climate than corn. The beans command, at the different towns and stands where they are sold, from five to ten cents per pound as they fall from the tree. The improvidence of the Indians leads them to sell all the beans in the autumn, saving none for the winter consumption. During the past winter they were in such a famished condition that they killed a great many horses and cattle on the river, mostly belonging to American settlers, for which claims are now made.

“But as the representative of the government of the United States at that time, I did not undertake to make a written treaty with these Indians, because I considered that the government was able and willing to treat them fairly and honestly without entering into the form of a written treaty, which has been heretofore so severely criticised in both Houses of Congress, and with some reason. These Indians there assembled


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were willing, for a small amount of beef and flour, to have signed any treaty which it had been my pleasure to write. I simply proposed to them that for all the one hundred and twenty thousand square miles, full of mines and rich enough to pay the public debt of the United States, they should abandon that territory and confine themselves to the elbow in the Colorado River, not more than seventy-five thousand acres. But I did not enter into any obligation on account of the United States to furnish them with seeds and agricultural implements. I simply told them that if I was elected to represent that Territory in this Congress, I would endeavor to lay their claims before the government, which they understood to be magnanimous, and that I hoped that this Congress would have the generosity and the justice to provide for these Indians, who have been robbed of their lands and their means of subsistence, and that they may be allowed to live there where they have always made their homes. They desire to live as do the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. Those Pueblo Indians live in settlements, in towns, in reservations, according to the wise policy of the Spanish Government, which colonized the Indians in reservations, and made their labor valuable in building improvements for their own subsistence, for churches, and public improvements, and in that manner made them peaceable Indians, instead of having everlasting and eternal war with the people whom they had robbed of their land.

“These people having been citizens of the Mexican government, are not, according to our theory, entitled to any right in the soil, and therefore


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no treaty with these Indians for the extinction of their title to the soil would be recognized by this government. It is a fiction of law which these Indians in their ignorance, are not able to understand. They cannot see why the Indians of the Northeast have been paid annuities since the foundation of this Government for the extinction of their title, while the Indians who were formerly subject to the Spanish and Mexican governments are driven from their lands without a dollar. It is impossible for these simpleminded people to understand this sophistry. They consider themselves just as much entitled to the land which their ancestors inhabited before ours landed on Plymouth Rock as the Indians of the Northeast. They have never signed any treaty relinquishing their right to the public domain.

“I beg to lay before you a memorial of the Territorial Legislature on the subject.

“‘To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled:

“‘Your memorialists, the Council and House of Representatives of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona respectfully represent, that the four tribes of Indians known as the Yavapais, Hualapais, Mojaves and Yumas, numbering about ten thousand, are now scattered over an extent of country from the Gila River on the south to the northern boundary of the Territory, and from the Colorado River on the west to the Rio Verde on the east; that these Indians are now roaming at large over the vast territory above described, gaining a precarious subsistence from the small patches of land along the Colorado River, which they cultivate, and


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from fishing and hunting; that when the seasons are unfavorable to their little farming interests, or the Colorado River does not overflow to irrigate and enrich their fields, they are reduced to a starving condition, and compelled, by necessity to make raids upon the stock and property of the whites, and not infrequently do they ambush the traveler and miner, and waylay and stampede the stock of trains and plunder their packs and wagons; that the whites are settling up the country, and necessarily diminishing their means of subsistence, and increasing the dangers of a collision with them; that the late Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the Territory, Hon. Charles D. Poston, in view of their scattered and destitute condition, selected and caused to be laid off, on the east bank and bottom of the Colorado River, a reservation ample enough for the accommodation and support of all the above named tribes; that an irrigating canal can be constructed at an expense of a small amount (the indians performing the labor) that will render highly productive a large tract of land that will yield an abundance for their support, and afford a large surplus to be disposed of for their education and improvement; that when placed upon said reservation they can, under judicious management, be made not only self-sustaining, but to produce largely for the market; that, to enable those who may be placed over them or have charge of them to open said canal, to remove them upon said reservation, and sustain them until they can, by their own labor, provide enough for their subsistence, your memorialists respectfully ask of your honorable body an appropriation of $150,000; that to secure the attention


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and favorable consideration of the subject and matters of this memorial by the Congress of the United States.

“‘Be it resolved by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, That our Delegate in Congress, Hon. Charles D. Poston, be requested to use all honorable means to bring the subject before Congress.

“‘And be it further Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor of the Territory of Arizona be requested to forward this memorial, together with such other information touching the subject as he may have in his possession, to Hon. Charles D. Poston, our Delegate in Congress.

“‘W. CLAUDE JONES,

“‘Speaker of the House of Representatives.

“‘COLES BASHFORD,

“‘President of the Council.

“‘Approved November 7, 1864.

“‘JOHN N. GOODWIN.’

“In order that the proposition may be clearly understood I will read the report of the engineer who accompanied me on an examination of the valley of the Colorado to select a reservation for these Indians:

“‘La Paz City, Arizona,

‘May 30, 1864.

“‘Sir: At your request I have made an examination of the lands on the eastern bank of the Colorado River from La Paz to Corner Rock.

“‘I have been surprised at the great quantity of rich bottom land and alluvial soil, traversed by many sloughs and lagunas, which extend from the banks of the river for several miles into the valley. Most of them are dry now, as the river did not rise high enough last year to fill them.


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“‘I directed my special attention to the lands between Halfway Bend and the Mesa. With the exception of a few stretches of heavy sand land which I estimated at about one-fifth of the entire area, I found the soil excellent, most of it consisting of a light loam, of which many thousand acres are covered with mesquite trees, a sure indication of rich ground, while willows and cotton trees grow luxuriantly in the vicinity of the river, the sloughs and lagunas.

“‘At some places I noticed alkaline efflorescences, but they are not extensive. If these places could be regularly overflowed, much of the salts would be carried off. It is well known, moreover, that Indian corn and wheat grow well in alkaline soil.

“‘If the eastern boundary of the intended reservation runs from the mouth of the principal slough at Halfway Bend (the Indians call it Mad-ku-dap) in a direction nearly north, 26° 30′ east to Corner Rock, it will include an area of about 118 square miles, equal to 75,520 acres. Of this, six square miles are mesa land, leaving 112 square miles, or 71,680 acres of valley land. One-fifth deducted as sand land leaves 90 square miles, or 57,600 acres, of bottom land or light loamy soil. About one-fourth of this, say 22 square miles, or 14,080 acres, is covered with mesquite trees. A large mesquite tree yields several bushels of beans. Supposing, then, that in this year every acre produced five bushels, the crop would amount to 70,400 bushels, which, with rabbits, lizards, tuli roots, the fish of the river, the little wheat and pumpkins they can raise, and the sale of hay, may give a precarious subsistence this year to the ten thousand Indians


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for which the government intends to make provision.

“‘But, not taking into consideration that many Indians do not relish mesquite beans, the mesquite trees do not bear every year, and agriculture depends entirely on the casual overflows of the river. Last year the crops of the Indians amounted to very little, and if the river does not soon rise it will be the same this year.

“‘The most humane and cheapest way to pro vide permanently for the Indians, and educate at least their rising generation to useful labors, would be, in my humble opinion, that the government not only give them the land between Halfway Bend and Corner Rock, but also assist them in digging an irrigation canal from the Mesa toward Halfway Bend. They would then become independent of the uncertain rise and fall of the river, could raise regular crops, and would soon be able to sell a large surplus.

“‘From Halfway Bend to the Mesa I noticed at various points that the ground slopes gently back from the bank of the river toward the valley. The best proofs of this are the numerous sloughs: Ascending finally the Mesa and looking down the valley, I was struck with the evident facility with which a canal could be dug to irrigate many thousand acres of the richest soil, barren only for want of moisture.

“‘According to Lieutenant Ives' report the fall from the foot of the Mesa to Halfway Bend is fifty-five feet, the distance by land twenty-seven miles. The foot of the Mesa seems to have been destined by nature for the head of a canal. The river flows to this point between hills of conglomerate, upon which freshets can


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make but little impression. A few piles would make an efficient wing dam. A belt of willows and ash trees should protect the lower embankment for the first few miles.

“‘At the foot of the Mesa I estimated the difference of level between the bottom of the river and the top of its upper bank fourteen feet.

“‘Following the natural level of the country, and giving one foot fall to the mile, which is much for a large body of water, then, after fourteen miles of canal, all the land between the canal and the river for the remaining thirteen miles could be irrigated. If the canal were at this point only two miles distant from the river, deducting one-fifth for sand land, 20 square miles, or 12,800 acres, up to Halfway Bend, could be irrigated. But long before the canal has reached the first-mentioned point, sloughs could be filled, depressed flats overflowed by branch ditches, and many Indians could plant little patches along the embankments of the canal while it is in progress of construction.

“‘Taking, now, twenty square miles as a minimum of irrigable land, at thirty bushels of Indian corn per acre, they could produce 384,000 bushels; and at twenty bushels of wheat per acre, 256,000 bushels; one-third of which, even with the propensity of the Indians to waste, would be more than sufficient for home consumption of ten thousand souls, allowing to each of them, women, children and babies included, five hundred pounds of corn or grain.

“‘How the canal should actually be laid out, how branch ditches and flood-gates have to be constructed and distributed, what amount of earth the Indians have to remove, what dimensions


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it should have—what, finally, the cost of this canal would be, (probably less than one hundred thousand dollars), all this can only be ascertained by a systematic survey of the valley for that special purpose.

“‘Since for years accustomed in my profession to ascertain scientifically if the plans conceived by practical men can be executed, I feel some reluctance in making estimates before I have reduced them to a thorough scientific basis. The estimates of the amount of land to be reclaimed from a desert, and its productiveness, are, therefore, rather underrated.

“‘The foregoing considerations have convinced me that the lands between Halfway Bend and Corner Rock are not only suitable for a reservation, but, in my humble opinion, are in every regard the best that could be selected in this section of Arizona.

“‘The difference of level between Halfway Bend and La Paz is twenty-eight feet for a distance of nine miles by land, so that the canal could easily be continued from Halfway Bend to the foot of the valley, changing La Paz, from the city of the desert,' to the city of a territorial Eden, of laughing gardens and waving grain fields.

“‘I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

“‘ADOLPHUS F. WALDEMAR,

“‘Chief Engineer.

“‘Colonel Charles D. Posto

“‘Superintendent Indian Affair

“‘La Paz, Arizona Territory.’

“Irrigating canals are essential to the prosperity of these Indians. Without water there


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can be no production, no life; and all they ask of you is to give them a few agricultural implements to enable them to dig an irrigating canal by which their lands may be watered and their fields irrigated, so that they may enjoy the means of existence. You must provide these Indians with the means of subsistence or they will take by robbery from those who have. During the last year I have seen a number of these Indians starved to death for want of food. They were eating the bark and leaves of trees, and also the lizards, frogs and snakes, so that it was impossible for me to procure any of the great natural curiosities of that country for the Smithsonian Institution.

“It was a matter of profound regret that the natural history of Arizona could not be illustrated in that depository of natural science; but the starving condition of the Indians forced them to consume the wonderful reptile productions of the country, which, had a better fate been reserved for them, would have delighted my friend, Professor Baird and the many visitors at that fountain of science.

“I was especially charged to examine and report upon the customs and habits of the grasshoppers or locusts of the western plains, to determine if they were the locusts of Asia, their mode of procreation, subsequent length of life, and many other interesting details; but alas for the lights of science and opportunity of grasshopper fame! these interesting insects had all disappeared down the widespread gullets of my red children. The Indian policy that I have the honor to present to you is rumple and plain—easily understood by the Indians, and not to be


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mistaken by the whites. We must have peace or war with the Indians, and I propose to give them their choice. The Indians that choose to be friendly with the Americans and one another will move westward to the reservation selected for them on the Colorado River and betake themselves to habits of industry and thrift. The Indians that reject the proffered friendship must go eastward and mingle with the barbarous Apaches and share their fate. It will then be easy to draw the distinction between friendly and unfriendly Indians. No American and no friend of civilization will disturb or be allowed to disturb the friendly Indians engaged in the active pursuits of productive industry on the Colorado reservation. Here they will have a resting place and a home on the banks of the river they have bathed in since childhood, and with the generous aid of the great government, whose hapless wards they are, will soon become a self-sustaining people. They will learn the first great lesson that by the sweat of their brows they shall earn their bread, and in due time reap the reward that sweetens toil.

“With an irrigating canal, the soil of the Colorado will become wonderfully productive. In that latitude the sun is over-genial; and the valley, not having an altitude of more than three hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea, possesses an immunity from snows and frosts, so destructive to crops in more northern latitudes. There is no reason why the valley of the Colorado may not be made as productive as the valley of the Nile. In that temperature it only needs the vivifying influence of water to


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make the productions of nature spring up like magic.

“The system of irrigation is no new experiment; it existed in Egypt before the Pyramids were born; it was practiced in Asia before Confucius wrote; it was brought to great perfection by the Aztecs of America, when our ancestors were dressed in skins and furs, and lived by the booty of the chase; it is scientific agriculture, and the only insurance against the uncertainties of a crop. With a proper system of irrigation, you shall surely reap where you sow; yea, even twice or thrice per annum. The sediment of the Colorado will plaster the walls of a canal and make them impermeable to water; such is the beautiful arcana of nature. On this river a lively commerce is already springing up, and some half dozen steamboats plow its turbid waters. It is navigable five hundred miles from its mouth, and its sources drain the great American Basin. The Indians will have a ready market for the surplus productions at their very doors, and the friendly current of the Colorado will bear it, untaxed, to market.

“It will be necessary for the Government to furnish the Indians with some intelligent superintendence in opening their irrigating canal, and the necessary implements of husbandry and seeds to enable them to raise a crop. Then let them work or starve; but do not force them to starve or steal without first giving them a chance to labor. It is a cruel thing to force men into a new civilization without preparing them for its duties. As the Americans come into the country the wants of the Indians increase; but without aid the means of satisfying these artificial


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wants are not commensurate. Without tools a man is helpless indeed. What would a man do without a knife, an ax, a hoe, a spade, or a shovel? He could make very little progress in agriculture; but tenfold is his power of production increased with these simple implements of husbandry. Among these Indians as well as all primitive people the women are the ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water,’ the very slaves of the lords of creation. It is only where the light of Christianity and the spread of civilization illuminate the pathway of a people that woman assumes a position ‘a little lower than the angels.’ The Indian women have to work out their salvation in sweat and blood or, lacking food and clothing, flock around a military post like moths around a candle. The dusky maidens of the Colorado are fast disappearing under the influences of these debasing establishments of military power, and soon their graceful forms and melodious voices will be only remembered in tradition and song. The disappearance of a people is a melancholy spectacle and bodes no good to us. The tide of civilization is bearing them to eternity with the same certainty that their native Colorado bears its sands to the sea. On what distant shore they will be stranded or saved is a mystery which they do not attempt to penetrate. The smoke of incineration floats away on the breeze and a few charred bones and smoldering ashes are all that remain of the ‘human form divine.’

“Iretaba, the great chief of these Indians, was in Washington a year ago, on a visit to the President and the Army. He returned to his own country much pleased with his visit to the


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Americans. He told his tribe that it would be of no use to go to war against the Americans; that they were a great people, against whom the Indians could never war successfully. He made an effective speech to them; and he and they agreed that if the Americans would deal with them fairly and justly, and provide them with the means of existence, they would bury the scalps that they had taken from one another; they would bury the tomahawk, and would never strike an American again. The responsibility now rests upon you. The Great Spirit, which deals alike with the destinies of the red man and the white man, will judge between you. In the long muster-roll of nations, which will be called after the echoes of Gabriel's trumpet shall have died away, if it shall be found that you have dealt fairly with your red brethren on this continent, you will stand before the Dispenser of universal justice acquitted of crime. If, on the other hand, it shall be decided that your track across the continent has been a succession of wrong, without an honorable effort at reparation, what terrible judgments may be meted out to you! We have always time to do justice, and to delay it is a crime. It is especially a duty to render justice to the weak and the helpless. Be merciful to the degenerate, for in the cycle of time our own doom may come.

“It is not alone for the Indians that I ask your generosity, however, much may be their due; but looking far beyond the present moment, it must be apparent to every man who lifts his mind from the struggle of the hour and indulges in a contemplation of the grand future of our country, that the settlement of the aborigines


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of the mineral Territories in reservations must precede the active and full development of the great treasures of the nation. It is to these great mineral fields that the financiers of the Government and the world are now looking for relief from the financial embarrassments consequent upon a civil war unprecedented in the history of nations. The idea of discounting or repudiating the national debt can never be indulged in for a moment while the mountains west of the Sierra Madre are teeming with mineral wealth. In order to allow scope and verge enough for our hardy and enterprising frontiersmen to prospect the mines of Arizona, it becomes necessary to have the Indians colonized in a reservation, so that a miner may know when he meets an Indian in a lonely gorge in the mountains whether he is a friend or a foe.

“It scarcely becomes me to allude to the subject; but justice to the brave and hardy pioneers who have risked their lives a thousand times to carry the institutions of the American people into Arizona deserve a tribute at the hands of their first Representative. No people have ever endured the hardships, dangers, and privations of those brave and adventurous men who left the homes of their ancestors a thousand miles behind and penetrated the wilderness sending its golden sands into the Gulf of California.

“In the year 1824, Sylvester Pattie and his son James, from Bardstown, Kentucky, with a party of about one hundred hardy and adventurous frontiersmen, set out upon a trapping expedition to the head waters of the Arkansas River. After many romantic adventures in New Mexico, the party dispersed, and a few of


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the boldest spirits undertook to reach the Pacific Ocean. They spent one winter at the celebrated mines of Santa Rita del Cobre, on the head waters of the Gila River, and the next spring trapped down that river to its confluence with the Colorado. Here they embarked their canoes on the turbid waters of the Colorado, and drifted down to the Gulf of California, whence they crossed the peninsula to the Pacific Ocean. Here they were imprisoned by the Spanish commandant at San Diego, and after a long and cruel confinement the elder Pattie died in a prison.

“The oldest living trapper in Arizona at this day is old Pauline Weaver, from White County, Tennessee. His name is carved in the Casa Grande, near the Pima villages, on the Gila River, under date of 1832. This old man has been a peacemaker among the Indians for many years, and is now spending the evening of his life in cultivating a little patch of land on the public domain in the northern part of the Territory of Arizona, on a beautiful little stream called the Hasiamp.

“In the early settlement of our western country the pioneers formed the advancing wave of civilization, and were generously sustained by the friends and relatives they had left behind; but the pioneers of Arizona leaped beyond the reach of succor and led the forlorn hope of civilization. Self-reliant and full of manhood, they went forth to battle alone. And manfully they bore themselves in the struggle, until overborne by the misfortunes which have nearly enveloped the nation in ruin. Many of them had seen the glorious banner of our country carried to the


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tides of the Pacific Ocean, where nature said to man, ‘Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther.’ We had to turn our course southward, and sought the unpeopled lands of northern Mexico.

“The Government followed in the train of the people, and in a period of great prosperity, when the Treasury was overflowing with gold, gave $10,000,000 for what was called the Gadsden Purchase. The people rushed into the new purchase and soon the indomitable industry and energy of the coming race was apparent in the discovery of mineral wealth and the establishment of relations with the nearest commercial centers. The industry of our people soon spread a beneficial influence in all northern Mexico; the Indians were softening under the influences of civilization, and I wish the sequel could be omitted. Would that Lethean waters could produce oblivion. In less than sixty days after the demon of civil war had commenced his ravages on this side of the continent, the infant settlements of Arizona were abandoned and the track of receding civilization was, for the first time in the history of this country, turned eastward, marked in its retreat by new-made graves. For two years the Territory remained a prey to anarchy.

“At the end of that time, by the indefatigable efforts of a few fast friends, a provisional government for the Territory was organized, and a staff of Federal officers of more than ordinary ability and character were sent across the plains to establish civil government in that remote region. In the overwhelming events of the great civil war impending, it was a grand moral spectacle to see the Republic sending its agents to a remote and distant Territory to plant the


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banner of freedom on the ruins of a former civilization. We are but repeating history in following the footsteps of the Aztecs from their northern homes to central Mexico. The civil officers sent out by the President have discharged this duty, and discharged it well.

“At a greater distance from this capital than any proconsul ever planted the eagles of Rome from the imperial city, they established the stars and stripes of the Republic. In a beautiful lap of the mountains where never white man trod before, they located the capital of the Territory, and named it in honor of the Aztec historian, Prescott. On this very spot there is an Indian mound with the remains of an ancient fortification of the Montezumas, reminding us forcibly of the mutations of time and the rise and decline of nations; but nowhere yet in ruins do we find a temple dedicated to the living God. Let us take warning and lay deep the foundations of the Christian faith, not only in the monuments of Christianity, but in the hearts of the people.

“In that peaceful mountain home no sectional political differences rankle in the heart. It was my good fortune on the last anniversary of our Independence to assist in its celebration in that primitive capital. The people who had borne the banner of freedom from Bunker Hill to those distant mountains and the men who had escaped the horrors of war in the Old Dominion joined in fraternal celebration of Independence day, and consecrated themselves to the future prosperity of the Territory. And there in those everlasting mountains the genius of the American people will build a capital which will rear


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its domes and spires to the heavens when ‘Time shall doubt of Rome.’

“Such is the genius of American civilization.It may be impeded now by the horrors of civil war, but the day is not far distant when it will overleap the boundary of nations like an avalanche, and spread itself over northern Mexico.It is destiny, and it may be a duty to carry our institutions into that country; and God send the day, when as a united people, we may heal the discords of civil war by joining armies now engaged in fratricidal strife to drive from this continent the fungus of European monarchy.I am willing to join in paeans to universal, emancipation for the sake of national unity. ‘The nationality of the American people’ is the mottoupon which I was sent into this House, and when it ceases I shall leave it without regret.

“It is a source of extreme mortification that I am unable to present this amendment with the approbation of the Committee of Ways and Means, but it has not been possible to bring them to an estimate of the justice and importance of the measure. If the same economy pervades every branch of the administration of the Government, the taxpayers will have no cause of complaint. We have neither military protection, mail facilities, nor any of the fostering cares of Government; but we prefer rather to indulge in pleasant hopes of the future than unworthy complaint. The Pacific States and Territories are rich in wealth, filling up rapidly with an indomitable population and ‘by and by will grow a little stronger.’ Confident in strength and hopeful of the future, we are willing to ‘bide our time.’ With five hundred thousand


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square miles of mineral lands, we do not despair. With a climate surpassing any other part of the continent, and perhaps of the world, we shall ‘Multiply and replenish the earth.’

“No Alpine top nor Appennine valley is waked to industry by a brighter sunlight than bathes the mountains and valleys of Arizona. It is the land of the olive and the vine. The pearls of the Orient were not richer in purity and value than those of the sea of Cortez. The gold of Ophir was not so abundant as that which awaits the hand of industry in our pregnant mountains. The ‘Planchas de Platarsquo; are the richest silver mines known to history. We are the children of your loins; give us sympathy. We are brethren of the same family; give us help. Nurture us, strengthen us, raise us up to dignity, and in a few short years we shall come to add another block to this grand mosaic temple of freedom which we hope will endure to the remotest ages.

“The uniform courtesy and kindness with which the Delegates from the remote Territories are received in this capital inspires the most grateful emotions.

“As this is the first occasion on which I have presumed to occupy the valuable time of the House, accept my sincere thanks for your kind attention.”

’’

It is barely possible that the reason most of Arizona's demands were not granted was the desire of Congress for economy, but there seems to have been a determined opposition, most of it, perhaps, underground, against the granting of the demands. This is evidenced by the following, which is quoted from the Report of the Joint


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Special Committee on the Condition of the Indian tribes, appointed under Joint Resolution of March 3, 1865, and printed by the Government Printing Office at Washington:

‘‘

“Indorsement on communication from Hon. Charles D. Poston, delegate from Arizona, to the War Department, Washington, D. C., January 12, 1865. Recommends the establishment of a military post at Amboy; also an Indian reservation in that vicinity, which requires protection, &c., &c. (Referred by General Halleck to headquarters department of New Mexico, January 17th, 1865.)

“February 18, 1865.

“Respectfully returned. I do not think there is any military necessity for the establishment of a post at the mouth of Bill Williams' Fork on the Colorado of the West; nor do I agree with the Hon. Mr. Poston about having an Indian reservation on the Colorado.

“There are very grave objections to going to the expense of such an establishment in such an inaccessible country, surrounded as it is by deserts; besides, the Mojave Indians are at peace, and could not with propriety or profit be moved from their part of the valley of that river to another part further down.

“The other Indians, living upon the various slopes of the elevated country from which rise the San Francisco mountains, are not a warlike race; and can easily be managed, if treated with moderation, judgment, and firmness, until the country is filled with white settlers; then, as in California, they can be gathered together at some point, to be chosen with care, where they can be fed and protected until the destiny, which has unrelentingly


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followed their race, blots them in turn from the face of the earth. The Apaches of Arizona, living upon the affluents to the Gila, should, in my judgment, be placed upon a reservation upon the Gila; say, somewhere upon the mouth of the Rio de Sauz, where there is an extensive valley, once densely populated, it is supposed, by Aztecs as they journeyed southward in the eleventh century.

“The remains of ancient acequias and of villages indicate that this land once sustained a great many people. It can do so again.

“All of which is respectfully submitted.

“JAMES H. CARLETON,

“Brigadier-General Commanding.

“Official: BEN C. CUTLER,

“Assistant Adjutant General.”

’’

The results of the memorials of the Legislative Assembly and the labors of Delegate Poston were not very great, but the 38th Congress did take enough notice of the newly formed Territory to give her post roads from Agua Caliente to La Paz; from Tucson, via Tubac, to Patagonia Mines; from Tubac, via Cerro Colorado, Fresnal, and Cabibi, to Tucson; from Casa Blanca, via Weaver, Walnut Grove, and Upper Hassayampa, to Prescott; from La Paz, via Williamsport, Castle Dome City, Laguna, Arizona City, to Fort Yuma; from Prescott to Mojave City; from Mojave City to Los Angeles, via San Bernardino; from Mojave City via Aubry, to La Paz; from Mojave City via Santa Clara, to Fillmore City, in the Territory of Utah.

For the Indian Service in the Territory, Congress made the following provision:


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‘‘

“For the general incidental expenses of the Indian Service in the Territory of Arizona, presents of goods, agricultural implements, and other useful articles, and to assist them to locate in permanent abodes, and sustain themselves by the pursuits of civilized life, to be expended under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, twenty thousand dollars.”

’’

In passing it may be well to note that the appropriation for New Mexico, then also a Territory, for the same purposes, was the sum of fifty thousand dollars.

Congress also set aside a reservation for the Indians of Arizona as follows:

‘‘

“All that part of the public domain in the Territory of Arizona, lying west of a direct line from Half-Way Bend to Corner Rock on the Colorado River, containing about seventy-five thousand acres of land, shall be set apart for an Indian reservation for the Indians of said river, and its tributaries.”

’’

And, further, in the goodness of its heart, Congress made the following additional appropriation:

‘‘

“To supply deficiencies in the Indian service in Arizona Territory, twelve thousand nine hundred dollars for the present fiscal year.”

’’

The above was all that the 38th Congress did for the Territory of Arizona, and had it not been for the untiring efforts of Delegate Poston, it is doubtful whether she would have received any consideration whatever from Congress. The establishment of the Indian Reservation on the Colorado River, and the meagre appropriations for the Indian Service were secured by Poston in the face of an adverse report from the Congressional Committee on Indian Affairs.

JOHN N. GOODWIN.

Up: Contents Previous: CHAPTER VI. THE FIRST TERRITORIAL LEGISLATURE (Continued). Next: CHAPTER VIII. EARLY DAYS OF PRESCOTT.




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