CHAPTER XI. SALT RIVER VALLEY PROGRESS; CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS.


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FLOURING MILLS-CROPS - MARYVILLE - EARLY CHURCHES AND MINISTERS-REV. ALEXANDER GROVES - REV. FRANKLIN MCKEAN - DESCRIPTION OF OLD TIME RELIGIOUS SERVICE-EDWARD IRVINE DESCRIBES MEETING WITH PASTOR GROVES - QUESTION OF SUNDAY LABOR-QUARTERLY CONFERENCE OF METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH SOUTH AT PHOENIX FIRST CHURCH CONFERENCE IN VALLEY - FIRST CATHOLIC PADRE-REV. CHARLES H. COOK, MISSIONARY TO PIMAS-SIXTH TERRITORIAL LEGISLATURE PASSES LAW FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS - PUBLIC SCHOOL OPENED IN PHOENIX - BUILDING OF SCHOOLHOUSE - HAYDEN'S FERRY SCHOOL - CHRISTMAS TREE FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN - MISS CAROLINE G. HANCOCK, PIONEER TEACHER, BIOGRAPHY OF.

After the reclamation of the desert lands in the Salt River Valley had been proven a success, and an abundance of water for all lands under cultivation at that time was supplied by the river, the price of flour and of barley attracted the attention of farmers, and plans were made for the manufacture of wheat into flour. Flour mills were already in successful operation in portions of the Territory. In the early part of 1870, flour mills were producing a good quality of flour, and competing successfully in the local markets with


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shippers of that article from California and New Mexico. The Agua Fria mill of Bowers & Co., produced an excellent quality of flour from wheat raised in the vicinity of Prescott; the Lamberton mill at Walnut Grove was also occasionally employed in making flour, while Bichard & Co., of the Pima Villages, owned and ran two mills, one at the Villages and the other at Adamsville, which turned out quantities of flour and similar commodities.

The first two flouring mills erected in this valley were established on the north side of the Salt River. The largest of these, known locally as the Hellings' Mill, was located up the valley about three miles from the present city of Phoenix at what was then known as Mill City. Toward the latter part of February, 1870, Jack Swilling, in a letter from the Phoenix Settlement to the "Prescott Miner," referred as follows to the contemplated establishment of a grist mill in the Valley:

‘‘"The farmers of this vicinity have already sowed 1,200 acres of barley, and 150 acres of wheat, and both wheat and barley are looking well. The settlers expect that a flouring mill will be erected here next spring."’’ The site for this mill was selected in August of 1870 and the foundations for the mill building were laid only a few months later. Work progressed slowly upon the plant for about a year. In the Tucson Citizen of January 7th, 1871, there appeared the following:

‘‘"The farmers are all busy putting in their crops, clearing new land, and making other improvements. The number of acres sown this year will be more than three times that of last,


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and there will be an abundant supply of water for all. Wm. B. Hellings & Co., are laying a foundation for a flouring mill which, it is expected, will be completed before harvest."’’ This letter was dated from Phoenix December 26th, 1870.

In the month of October, 1871, the freight train of Miller Bros., Sam and Jake, of Prescott, left that place for Ehrenberg on the Colorado River, to haul the machinery for the mill. This machinery had been shipped in deep water vessels from San Francisco to the mouth of the Colorado, transferred at that point to freight barges, and towed up the river to Ehrenberg, from where it was freighted overland to the Valley. Lumber for the construction of the buildings at Mill City was brought from near Prescott, and on their return the wagons were loaded with grain and other commodities raised in the valley, and needed to supply the market in and around Prescott with these necessities.

Toward the end of the year 1871, the Hellings Mill was in full blast, being the second to turn out flour from Valley raised wheat. Upon its completion the "Prescott Miner," under date of December 16th, 1871, contained the following:

‘‘"Good news: A great work has been completed in Salt River Valley, Maricopa County; nothing less than the erection of the finest flouring mill this side of San Francisco, which was put up at a cost of nearly $70,000 through the praiseworthy energy of Wm. B. Hellings & Co. This mill, we learn by letter from John W. Swilling, is now making flour of excellent quality."’’


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W. B. Hellings & Co., the firm who erected this mill, was composed of C. H. Grubb, E. W. Grover, Wm. B. Hellings and Edward E. Hellings, the latter becoming the superintendent of the completed enterprise. The building on the premises at Mill City consisted of a large, well furnished adobe store; comfortable residences for owners and employees, and the flouring mill, which was a large, three-story building, well roofed with lumber and shingles brought from the Prescott country. The walls of this building, excepting the portions upon which the heavy timbers rested, were formed of adobe, and were of great strength and thickness. The woodwork was also strong, and the machinery was the best that could be procured at that day in San Francisco. A forty-eight horse power engine was required to drive this machinery, and the mill had two runs of stone and could turn out at least thirty thousand pounds of flour daily. It took more than a year to complete the mill and the two granaries adjoining it, which had a storage capacity of a hundred and fifty thousand pounds of grain. The entire cost was nearly $75,000. The construction work was done by residents of Arizona under the direction of a Mr. Henderson, who had spent a lifetime in building and running flour mills.

The demand for flour from the Hellings Mill was, during the first year of its operation, greater than the supply. Two grades of flour were made, the best being sold for eight cents per pound at the mill, and the second quality for seven cents; "semetilla" a coarser product, was sold for five cents, and bran for three cents. The


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greatest quantity of flour made in one day during the season of 1872 was 16,784 pounds, besides semetilla and bran, while the output rarely fell short of 10,000 pounds. As the valley adjacent to the mill contained no trees, fuel for the mill, which was operated by steam power, was hauled from the mesquite country below, near the present site of Phoenix. The first large contract to be taken by Hellings & Co., after the completion of their mill, was for supplying the military posts north of the Gila including McDowell, Date Creek, Hualapai, Verde and Whipple, with flour, from January 1st, 1872, to July 1st of the same year. This contract had been previously awarded to Bichard Bros., of Adamsville, but was later annulled and given to their recently established competitors. The Hellings plant was known as the Salt River Flouring Mill, and its Territorial Agents were Hellings & Veil at Prescott, Barnett & Block, at Wickenburg, Moore & Carr at Maricopa Wells, and E. N. Fish & Co., at Florence and Tucson. Nothing remains to mark the spot where the Hellings Mill was erected forty-five years ago, except the crumbling walls of the old building which, so far, the ravages of time have failed to totally obliterate.

Near the north bank of the Salt River, about opposite the Mormon town of Lehi, was located in early days the little settlement of Maryville, often called Rowe's Station. The founder of Maryville was William Rowe, a sturdy rancher who came to the Valley in 1868. Mr. Rowe built the station on the main travelled road from the Gila to Camp McDowell, and there domiciled his large family. Several hostile Apache tribes,


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were dangerously near to Mr. Rowe, but, like many other pioneers, he took his chances. Under trying conditions Mr. Rowe commenced the digging of a ditch to reclaim the fertile lands about the station, but it was uphill work and many years slipped by before Rowe's Ditch, as it was at first called, could be utilized for the carrying of water. Raid after raid was made by the savages upon his slender possessions, but he held on to his home for many years. Equally courageous neighbors came in time to dwell beside him, but the little settlement was hardly ever free from Indian attacks. On May 15th, 1870, Indians stole all the stock, eight or nine head, mostly cows, owned by Thomas Shortell, one of Mr. Rowe's neighbors. This rancher had at one time been a soldier at Camp McDowell, had a large family to support, and his loss, therefore, was very severe. A few days later Indians took all the stock, cows and oxen, belonging to Mr. Rowe. Rowe had at this time a family of eight little children, and his principal means of support for himself and family was upon the milk he sold, and the hay which he hauled with his oxen, to supply the market in other localities. The loss occasioned by this raid left him almost destitute, with a large family to support as best he could. On March 28th, 1874, Indians again raided the little settlement, robbing Mr. Rowe of all his mules and Joseph Cox, one of his neighbors, of his only horse.

In 1873 times were very lively at Maryville. The Maryville Irrigating Canal, which was eighteen feet wide on the top, and ten feet on the bottom,


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was being pushed to completion and was designed to carry ten thousand inches of water. At this time the settlement of Maryville consisted, in a business way, of a store and hotel, as well as blacksmith, carpenter and paint shops. About May, 1873, the progress of Maryville had become so pronounced that a postoffice was established with Charles Whitlow as the first postmaster. To show its advancement in a social way, it is only necessary to state that on the evening of July 21st, 1873, an up-to-date theatrical performance was given by the Maryville Amateur Troupe, composed of Dr. T. J. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Ben Davis, and the Misses Mollie and Sierra Nevada Whitlow, daughters of Charles Whitlow, who had come to the settlement from California. Mr. Wilson had been a school teacher in San Bernardino, California, whence he had come to the Salt River Valley, on July 20, 1872, with an armful of testimonials. Upon reaching the valley he stayed in Phoenix but a short time, soon continuing his journey to Rowe's Station. A man who had given his name as Thomas Maxwell had been stopping at this station and, on the evening of July 22nd, robbed Wilson, the schoolteacher, as well as Charlie Whitlow. The next morning Mr. Rowe and his son followed the thief across the desert, and he, when overtaken, commenced to shoot at the pursuers without effect. Rowe and his son returned the fire and wounded Maxwell so severely that he capitulated. He was removed to the station as soon as possible, where he had


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the attendance of a doctor and all other aid available, but to no purpose, as he died the next night.

One of the first shooting scrapes to take place at the "Maryville Crossing of Salt River," as the place was sometimes called, occurred on February 1st, 1873, when James C. Beatty was killed by Richard McGregor. The trouble began in a wordy dispute, Beatty making the first move to shoot, but getting the worst of it. McGregor came out of the encounter uninjured, and afterwards surrendered himself to the authorities at Phoenix. He was exonerated.

When Camp McDowell was abandoned as a military post, the travel along the road passing by Maryville Station became uncertain, and finally of no importance whatever. With the decline of the McDowell country as a centre of military activity, the gradual abandonment of Maryville took place, its sturdy settlers going to more active localities. Some twenty-five years ago an old adobe ruin, near the deep worn McDowell road, still marked the site of Maryville, one more of the vanished settlements of Arizona.

The Methodist Episcopal Church South, was the first Protestant organization to establish itself permanently in the Salt River Valley. The first regularly ordained minister of this church appointed for Arizona was the Rev. Alexander Groves.

This was in 1870, soon after the Los Angeles Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and almost immediately the reverend gentleman set out for Prescott, Arizona, the future field of his labors. He made the journey across the desert from California on


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horseback in the company of the late Edward Irvine. After reaching Arizona he rested a few days in the Phoenix Settlement, then a prosperous community, before proceeding to Prescott. At this stopping place he met with the kindest of treatment and the information was furnished him that a church would soon be erected in the Valley and that the services of a good minister would be required. From Phoenix this pioneer minister continued his journey to Prescott, which he reached on the evening of Tuesday, December 13th, 1870, where he found almost virgin religious ground awaiting well directed effort.

In February, 1871, the Rev. Franklin McKean, another minister of the same denomination, arrived in Phoenix, and immediately began his work. As was said at the time, the settlers were "pleased to know that this church will hereafter take great interest in our spiritual welfare." The Rev. McKean gradually aroused interest throughout the Valley in religious work and preached to appreciative audiences at whatever ranch house seemed most convenient. From the time of his arrival concerted religious effort in the Salt River Valley may be said to date, and it has never been dormant since.

In October, 1871, the Rev. Groves left Prescott for California, to attend the annual conference. During his stay in Prescott he had been able to establish a church organization, but he did not return to that place as the Conference sent him to the Salt River Valley, where he was afterwards held in high esteem. After his departure from Prescott Chaplain Gilmore, of Fort Whipple, and Chaplain White, of Camp Verde, continued


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to preach sermons at the courtroom in Prescott on Sundays.

When the Rev. Groves reached the Salt River Valley, he took up his abode upon a ranch, farming and preaching alternately. With his coming the Valley, for a time, had two preachers, as the Rev. McKean was still in this vicinity. Until an adobe building of fairly good size was completed in Phoenix on the southwest corner of Center and Monroe Streets, most of the early Methodist services were held in the open air, or under the shade of brush "ramadas" in various parts of the Valley. The following is a good description of an old time religious service, held at "Barnum's Grove," north of Phoenix:

‘‘

"Parson Groves held religious meetings Friday and Saturday evenings, and three separate services on Sunday (September 15th, 1872), in the pleasant grove on the ranch of Thomas Barnum. During the Sunday services quite a number attended from Phoenix. After morning service an impromptu table was arranged, and an excellent dinner, gotten up by Mrs. John Osborn, Mrs. Griffin, Mrs. Thomas Barnum, and Mrs. Rodgers, was served to the visitors, who did ample justice to the viands. The intervals between the services were occupied in singing and recreation. Those who lingered to the last sat down to a pleasant supper with Mrs. Barnum, and all departed much pleased with the day's proceedings."

’’

The pioneer preachers, like the early schoolmasters in Arizona, found much difficulty in obtaining sufficient financial aid to meet their daily


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wants as the struggling settlers among whom they lived could help them but little.

In September, 1872, Edward Irvine made a trip from Phoenix to Tempe, and in returning by the south side road, thus described a meeting with the Rev. Groves:

‘‘

"All along, as I went, I passed excellent farms which bore evidence of having produced abundant crops the year past, and of active preparations being made for extensive sowing during the coming season. On Hiltibrand's ranch, I surprised Parson Groves, black as a negro, busy with fork and axe, clearing off the mesquite brush. The parson works thus during the week, and preaches at Phoenix nearly every Sunday, and, occasionally down at Mesquite and up at Barnum's Grove, walking backwards and forwards a distance of ten or twelve miles each way."

’’

This teacher of the gospel would also take loads of potatoes and other products raised in the valley to the Bradshaw Mountains for barter among the miners and prospectors of that region. He made his living in this way, but everywhere he went he preached the doctrine of friendship, charity, and love, more like the Peter Cartwrights of the West than the well-paid preachers of to-day. He was conscientious and adhered strictly to his interpretation of the spiritual laws as laid down in the Bible.

In the middle seventies the question of Sunday labor came up in the Valley, and caused some discussion and some feeling among the church brethren. In a correspondence from Phoenix, under date of January 26th, 1875, the following is found:


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‘‘

"The public school is now open under the management of Miss Nellie Shaver. The Sabbath school is conducted by the Rev. Mr. Groves, in the absence of Miss Florence Tweed, who is on a visit to Tucson. The Rev. S. M. F. Herrett announced from the pulpit yesterday forenoon that until further notice, there would be no more church services on Sunday morning because the people are so busy working, thus virtually approving of Sunday labor. In the evening, Mr. Groves announced from the pulpit that he would hold services, himself, every Sabbath in the forenoon. Parson Groves has always been a firm standby in the church, and now when Godliness is on the decline, refuses to go over and join the world, but bravely rears the banner of the Cross and stands firmly at his post."

’’

In the year 1873 the Methodist Episcopal Church South was regularly organized by the Rev. Groves. On the 15th day of May, of the same year, the Phoenix Townsite Commissioners, Messrs. Griffin, Alsap and Hancock, donated to the Church, Lots 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, in Block 65, the certificates of donation being made out to W. H. Franklin, Edward Irvine, Major Charles H. Veil, Capt. William A. Hancock, and G. A. Reuter, as trustees. These lots, however, were not built upon until 1878.

One of the most successful church gatherings of the early days was the quarterly conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, which was held at Phoenix in the courthouse, commencing on Friday evening, December 5th, 1873, and closing on the following Sunday evening. The attendance was very good in spite of rain and mud.


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On Sunday evening the house was full-half the congregation, at least, being ladies-at which time the sacrament was administered. On Sunday, December 7th, the Sunday School was reorganized. Although the library was, at that time, small, two ladies each promised a donation of books to it. On the evening of December 8th, after the close of the conference, the Rev. A. B. Gill lectured at the courthouse on "Theology." The Rev. Gill, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, had reached the valley from California on November 22nd, 1873, with the intention of residing in Phoenix for some time. The first Church Conference ever held in the valley was that of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, at the "Mesquite" in May, 1872, and lasted four days.

Forty years have made a great change in the religious life in Phoenix. Many, if not all, the denominations are represented, and the ministers are not compelled, as Parson Groves was, to toil for his bread, and preach the gospel without remuneration. His successors suffer no hardships, nor through the sweat of their brow earn their daily bread, laboring from sunrise to sunset, but are employed at liberal salaries, and speak to fashionable audiences, in costly edifices, comfortably and luxuriously furnished, which are now scattered over the city in all directions.

The first Catholic Padre to come into this section was in 1872. He held a "misa" in the valley on Sunday, April 12th, 1872, and one in the town of Phoenix on the Tuesday following. Having performed his pastoral duties in Phoenix, he visited the settlement around Tempe,


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which was then a prosperous community. This priest came to the valley from the Florence Settlement, where he was regularly established in charge of a large number of Catholics residing in that vicinity. Phoenix at that time was a place of secondary importance to Florence, from a religious standpoint, and until a permanent parish was established at the former place, Catholic priests from Florence continued to make frequent visits to the settlers of their faith in the Salt River Valley.

The Rev. Charles H. Cook, a minister of the Presbyterian Church, began his work as a teacher and missionary to the Pimas in the year 1871, and continued to occupy this field with great success for many years thereafter. An account of his labors will be given in a future volume.

In the early days of the settlement of the Salt River Valley, there were but few children of school age and the need of public schools was not pressing, but as the population increased, and with it the influx of many families, it became evident that schools would have to be established, not only for the resident boys and girls, but also as an inducement to encourage further immigration into the valley. The first intimation that the settlers desired educational facilities for their children is contained in a brief paragraph written from the Salt River Valley August 13th, 1870, and appearing in the "Prescott Miner" of August 27th, following:

‘‘"The citizens are anxious for a school, and intend to have one as soon as possible, both for their own convenience and as a strong inducement


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for outside families."’’ It was more than a year, however, before this was accomplished.

In the early part of 1871, the Sixth Territorial Legislature passed a new law for the establishment of public schools throughout Arizona, which will be found in a succeeding chapter under the head of Territorial Legislation, and which contained the following provisions:

‘‘

"The public school year shall commence on the first day of January, and end on the last day of December. No school district shall be entitled to receive any portion of the public school moneys in which there shall not have been taught a public school, for at least three months, within the year ending the last day of December previous."

’’

In order to meet this requirement the residents of Phoenix and vicinity opened in the latter part of the year 1871, a semi-public school, sustained by private contributions. This school was held in the first county courthouse which had been completed only a month or two before, on South First Avenue, just off Washington Street. January 1st, 1872, it became a real public school, as from that time it was maintained by direct taxation as proposed by the new school law. John T. Alsap, Probate Judge of Maricopa County, was ex-officio county superintendent of Schools, and the following is condensed from the first report he made to Governor Safford, at the time ex-officio Territorial Superintendent of Public Instruction:

On January 1st, a public school was opened, and the first term of three months closed on March 22nd, J. R. Darroche being the teacher


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to preside over the destinies of this pioneer school. The average attendance for the quarter was twenty-five. Judge Alsap very properly visited the school several times during the term, and on the day it closed, and was much pleased at the evident "improvement of the scholars." Maricopa County's share of the first money raised by taxation for the support of this school was exhausted on the one term, but a subscription was started, and funds for another quarter promptly raised, the second quarter commencing on April 1st. This school was located in District No. 1, then including the whole county of Maricopa, which had been created by order of the Board of Supervisors, on the 15th day of May, 1871. Shortly after the opening of the school in District No. 1, a petition of citizens living too far below Phoenix to share in the benefits of the school there, was presented to County Superintendent Alsap, who endorsed the views of the petitioners and presented the petition to the Board of" Supervisors, who were urged to form another school district. On the 11th day of March, 1872, the Board created District No. 2 as requested. A small schoolhouse had already been erected by the petitioners, the first to be built in the county, and a school term was commenced on April 1st, under the supervision of Mr. E. M. Johnson as teacher. This was known as the "Mesquite School," and the first trustees appointed by the school superintendent, were Matthew R. Morrell, A. B. Sorrels, and S. S. Stroud.

In closing his report Judge Alsap said: ‘‘"The people generally seem to be interested in keeping


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the schools up, and the probabilities are that a school will be kept at Phoenix for nine months, at least, of the year 1872."’’

In commenting upon Judge Alsap's report, the "Tucson Citizen" of April 6th, 1872, editorially said:

‘‘

"The liberality shown in maintaining free schools in Salt River Valley, is in the highest degree worthy of imitation all over the Territory, and, we believe, will prevail. We freely accord much credit to Judge Alsap for the splendid progress of the free school system at Phoenix, but, by his own report, he shows how well the citizens there second all his efforts. He makes a good showing for the ‚border statesmen‚ of Maricopa County."

’’

The voters of District No. 1, having failed to elect Trustees on the first Monday of 1871, according to the act passed during that year, the school superintendent made the following appointments, on June 10th, 1871: William H. Kirkland, James A. Young, and John P. Osborn, who were duly sworn in and assumed the duties of their office, the first in the county to serve in that capacity.

In the following year School District No. 1 elected the following trustees: Captain William A. Hancock, John P. Osborn and J. D. Rumberg, all well-known residents of Phoenix and vicinity. On August 5th, 1872, these gentlemen met at the office of Capt. Hancock and finding their certificates of election correct, organized the school board by the selection of Capt. Hancock as Clerk and Treasurer. At this initial meeting of the trustees, plans for the early construction of a


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small schoolhouse were discussed, and before adjourning Clerk Hancock was instructed to "draw up and circulate a subscription paper for the purpose of raising money to build a schoolhouse in the town of Phoenix, on the block donated to the school trustees for school purposes by the Town Association." Maricopa County was the baby subdivision of the Territory at this time, but it was the first to avail itself of the provisions of the new school law, and to its enterprising citizens belongs the honor of putting into operation the first free public school in the Territory under the law of 1871.

In addition to the two public schools in operation at this time, "Gus" Chenowith had a private school in his own house. The two public schools closed for the summer season about the beginning of July, and on the 3rd of that month J. R. Darroche, the first master of the Phoenix school, was, by the Board of Supervisors, appointed County Recorder to succeed J. L. Mercer, who had resigned. After a vacation lasting through the summer months, the fall term opened on October 14th, 1872, under the auspices of J. Parker, the second master of the local school. A Phoenix resident who visited the school on November 22nd, wrote as follows:

‘‘

"Yesterday afternoon I visited the public school in town, and found it in a flourishing condition under the management of J. Parker. About twenty-six children belong to the school, of whom twenty were in attendance. They showed great proficiency in their studies."

’’

Parker did not serve long as master of the school, which was discontinued on the 14th day


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of December, 1872. At that time it was decided by the trustees to employ a female teacher in the future, and with that object in view a correspondence was commenced with Governor Safford, who was, as has been stated, ex-officio Territorial Superintendent of Public Instruction. Female teachers were not readily available at that time, and the Phoenix School was started again on January 13th, 1873, with W. A. Glover in charge.

On March 8th, 1873, a meeting of the voters of District No. 1 was held in the courtroom on South First Avenue, for the purpose of selecting trustees for the ensuing two years, and of discussing plans looking to the erection of the long desired schoolhouse. The trustees elected at this meeting were J. D. Rumberg, of the first board, Benjamin F. Patterson, and George Roberts, two well-known ranchers. Preliminary steps were taken toward starting the work on the proposed schoolhouse, which was deemed a necessity by all of the settlers. Judge Alsap was authorized by the trustees to purchase lumber and other material and attend generally to the details of the construction of the schoolhouse, and on August 25th, 1873, he entered into a contract with John Casey for the erection of the adobe walls of the building. A man named J. L. Hunt put on the shingle roof; Richard Pearson made the windowsashes, the school desks, and did other carpenter work; Thomas Williams did the plastering, while H. Sayers whitewashed the walls. A man by the name of Curtis, H. Franks, J. Goldwater & Bro., Wormser & Wertheimer, and Charles W. Stearns, contributed building


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material of one kind or another and during the first winter the school stove was kept burning with wood furnished by Benjamin F. Patterson. Mr. Patterson was one of the school trustees, and had come to the valley in 1868. Not much is known of Glover who was teaching during this time, but he was followed by the first really capable teacher to be placed in control of the Phoenix school, Miss Ellen Shaver. To this pioneer teacher belongs the distinction of being the first woman instructor to be employed in our local schools.

At the time of Miss Shaver's arrival the Phoenix school building was nearing completion. She reached Phoenix in the latter part of October, 1873, coming from the State of Wisconsin, and on November 3d she appeared before the school authorities, passed a very creditable examination, and on the 8th was formally employed and entered upon her duties in the new schoolhouse, on the 10th day of November, 1873. Miss Shaver came to Phoenix highly recommended from her home in the East. On the 21st of November, 1873, the following item appeared in a contemporary newspaper:

‘‘

"Miss Shaver, the new teacher, is progressing finely. She now has thirty-five scholars, with the prospect of an increase. The new schoolhouse, in which the children are being taught, is an adobe, twenty by thirty feet in the clear, and sixteen feet high, with a good shingle roof. There are three windows on each side, one large double door in one end, and a fireplace in the other. The floor is dirt, but the trustees intend putting in one of plank as soon as they can


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procure the lumber. The building, so far, has cost $1,400, and it will take $200 more to finish it. Last week Judge Alsap, the county superintendent, purchased a small supply of books for the children and he intends sending into California for a new set in a short time. Several young ladies from the Mesquite are attending school."

’’

In 1871 the children of school age in Maricopa County numbered 103; in 1872, from the county assessor's figures, 313; while in 1873, the school census returns, carefully compiled, showed the number to be 302, 157 boys and 145 girls. Of these children 232 resided within the Phoenix District, and the remaining 70 within the Mesquite District. Of this number, however, but a comparatively small percentage, about twenty per cent, attended the public schools during the year 1873. In 1874 the number of school children in Maricopa County was placed at 323, of which 243 belonged in District No. 1, and 80 in District No. 2. James A. Young took the first county school census in the latter part of 1871; J. R. Darroche in 1873; J. D. Rumberg in 1874; and George E. Freeman in 1876.

In the beginning of the year 1874 the free schools of Arizona were in successful operation. Throughout the same year Miss Shaver continued to teach in the Phoenix school with marked success, and to the entire satisfaction of the school trustees. The Prescott Miner of January 22d, 1875, had the following concerning the Phoenix public schools:

‘‘

"The public schools of Phoenix opened on Monday morning, January 18th, under the efficient management of Miss Shaver. The children


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have had a long vacation, and it is presumed that they have enjoyed themselves during the holidays. They are no exception to the general average of children, being loth to come down to the business of school hours, books, and birch rods again."

’’

Just when Miss Shaver was proving her sterling worth as a teacher, and her pupils were making the most rapid progress in all their studies, John Y. T. Smith, of Camp McDowell, came upon the scene and induced her to became his wife. Their marriage occurred on October 3d, 1875, at the home of John A. Rush, at Prescott, the ceremony being performed by Rev. A. Gilmore, a chaplain of the United States Army then stationed at Whipple Barracks. When John Marion, owner of the Prescott "Weekly Miner," heard of the marriage of his friend Smith, he made the following allusion to it:

‘‘

"It comes awkward to say ‚Little Smiths,‚ but had the chaplain changed John's name to that of his bride, instead of hers to Mrs. John Smith, how convenient in wishing them joy, to add, ‚and a whole band of little Shavers.'"

’’

Mr. and Mrs. John Y. T. Smith had a son and two daughters as the result of their marriage.

The school trustees had to look around for another teacher, and finally selected Mrs. Alabama Fitzpatrick for the next mistress of the school. Miss Carrie G. Hancock, a sister of Captain Hancock and a resident of Sacramento, California, had also been considered as a possible successor to Miss Shaver, and had come to Phoenix for the purpose of taking charge of


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the school. When the choice, however, was made in favor of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, Miss Hancock was given the Hayden's Ferry school at the Tempe Settlement, where she taught from the fall of 1875 to the spring of 1876, after which she taught some time in the schools in Phoenix. When Miss Hancock assumed the role of teacher at the Tempe Settlement (Hayden's Ferry), the trustees were Charles T. Hayden, J. T. Priest and Winchester Miller. Under Mr. Hayden's direction a small adobe building near the center of the little settlement was put in repair, and here Miss Hancock started her school. The little building had a "lean-to" at the back, in which Miss Hancock made her home during the school term. The number of children at the opening of this school was fourteen, of which three were of American and eleven of Mexican parentage.

In the middle seventies Boards of Examiners were organized in the various counties of the Territory for the purpose of determining the fitness of school teachers seeking employment in Arizona. At one of its first meetings, in the month of September, 1875, the Maricopa County Board granted teachers' diplomas to -- Hedgepeth, who taught for a time in the Mesquite school, Carrie G. Hancock and Allie Fitzpatrick. Mrs. Fitzpatrick assumed charge of the Phoenix school on October 4th, 1875, and shortly afterwards the following appeared in some correspondence from the Phoenix settlement:

‘‘

"The public school has been in operation for two weeks under the management of Mrs. Fitz


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patrick, who is said to be a very competent teacher. There are forty-five scholars in attendance."

’’

Up to this time all the teachers who had had charge of the Phoenix school had received a compensation of $100 per month, but an effort was made when Mrs. Fitzpatrick was appointed to make a noticeable reduction. By a vote of two to one, however, the trustees kept the salary of the teacher at the original figure, thus showing that even at that early date the citizens of Phoenix were strongly in favor of having first-class public schools, and were willing to pay the price.

The "Prescott Miner" of December 17th, 1875, had the following from a Phoenix correspondent:

‘‘

"On Friday last, November 26th, 1875, the usual monthly examination of the public school in Phoenix, taught by Mrs. Allie Fitzpatrick, took place, at which a number of ladies and gentlemen were present. About forty children, mostly Americans, were in attendance, who exhibited considerable proficiency in the various exercises. Perhaps one of the best features was the singing, which was good. Music should be taught in all schools. Extracts read by several of the young ladies were very appropriate, and a dialogue by Miss Marilla Murray, Miss Flora Murray and Miss Annie Kellogg was excellent. After the children were dismissed, the adults present canvassed the feasibility of a Christmas tree, with suitable presents, for the children of the school, and Mrs. Granville H. Oury, Mrs. John Smith, Mrs. Braniman, Mrs.


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M. P. Griffin, Mrs. Columbus H. Gray, Mrs. John Gardiner and Miss Greenhaw were appointed a committee to solicit subscriptions, procure suitable presents, and do all else necessary. The Hon. John Smith promised to procure a suitable tree. Mrs. Braniman, Mrs. Oury and Mrs. Griffin have already collected upwards of $100. Mrs. Smith is treasurer and at her house the committee is to meet to-morrow evening to consult further in regard to the matter."

’’

Through the efforts of these kindly ladies the school children had their Christmas tree, a rare treat in the sparsely settled Arizona of that day.

Of the scholars mentioned above, Flora Murray became the wife of R. L. Rosson, a physician and afterwards Treasurer of Maricopa county; Annie Kellogg married Newel Herrick, a partner of George H. N. Luhrs, and Marilla Murray is now Mrs. Neri Osborn of Phoenix.

After a vacation extending through the holidays, school was again commenced on January 3rd, 1875, Mrs. Fitzpatrick continuing as teacher throughout the year.

On February 29th, 1876, the trustees authorized Judge Alsap to employ laborers to clear the school block, the brush and refuse to be piled in the adobe hole near the schoolhouse, an unsightly excavation from which had been taken the dirt to make the adobes for the building. Soon after this was done, on March 19th, a contract was given to Benjamin F. Patterson for the planting of cottonwood trees on all sides of the school block. It was about this time that Allie Fitzpatrick decided to marry John Montgomery, then a dashing and energetic young

MISS CARRIE G. HANCOCK.


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rancher, and her school career, like that of Ellen Shaver, ended in a happy marriage.

Miss Carrie G. Hancock succeeded Mrs. Fitzpatrick, school opening on the 11th day of September, 1876. An order was issued at this time "that no public meetings, religious, political, or otherwise, shall be held in the schoolhouse of this district after September 11th, 1876."

Miss Hancock continued in charge of the school until March 27th, 1877, soon after which time she returned to California, and for many years was city librarian at Sacramento, but now, having returned to the Salt River Valley in 1916, she makes her home here with her nephews, Harry S. Hancock, and Herbert R. Patrick, of Phoenix.

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