[page 93]


The following is compiled from original papers in the office of the Adjutant-General of the State of Arizona, which he has kindly placed at my disposal. These papers all refer to the organization of the Arizona militia, and their activities during the years 1865 and 1866.

On the 20th of February, 1864, the Governor of Arizona asked authority to raise a regiment of volunteers in Arizona for service for three years, or during the war, in reply to which he received the following letter:


“War Department,

“Provost Marshal General's Office.

“Washington, D. C., April 1; 1864.

“His Excellency,

“The Governor of Arizona,

“Fort Whipple, Arizona Territory.

“Sir: As requested in your letter of the 20th of February, you are hereby authorized to raise within the territory of Arizona one regiment of volunteer infantry to serve for three years or during the war. The chief mustering officer for the Department of the Pacific will exercise general superintendence over the recruitment, and

[page 94]

to him application should be made for any additional information that may be desired.

“All supplies will be furnished under existing regulations.

“Copies of the necessary regulations will be furnished you by the adjutant-general of the army.

“I am, sir,

“Very respectfully,”

(No signature.)


On the back of this letter is the endorsement:


“Gen. J. H. Carleton, Oct. 4, 1864.

“Mustering officer of dept. of New Mexico will direct mustering of Ariz. Regiment.”


Genl. Carleton added the following endorsement:


“Headquarters, Dept. of N. Mex.

“Respectfully returned. If the proclamation of the Governor be issued, instructions will be sent from here. Arizona belongs to this department.


“Brig. General, Commanding.

“Oct. 14, 1864.”


Under date of April 16, 1864, the following letter was sent to the Governor:


“War Department,

“Provost Marshal General's Office.

“Washington, D. C., Apr. 16, 64.

“His Excellency,

“The Governor of Arizona,

“Fort Whipple, Arizona.

“Sir: As requested in your letter of the 20th of February, you are hereby authorized to raise,

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within the territory of Arizona, one regiment of Volunteer Infantry to serve for three years or during the war.

“The recruitment, organization and musters of the regiment must conform to that prescribed by existing regulations.

“The Chief Mustering Officer for the Department of the Pacific will exercise a general super-intendence over the recruitment, and to him application should be made for any additional information that may be desired.

“All supplies will be furnished under existing regulations.

“Copies of the necessary regulations will be furnished you by the Adjutant-General of the Army.

“I am, sir,

“Very respectfully,

“Your Obedient Servant,


“Provost Marshal General.”


For some reason or other this authority to raise a regiment was not exercised until the following year, when an effort was made, beginning in June of that year, to raise the regiment as required. In the meantime the commissioners appointed under authority of a bill passed by the First Legislature in 1864, authorizing the raising of a militia for the defence of Arizona against the Indians, and the issuance of bonds therefor, reported that it was impossible to float the bonds in San Francisco, in consequence of which this action was taken.

William H. Garvin was appointed Adjutant General of the Territory, to whom all reports were made.

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The records are very imperfect. There was much difficulty in raising men at that time. Those who were ready to enlist, mostly Mexicans, were out of employment and willing to take almost any job which would, provide them with food and clothing; many of them were leaving the Territory, as, also, were many of the whites. This was particularly the case in the southern part of Arizona.

From the message of the Acting Governor to the Second Legislature, which will be mentioned hereafter, it appears that four companies were organized, one being of Pima Indians, and another of Maricopa Indians, the other two companies being largely made up of Mexicans. John D. Walker, who afterwards became identified with many industrial interests in the Territory, was captain of the Pima Indians company; Antonio Azul, a Pima Chief, was their first lieutenant, and W. A. Hancock, who afterwards located in the Salt River Valley and became identified with the early settlement of that portion of the Territory, was made second lieutenant. The picture on the opposite page is of some of the veterans of this company.

H. S. Washburn was captain of the First Company, which was recruited to its full strength, and Oscar Hutton was second lieutenant of the Third Company. I have been unable to obtain the names of the other officers. These companies were apparently mustered in and mustered out by the Military Department of the Pacific. They were hampered at the start by the want of supplies, arms and ammunition, although it seems that until the latter part of the year 1865, General Mason, who had

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succeeded General Carleton in the command of the Department of Arizona, lent every assistance in his power.

The only records of Indian fighting by these companies that I have been able to obtain are as follows:


“Pima Villages, A. T.

“April 5th, 1866.


“In compliance with your circular of March 30, I have the honor to state that my company is now on detached service at this place per S. O. No. 27, Hd. Qrs. Fort McDowell.

“The company left this place on the 27th ult., accompanied by two hundred and sixty volunteer Pimas and forty enlisted men of Company B, 1st Inf., A. V. Had a fight with the Apaches on the morning of the 31st, killing twenty-five Apaches, taking sixteen prisoners and eight horses. Had three Pimas wounded, one of whom died on the 1st. My company are armed with Mississippi rifles, worn, and are at present well clothed, but during the first six months service they were not. If the Territory could furnish two hundred carbines and pistols for two companies of mounted Pimas, it would be of great service in ridding this country of Apaches. The arms could be stored here and given to the men when going on campaigns and returned here again on returning, without danger of being lost.

“Yours respectfully,


“Lt. 1st Inf., A. V.

“W. H. GARVIN, Adjt. Genl. Ty. Arizona.”


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The activities of Captain H. S. Washburn's company, which was recruited in the lower part of the Territory, are given in the following general report to the Adjutant-General of the Territory, bearing date September 20th, 1866, which gives a succinct narrative of the services and sufferings of his command up to that date:


“Hd. Qrs. Camp on Clear Creek.

“Sept. 20th, 1866,

“Adjutant General Garvin,

“Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your favor of the 6th inst., requesting me to make out a synopsis of my service in the Arizona Volunteers, showing the number of scouts made, the number of Indians killed, prisoners taken, and the condition of my company, and in reply beg leave to say that as early as June last I commenced a minute report of such character as you have just requested, but the continual press of duties that could not be neglected, have prevented,—a rough and hasty report is all that I am now able to prepare.

“On the 24th June, 1865, I received from Gov. Goodwin authority to raise a company of infantry for Indian service in this Territory, to be known as Co. E, together with the appointment of 2nd Lieut., all on the same footing as other-Volunteers in the service of the U. S., and was directed to take recruits to the commissary of musters at Tubac, who would subsist them till the company was organized. Eighty men was the minimum, and one hundred, the maximum authorized.

“With this authority I set to work and on the 15th Aug. 1865, eighty men had been sworn in—on the 21st, 96 men had been sworn in. From

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the first the company was in command of Lt. Wm. L. Innes, Cal. Vols.; I could not be recognized as an officer until formally mustered into the service, which did not occur until the 3rd November, '65. While at Tubac, the men had to put up their own quarters or lay out in the heavy drenching rains, which soon engendered fevers, so that by the 20th Aug., 20 or 30 cases had occurred. On the 23rd the company was ordered to Fort Mason, 15 miles higher up on the Santa Cruz. Sufficient transportation was furnished and the transfer made in one day. Here new shelters had to be built, and a detail of ten to twenty men was required to aid in the construction of Post Quarters. Meantime sickness increased fearfully, and often to fill the details made upon me, required more or less of the sick. I had from the first asked, begged and pleaded to be kept in the field, hunting Indians, and not making adobies, that not being the service for which my company was intended. This, the commanding officer assured me, should be done as soon as the men could be mustered into the service and clothed.

“At Tubac I had been promised that the clothing would arrive in ten days. Thus things continued till very soon the sickly and ragged condition of Company E made them the laughing stock of their countrymen far and near. On the 29th October, a small amount of clothing was issued, and on the 2nd November, 97 men were mustered into the service of the U. S. as Company E, 1st Infantry, as Volunteers, and very soon after received a tolerable supply of clothing. On the 3rd November, Lt. Manuel Gallegos was mustered in as 2nd Lieut., John

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Van Der Mehn as 1st Lieut., and myself as Captain. The 1st Lieut., who had in no way assisted to recruit the company, left the next morning without reporting to me, and has never done one moment's service in or for the company to my knowledge. A slight variation of duty was now made for Company E. The officers were recognized as such, and a portion of the detail or fatigue parties were changed to guard duty. Owing to the frightful amount of sickness among the whole command, the duties of the well or those who were able to be up became very onerous'for more than a week 1 served as officer of the day every other day, and that at a post where there were eight companies nearly all fully officered. For a long time some of the Cal. Companies could not muster more than seven to eleven men at roll-call. I have omitted to mention that while stationed at Tubac, two recruits were sent to the San Antonio mine to recruit more men—three citizens accompanied them—just at night they came upon three Apaches driving a small band of stock from Sonora towards the White Mountains; an attack was made, one Indian was shot down and one captured—the other escaped. The stock consisted of a few jackasses, cattle and horses, which, with the prisoner, were taken to San Antonio mine. The prisoner, after being questioned closely, was delivered to Corp. Francisco Rodriguez and a private, both of Company E, who took them four or five miles, where laid the bones of a Mexican, killed a short time before by the Apaches. After being reminded of the barbarous warfare he and his people were waging against all around them, the captive's

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spirit was soon sent a ‘marching on’ in search of one, who perhaps, this very Indian had assisted about two weeks before to inhumanly murder, at the same time stealing from the San Antonio mine a much larger number of stock than that now captured from them—also stolen. In October, 32 men Company E, and 8 men Company F, under command of Lt. Gallegos, were sent in pursuit of a band of Apaches who had stolen 35 head of stock from the Cerro Colorado mine. Lt. G. and party were absent eight days without seeing an Indian—he attributed his ill success to the timidity and cowardice of a citizen guide. This was all the field service done by the company in the lower part of the Territory. All of November was occupied in labor on the quarters and guard duty. On the 4th December, orders were received to report with my company to headquarters at Prescott. On the next morning the march commenced with a sick list of 29 men. All had been down at least once, but only one death had as yet occurred. Transportation was furnished only for the baggage, so that most of the sick had to walk with the well. A corporal and two men had been sent in search of a deserter, with orders to join their company immediately after their return. Six men had deserted on account of the order to go north. Arrived at Tucson on the 4th day—found all the sick improving but two, who were worse; applied to commanding officer of that post to have them cared for—this was refused—took them both on, and that night one of them died. Left the other one, after much entreaty, with the station keeper at Point of the Mountains, and he died the same week. No further

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accident of moment occurred till we struck the snows at Skull Valley. From there to Fort Whipple there was much suffering and one or two slightly frost bitten. Arrived at Fort Whipple on the 29th December, makings the march in 26 days, including one day's detention at Tucson for rations, two at Maricopa Wells, and one at Date Creek, all from the same cause. This even beats mail time, for on the 17th of this month, I received a lettar from Ft. Mason, dated August 4th, 1866—18 days behind Co. E's marching time to Fort Whipple, and not deducting the 4 days detention, not an unusual sample of the Arizona mail service on any of the routes since 1861. At Fort Whipple the cold was extreme, no quarters for the men, whose condition was truly pitiable. They bore all patiently and manfully, and on the 4th January, 1866, were glad to hear the order for march to Camp Lincoln. This order occasioned no desertions. Only two had to be left at the hospital, who, to the end of their lives, will bless Doctor Chitter, and the old hospital at Fort Whipple for the good care and medical attendance shown them. The march to Camp Lincoln was a dreadfully tedious one, owing to the wagons being loaded to twice the capacity of the mules—the bad roads—bad weather, and Grief Hill, where we were detained three days by rain. Did not arrive at Camp Lincoln with the last of the command till the 16th January, which is still ahead of many instances of mail service in Arizona. Here we remained preparing the best temporary quarters that circumstances would permit, till the attacks a few miles above Camp Lincoln, when Lieut. Gallegos and 38 men Company E,

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were ordered in pursuit of the Indians, and returned on the 31st without meeting with the Indians. On the same day, 31st, I was ordered to receive and receipt for all the public property at Camp Lincoln, both commissary and quartermaster, and next day, by ten o'clock, the command of the post had changed to my hands. The command consisted of Company A, Lt. Cervantes, 35 men, and Company E, 88 men and one second Lieut. There were no shoes on hand, and but a small supply of provisions. By means of buckskin and rawhide, moccasins were soon substituted for shoes, and on the 11th, Lt. Gallegos and 45 men, Company E, left the post with 5 days' rations, to go back on their last scout to the Indian trail running east, and following it in search of the enemy. The second night out Indian fires were discovered and preparations made for an attack, which commenced just after daylight, and lasted some two or three hours. The Indians being fortified in caves, had greatly the advantage. The lower caves, however, were all taken, and every occupant killed or taken prisoner. Lt. Gallegos, finding that the upper caves could not be taken without some sacrifice, concluded to withdraw. Thirty Indians were killed outside of the caves, and nearly as many more within. Twelve prisoners were taken, two of whom afterwards died. Six men were wounded, none dangerously. A large number of buckskins and other articles of Indian use were taken. Their commissary was found to be much better supplied than ours, but we were unable to pack off more than was needed for present use, for lack of transportation; indeed, no transportation was used on this or any

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other scout. The scout occupied but four days' time, and on its return I had to leave immediately to get provisions for the next issue on the 20th. Fearing that I might not be successful, I left orders to issue only half rations on the 20th. This most of the men refused to accept, and were on the point of disbanding and leaving in a body. By much difficulty they were prevailed upon to wait until a messenger could be sent to me. Fortunately a temporary supply of provisions had arrived at Fort Whipple, so that I was able to return and quell the discontent in camp, which came near being a very serious affair. Provisions, however, arrived on the 25th, barely in time to keep off starvation, and to bring which required the efforts of 21 men, commissioned officers and privates, from the 18th to the 25th inclusive. On the 26th Private Roque Ramirez had permission to go hunting, and after his return at roll call, went out fishing, and next morning was found dead in the river about one mile below the post. He was killed by Indians, and his arms, clothing and ammunition all taken. During all the interval from the return of the last scout, preparations were being made for another scout, and on the 1st March, Lt. Gallegos and 60 men were dispatched eastward with five days' rations, without transportation, in search of the enemy, and returned on the 6th without seeing an Indian. Two very important items were lacking, one was a good guide, and also lances, the rifles furnished Company E having no bayonets. Application had previously been made for both, but the want of them was never so forcibly felt as on this scout. On the 20th, Lt. Cervantes,

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with 26 men, all Company A, set out in accordance with previous orders, to find, if possible, and chastise the enemy. On the next day Lt. Gallegos, Company E, and 56 men, followed in a different direction, On the 25th Lt. Cervantes returned with two prisoners, and reported having attacked a rancheria and killing four Indians. On the 27th Lt. Gallegos and party returned, having found a small rancheria, but, being discovered, had only a fruitless chase through the brush and rocks. On the 11th March, I set out from Camp Lincoln with 27 men, Company E, for Fort Whipple, for provisions, and, taking unfrequented roads through the mountains to the northward of the travelled road, about midday unexpectedly surprised a rancheria, killing six Indians and taking one prisoner. Same expedition resulted in finding a much better route for wagons into and out of the Rio Verde Valley. Provisions were again procured in limited supply, and a speedy return effected to Camp Lincoln. Nearly the whole of this month was lost for the want of provisions in sufficient quantity to justify the undertaking of even a five days' scout, Nearly an average of 30 men, Company E, were kept on detached service, transporting provisions in small lots as I could get them. Twelve men had to be kept at the Clear Creek settlement, which, excepting during the months of March and April, was furnished by Company A. The month of May, until the 23rd, was passed in the same hand to mouth way of getting provisions, when Lt. Gallegos was again dispatched with 60 men on an eight days scout. On the 29th they returned, having seen no Indians on the expedition, and

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scarcely a sign of them, although they were ordered in the direction where many smokes and fires had been seen by a previous scouting party. On the 31st I had to leave the command again for provisions, taking with me 15 men for escort purposes. Arrived at Ft. Whipple on the 1st June, and next day loaded up ten pack animals with provisions, also taking five beeves. The whole were entrusted to Sergt. Miguel Elias, with precautionary instructions to be prepared at all times against surprise and attack. Notwithstanding this, on the 3rd, while descending Grief Hill, the Indians suddenly attacked the whole party, in three divisions of 20 or 30 Indians in each, severely wounding the sergeant and slightly wounding one private at the first fire. The Indians captured the five beeves, killed two of the mules on the spot, and destroyed several of the packs of provisions. The escort all escaped, taking in eight of the mules and their packs in time to prevent starvation in camp. Before two hours Lieut. Gallegos, with 30 men, was on the ground, but the Indians had all escaped to the northward, packing off all the mule meat and destroying the pack saddles and provisions on the mules. He followed them until dark; their route lay over a black volcanic rocky country so that it was impossible to follow them, there being no moon. On the next day I arrived with 30 days' supplies, and on the 15th dispatched Lt. Gallegos and 54 men on a scout to the northwest, in hopes of finding these Indians in their homes and by this time unsuspecting any pursuit. In this I was disappointed as they had not stopped at their old homes, but left one or two of their comrades

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rades to make smokes and other signs of their presence, and kept on with their prize of two head of beef cattle to a place of greater security for them. Two of their cattle they had lost, the other it is not known positively what did become of it. On the 29th the Lieut. returned after a fatiguing tramp of six days without seeing an Indian, and but very little fresh signs. The Indians made a circuit with their two beeves, and went in the direction of Black Canyon. On the 7th June, official notice of the resignation of Lt. Cervantes was received, and Company A was added to the command of Lt. Gallegos. The necessary transfer took up much precious time, and prevented an earlier pursuit of the Indians. On the 11th of July, Lt. Gallegos and 54 men were dispatched in a southeasterly direction with ten days' rations, with orders to enter Tonto Basin and use every effort to surprise the Indians there in their rancherias, who were supposed to reside there and farm in large numbers. On the 6th day out a small rancheria in a canyon leading into Tonto Basin was discovered, and the necessary preparations for attack made so as to secure the whole party, but in this our men were discovered, when a general stampede of the Indians took place. One warrior was killed, and one (an old man) taken prisoner. The rest escaped, leaving everything behind them. The Indians scattered to spread word of the danger that awaited their neighbors. Lieut. Gallegos, knowing that the whole Basin would be immediately depopulated, destroyed the cornfields and everything that fell in his way, and returned to Camp Lincoln on the 20th with the one prisoner

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and party. The prisoner was very communicative and reported his people completely demoralized, not knowing whither to flee for safety. On the 17th I mounted ten men, and made a march of 30 miles up the river, coming upon a rancheria of 26 lodges, the occupants all fleeing into the mountains at the approach of my small party, leaving everything behind, which fell into our hands. Next day returned to Camp Lincoln, finding on my way two of the beeves captured from Sergt. Elias on the 3rd June, and driving them in. They were the first beeves killed for the command since the 20th June. Could beef have been procured, the whole month of July would have been occupied by the command in a campaign to the White Mountains with 80 men. It is greatly to be regretted that the expedition could not have been carried out as results of a very important effect to the Territory, I am confident, would have resulted from it. On the 28th July a scouting party of 40 men under command of Sergt. Ochoa, (Lt. G. being sick), was ordered to follow up some Indians who entered the wheat fields at Clear Creek by night, stealing some grain and a few tools. The orders given were faithfully obeyed, but the Indians had escaped 24 hours before word reached me of the depredations committed. August 3rd, 53 men of Company E refused to do further duty by reason of expiration of term of service, and nothing short of actual force could have compelled them to continue. This I did not have. They had now been a year in the service, without receiving a dollar's pay from the Government, and could not be blamed. Provision was

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therefore made for their discharge and payment. On the 29th August, the command at Camp Lincoln was reduced to an aggregate of 5 enlisted men, all of whom were more or less sick, and myself, the only commissioned officer at the post, Lts. Gallegos and Ford being absent, sick. This force I believed to be entirely inadequate to remain at so retired a point in security. On the 30th and 31st, by the assistance of the settlers at Clear Creek, all the movable government stores were temporarily transferrd 6 miles below, to a place of greater security till reinforcements should arrive. By the 13th Sept. three more enlisted men were discharged, leaving two enlisted men, and they both sick. On the 15th Lts. G. & F. arrived, somewhat improved in health. On the 29th Capt. Downie, 14th U.S.Infantry, arrived and took command. On the 30th Lt. G. and one man Company E, and two citizens, attacked a thieving party of Indians in the cornfields, killing one Indian and frightening the rest effectually away, since which the settlers have not been troubled by their raids. The two men remaining in Company E will be discharged on the 1st, and 5th, of November, and with them Lt. G. and myself, which will terminate its organization, making 16  months, the first 4  of which I got no pay for time nor expenses incurred. In recruiting this company I used $500 my own funds, and nearly half as much more recruiting Companies F, G, and D, which, with the exception of a portion of Company F, were never organized. During all this time the whole burden and responsibility of the organization, both from the Government to the Company, and the Company to the Government, has fallen upon me. I have

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long been accustomed to hard and active labor and to positions of some responsibility, but never have I passed a year and four months of such unremitting toil and care as the past. Had the actual needed supplies been furnished, there is no doubt but that the record of this company would have been such as its officers could look back upon with pride. As it is, they see but little except disappointed hopes and expectations. One thing at least has been proven, viz.: that the native troops are far superior to any others for field service in this Territory, and until this shall be taken as the basis of operations, no immediate good results can occur. Government may continue to spend its millions upon any other basis, and Apache raids will still continue, while 300 native troops, well officered, at an expense of less than $800 to the man per year, will, in less than two years rid the Territory of its greatest bane and obstacle in the way of progress.

“Such are some of the principal events in the history of Company E, which I should have been glad to have made out much more in extenso, but duties that could not be deferred have prevented.

“Very respectfully,

“Your Obt. Servt.,


“Capt. 1st Inf. Ar. Vols.

“P. S.—Before long I will endeavor to send you a sketch to accompany this report.

“H. S. W.

“P. S.—Among other omissions is that of the action between Sergeant Elias with 6 men Company E, and 27 Apaches, while returning from escort service to Prescott. The fight lasted two hours. Elias had a bullet shot through his hat

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and one of the men was taken and retaken three times. One of the men lost his hat, and two of them a blanket each. The Indians had several wounded, two it is thought mortally. They retired from the fight just in time as the men had only three or four rounds of ammunition left at the close of the fight.


“Capt. &c.”


Captain Washburn must, undoubtedly, have been very active and energetic, and did good work considering the material he had and the difficulties under which he labored. The following communication will show that his services were appreciated by the regular military at that time:


“Hd. Qrs., Dis. of Arizona Ter.

“Tucson Ar., June 25th, 1866.

“Capt. Washburn,

“Arizona Volunteers,

“Comdg. Camp Lincoln.


“It gives me pleasure to thank you and your command for several successful scouts against the hostile Apaches. I hope that you will encourage your men in their valuable services to the Territory, and that I shall soon again have it in my power to commend you in high terms to Department and Division Head Quarters.

“I am, Captain,

“Very respectfully,

“Yr. Obt. Servt.,


“Lt. Col. 14th Inf., Bt. Col. U. S. A. Commanding.”


“H. S. Washburn,

“Capt. &c.”


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There is also a synopsis of a report made by Lieutenant Hutton, as follows:


“On the third of November, 1865, I was mustered into Company F as 2nd Lieut. to raise the company to its standard, Capt. Washburn having recruited 33, who were mustered in on said 3rd of November. On the 30th of November, the company numbered 85 men, Com. officers and privates. On this same day I was ordered to disband the 53 recruits that I had raised by order of Col. Lewis of the 7th Cal. Vols., stationed at Fort Mason, and on the 5th day of December, I was ordered to Prescott. My men not having shoes and shirts, on the 25th was ordered to report to Capt. Grant at Date Creek, which I complied with on same day. On the 6th of January, with 12 men, I was sent as escort for wagons en route for Prescott. Arrived on the 9th, thermometer down to 9 above zero. On the 16th arrived at Camp Date Creek; on the 21st one corp. and 5 privates on detached service. 30th one corp. and 6 privates on detached service. 1st of Feby. one corporal and 8 privates on detached service. 17th one corporal and 2 privates on detached service. 16th one noncom. and 2 men returned from detached service.

“19th left Camp Date Creek; proceeded to Skull Valley, and there took post. Arrived on the 21st. Feb.24th one non-com. and 2 privates on detached service to Date Creek. One corp. and 5 men attacked by Indians and 2 men killed, one wounded. After fight of 3 hours' duration, the Indians were driven off. I consider that those men acted as bravely as men could under such circumstances.

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“26th, arrived in camp one non-com. and 7 privates from detached service.

“I would state here that the weather was very bad, cold winds prevailing, and snow and sleet most every day.

“27th, one non-com. officer and 11 men on detached service to Date Creek.

“March 4, one non-com. and 3 privates from escort duty. 5th, one non-com. and 10 privates returned from escort duty. 7th, non-com. off. and 7 privates on escort duty. 15th, non-com. returned from escort duty. 19th one corporal and 6 men on escort duty to Walnut Grove. 23rd, returned with said escort. 21st, one corporal and 9 men on escort duty. 29th, one corporal and 4 men returned from escort duty. April 1st, one sergt. and one corporal with ten men, escort duty. 6th, returned. 7th, Lieut. Hutton on detached service with 5 men. 10th, returned with said men. 19th, 4 privates returned. 23rd, one corporal and 5 men on escort duty. 24th, returned with escort. May 1st, one non-com. and 5 privates on escort duty. 3rd, 3 privates on escort duty. 5th, one non-com. and 5 men returned from escort duty. 10th, one corp. and 5 men on escort duty to Prescott. 11th, one corporal on detached service with 5 men as guard for ranch. 13th, one non-com. and 3 privates on escort duty. 13th, one non-com. and 5 privates returned. 15th, one non-com. and 5 privates on escort. 21st, returned. 26th, Lieut. Hutton with 15 men on scout. Returned on June 1st after an arduous search after Indians, himself and men packing their blankets and provisions on their backs. 3rd, one non-comm. and 5

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privates returned from detached service as guard for ranch. 6th, one non-com. and 4 privates on escort duty. 8th, returned with said escort. 9th, one non-com. and 4 privates returned from escort. 10th, one non-com. and 6 privates on escort duty. 14th, one non-com. and 6 privates on escort duty. One non-com. and 4 privates returned from escort. 25th, one non-com. and 6 privates from escort duty. 28th, one non-com, and 12 men on scout. 10th, returned, no Indians. 12th, 3 non-coms. and 15 men on a scout after Indians with 18 men from Fort Whipple under charge of Lieut. Hutton. August 2nd returned. Succeeded in killing and wounding 2, and capturing 2 children. Travelled over 300 miles north north-east from Skull Valley. August 13th, Lieut. Hutton, with 14 men and some 13 citizens, killed 23 Indians. Loss, one man killed and one wounded. During the remainder of August escorted two trains to Prescott.

“Sept. I have a good deal of sickness in camp; have not been able, with the small force at my command, to scout.

“I have run over my morning reports and noted such as are on these pages. You must take into consideration that I have had to always keep guard and do daily duty, the same as the men in camp.

“Col.: I send you this; if you wish you can recopy into spree shape as I have so much to do that I can't give time to this at present. You are better posted than I am in such matters. I would just here state that I have to lose the time that I was doing duty previous to mustering

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in as first sergt. from the 1st of August till 3rd of November.

“I am, sir, Col.,

“Very respectfully,

“Yr. Obt. Servant,


“2nd Lieut. Co. F, A. Vols.,

“Comdg. Company.”


The following letter from Captain H. S. Washburn to the Adjutant-General, under date of Sept. 12, 1866, from Camp at Clear Creek, gives some idea of what the settlers suffered at that time:


“Camp at Clear Creek, Sept. 12, 1866.


“The Indians are now harvesting the corn at this settlement at the rate of about 30 or 40 bushels nightly. There is but one soldier left who is able to shoulder a musket, and he has charge of the commissary stores at this camp, what there are, no meat left. When the bearer of this leaves, there will be two citizens left who call themselves well. I am hourly expecting an attempt to take the stock. I have to do guard duty day and night.

“If assistance does not come very soon, I shall have to abandon what government property I am trying to protect, and seek security for myself and animals.

“Yours truly,


“Captain, &c.

“To Lieut.-Col. W. H. Garvin,


“Ar. Vols.”


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It will be observed that these companies were raised under authority given by the ProvostMarshal General in 1864, and the term of service was for three years or during the war. The war between the States was ended the following year. No attempt was made to organize this regiment until the war was over. The troops were enlisted under the mustering in officer at San Francisco. On June 1st, 1866, Secretary McCormick wrote to the Secretary of War, asking their retention in the service, and authority to recruit a full regiment. This letter was referred to General Grant, who replied as follows:


“I know of no law under which this regiment could be raised, and special legislation would be necessary to provide for its equipment; subsistence and payment.”


These Arizona Volunteers, besides killing a great number of Apaches, carried the war into the heart of the Apache country. They explored the Tonto Basin country; the country in and around Globe, and the upper waters of the Graham Valley in Gila County, going as far as the Natural Bridge in the northern part of Gila County.

Secretary McCormick, in his message to the Legislature in 1866, said: “Our Delegate proposed an amendment to the new army bill, where-by the companies already in the service should be retained.” The Congressional Globe, however, has no report of Delegate Goodwin ever proposing such an amendment to the army bill. As a consequence, enlistments were discontinued, and those already in the service, some of them having served for more than a year, were disbanded on the first of the following July.

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These soldiers were not paid, and have not been paid up to this date, by the General Government. They were disbanded and the settlers of Arizona were left to the tender mercies of the Apaches, with such meagre assistance as a very reduced force of regular soldiers could give them.

From an interview with Maj.A.J.Doran, who was particularly intimate with Captain J. D. Walker during his lifetime, I obtained the following short biographical sketch:

Captain Walker was born in Nauvoo, Illinois, about the year 1840. In early manhood he came to California, enlisted in the 5th Regiment California Infantry, and was appointed a wagonmaster.

Upon his arrival in the Pima Villages, it was found that there was a surplus of wheat and corn, which the Government traded for, and this was conveyed by wagon to the different posts of the California Volunteers, as far as the Rio Grande.

When Captain Walker received his discharge from the service, he settled among the Pimas at Sacaton, and, being part Indian himself, was adopted into the tribe. He was descended from one of the Illinois tribes. He was a natural linguist and soon mastered the Pima language. He originated the first grammar of their language and reduced it to a written language. Pastor Cook claims this, but Captain Walker was the man who did it, according to Major Doran. To all intents and purposes Walker became an Indian and was one of the big chiefs of the Pima tribe. He was a leader in all their councils and big talks. Having studied medicine

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in his early life, he became the big medicine man of the tribe. He was a good physician and a man of extraordinary intelligence, somewhat of a scientist. He was a reticent man, never talking much, but had a wonderful fund of information on almost every subject, and he was very precise. He was not a graduate of any college, but was a great reader and a self educated man;a thoughtful man, somewhat of a philosopher.

He was elected surveyor of Pinal County by his party, and served as Probate Judge for several terms. The duties of this office he discharged with fidelity and intelligence. His word was as good as his bond. No one ever knew John D. Walker to go back on his word in any way.

He raised a company of Pima Indians for the Arizona Volunteers, and was made captain of it. It is said that when they were in the field you could not tell him from the other Indians. He dressed like them, with nothing on but a breechclout, and whooped and yelled like his Indian comrades.

He had a noted fight with the Apaches above Pinal at the Picacho. South of Pinal there is a big Picacho and a perpendicular bluff, all full of crevasses. Here he surprised the Apaches and got behind them, and those he didn't kill he drove over this bluff, wiping out the entire band, about seventy-five in number. “Even now,” says Major Doran, “you can see on this battlefield the skeletons of the Apaches in the crevices; they were Ton to Apaches.”

When he was Probate Judge Captain Walker lived in Florence, it being the county seat. Shortly after his induction into office, the Vekol

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mine was discovered by an Indian, who showed it to Walker, and Peter R. Brady. They located it and worked it for a while. Walker bought Brady out, and took his brother Lucien, as a partner in the mine, and they worked it until they bottomed the mine. They took out about two millions of dollars, most of which Captain Walker spent among the Pima Indians, who were well taken care of.

Major Doran sold Walker's interest in the Reymont mine for a hundred and twelve thousand dollars, a hundred and five thousand of which comprised the greater portion of his estate when he died. Several years before his death Captain Walker was adjudged insane and placed in an asylum. Shortly before his death, in the year 1894 or 1895, a woman came out from Illinois and became his nurse, and conceived the idea of marrying him, which she did, the marriage ceremony being performed by an itinerant Greek minister. When Walker died the heirs consisted of three brothers and four sisters, all living outside of Arizona, and they asked Major Doran to become the administrator of the estate. Major Doran made application and was so appointed. The alleged wife also made application for appointment as administratrix, claiming that being his wife she had the best right to administer the estate. Major Doran contested her claim, and that suit was in litigation for over five years. It went to the Supreme Court of the United States and was decided in favor of Major Doran.

Soon after an heir cropped up in the person of an Indian girl, Juana Walker, who claimed to be Walker's heir because he had lived with

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her mother and had been married to her under the tribal laws of the Pimas. This suit was contested by the administrator on the ground that white man could not marry an Indian under the laws of the Territory. It was appealed to the Supreme Court of the Territory, and then to the Supreme Court of the United States, finally being decided in favor of the administrator.

After all these suits were disposed of the estate was divided among the heirs. The Vekol mine was reorganized, and McCabe, one of the lawyers of Juana Walker, received some of the stock, but, according to Major Doran, the Indian heir received nothing.

Major Doran says of Captain Walker: “He was somewhat of a scientist. I remember the Smithsonian Institute claimed that the Gila Monster was not poisonous. He contended that it was, and wrote a dissertation upon the subject, and sent it and a specimen to them for analysis. They reversed their decision and admitted that it was poisonous.”

Of course there are many minor incidents inb connection with Captain Walker's life in Arizona and elsewhere, but these comprise the main facts. The least that can be said of him was that he was a man of fine attainments, generous to a fault; the best type of the Western man, which embodies everything that is bold, chivalrous, and honorable.

Captain Washburn came from Mexico to Arizona, and after his term of service here, went to Washington, where he held a position in one of the Departments. He never returned to Arizona. Concerning Lieut. Hutton I have been unable to obtain anything whatever.


© Arizona Board of Regents