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Until after the subjugation of the Indians by General Crook, little progress was made in the settled portions around Prescott and other places. During 1870 and 1871, some settlements were started in what is now Maricopa County. The northeastern part of the Territory had been crossed and explored several times, but it was still practically a wilderness. There were no mines found to create an interest in this section. The land was not of a superior quality, and except in a few localities water was scarce, and some of it was of a very bad quality, especially

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that of the little Colorado River, so this section, taking it all together, attracted neither the pleasure seeker nor those who were looking for homes. Indian troubles and other difficulties impeded immigration, which came in but slowly. A few, however, were penetrating the unoccupied places in the northwest, making feeble efforts to establish homes, while a few were looking for mines.

On July 12th, 1869, C. E. Cooley, A. F. Banta, and Henry W. Dodd, left the Zuni Villages with a small party of Indians to hunt a gold mine known as the "Doc Thorn Story." Cooley was born in Virginia on the 2nd day of April, 1836. In 1856 he came West, landing at Santa Fe, New Mexico. In 1858 he went to Colorado, and clerked in the first store opened in that State. In 1869 he came to Arizona on a mining expedition, and soon after he settled at Apache, where he married an Apache woman. He was prominent as a scout, and served under General Crook with marked distinction. He first settled at Show Low, but later moved to a place inside the reservation, twenty-two miles north of Apache, where he died in 1917.

Henry W. Dodd was born in Ohio February 7th, 1839. He served in the Civil War from the year 1861 to 1864, came to Arizona in 1869, and later served as guide and scout for the Government. In 1886 he was thrown from a horse, and died soon after.

A. F. Banta is still living, and his biography will be found in a succeeding volume.

In the year 1870 a man by the name of John Walker, who was employed to carry the express between Forts Wingate and Apache (the latter

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post having just been occupied by troops), built a cabin at the crossing of the Little Colorado about five miles below where St. Johns is now located. The following year a few Mexicans gathered around this place, and built some temporary huts, and in the spring of 1872 they located the town of St. Johns. Solomon Barth and a few others came in shortly before the town was started. For several years it made but little progress, and like most of these frontier places, had its proportion of renegades, both American and Mexican.

Solomon Barth was a native of Prussia, born in 1842. In 1855 he came to America and drifted from the Eastern States to California. In 1860 he came to La Paz on the Colorado River, and from there went to Weaverville, and in 1863 he was at Granite Creek. He engaged in mail contracts and merchandising, the latter business being carried on in New Mexico, and, in 1873, he moved to St. Johns, where he conducted his business very successfully. He is still living in St. Johns.

In the Fall of 1870 William R. Milligan left Fort Craig with a trainload of corn for the military post which had been established at Apache. His wagons were drawn by oxen. His route was by the Tularosa, New Mexico, and Round Valley, Arizona, to Fort Apache. After delivering his corn he returned, stopping at Round Valley where he put up a log house. This was the first improvement made in the valley. He did this to hold his claim on the place, and this was the first train of wagons to pass through this part of the country. In the fall of 1871 he made

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another trip with corn. This time he had fifteen wagons, and among others who were with him was Marion Clark. Owing to the lateness of the season and other causes, a part of the corn was left at the house that had been built the year before. They expected to return soon for it; this was in January. On returning Milligan brought in a complete outfit for farming. He brought with him Anthony Long and Joe McCullough as partners in the enterprise. Some corn and a little barley were put in, the plowing being commenced about the fifteenth of April. Marion Clark planted some on what was later the Julius Becker farm. This may be said to be the starting of the town now known as Springerville.

During the spring Milligan and Clark made a trip on horseback to Camp Verde to see about disposing of the corn which Milligan had left, and to put in bids on hay and wood contracts for Fort Apache. In June the corn was sent over to Camp Verde. The price they received for it was not made public. At Apache Milligan received ten dollars a hundred for Indian colored corn, and twelve and a half dollars for American.

The winter of 1871-72 was a remarkably mild one, it being more like summer than winter. There was no snow or rain in the valley until about the first of April, when there was a slight fall of snow which only lay on the ground for two or three days. The following summer was exceedingly dry. In July the river in the valley dried up so that the fish died in places. There was no rain until about the middle of

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August, when the first rain came, and this turned off with a freeze that killed the corn which was just in roasting ears. A small patch of barley, however, that Milligan had put in did well. The loss of the corn crop had a discouraging effect on some. Clark abandoned the enterprise, and McCullough drew out from his partnership with Milligan, and took Clark's place. "Tony" Long drew out and went to Fort Apache to work.

The starting of this place was unlike most other places in Arizona. The hostile Indians never moistened its soil with the blood of its inhabitants. The murderous Apache allowed the settlers to prosecute their labors in comparative peace. The White Mountain Apaches were never as hostile as those in the south and west. It is stated that the first year in the valley the settlers saw bear, deer, antelope, and turkeys almost daily, and that mountain sheep were found in the mountains. Milligan made a permanent location here, and others coming in, some from St. Johns, made the place stronger, so it soon became the center for this region. In the early days of the place all supplies were obtained from Socorro, New Mexico.

C. E. Cooley left his companions on the Salt River, in 1869, where he had, as before stated, gone on one of his mining expeditions, an account of which will be given later. He drifted back to the newly established post, Fort Apache. Here, as before stated, he married an Apache woman (in fact, he married two sisters), and took up a place on White River, some eight miles above the post. In 1872 when the corn was killed by early frosts in Round Valley (the

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Milligan place), Marion Clark came over and worked for Cooley a short time. He then went over to Show Low, where he decided to take up a place. There he had some negotiations with one Suvian, a Mexican, about going into partnership with him in locating the place. He went over the ground carefully and located a water ditch. The Indians told him that he was "loco," (crazy), in thinking of settling there for the creek went dry at that point in summer. About this time Cooley and Dodd came through with a party of scouts and Indians looking out a road from Fort Apache to Camp Verde. Coming to this place Cooley remarked: ‘‘"This is my ranch."’’ Dodd said, ‘‘"No, it is mine,"’’ so to decide the matter they played a game of "seven up" to see who should own the ranch. Cooley played "high" which placed him within a point of going out, when Dodd said, ‘‘"Show low and go out."’’ Cooley showed the three spot, which proved to be low. This gave him the game and he jumped up and said he would call the place "Show Low," which name it bears to this day.

Cooley was soon informed that Clark had made a claim on the place. He went to Clark and persuaded him to drop Suvian, whom he was thinking of taking as a partner, and take him instead, which Clark did. Clark and Cooley took out the water, and made some improvements, when Clark drew out, leaving the place to Cooley. Cooley immediately commenced to make improvements upon a much larger scale.

In the year 1871 or 1872, an Indian Chief, with a small band of Indians, located at the confluence of the Show Low and Silver Creeks. Here they

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raised a little corn, but the chief dying soon after, the Indians abandoned the place, which was shortly afterwards taken up by Richard J. Bailey.

In 1870 Luther Martin made a location in the little valley just below Woodruff. He soon abandoned this place and went to St. Johns. About this time a man by the name of Berrando made a location where the town of Holbrook now stands. He built a little house and kept a kind of a trading post. Berrando had some means. He was a member of the Peeples' Party that discovered gold at Rich Hill. Later, Henry Huning succeeded in getting Berrando's wife, and it was reported that he also secured a large share of Berrando's property.

Early in 1873 James Stinson and his partner, Evans, located a place on Silver Creek. Dan Ming was connected with them in this enterprise. Evans had made some money by furnishing the Government with beef for the troops. He did not remain here long, he and Ming drawing out and leaving the place to Stinson. Stinson was a native of Maine. He came to Arizona in 1863, and, with others, located on Silver Creek, now Snowflake. He afterwards sold out to W. J. Flake, and moved to the Salt River Valley. Later on he left the Territory. His wife was Melissa Bagley.

Daniel H. Ming was a native of Kentucky, born in that State in 1845. He came to Arizona in 1869, piloting a herd of cattle across New Mexico to the Little Colorado River. He acted as a Government scout for some time, and during 1875 assisted in bringing in the different


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bands of Apaches to the San Carlos reservation. Later he resided at Fort Thomas, where he was interested largely in cattle raising. He represented Graham County twice in the Territorial Legislature. He died a few years ago.

The following interviews with early settlers in this portion of the country show the dangers and difficulties of life in this part of the Territory in those days:


J. LORENZO HUBBELL.- "Was born in Pajarrito, New Mexico, November 21st or 27th, 1853, and came to Arizona in 1871, settling at Fort Defiance on the Navajo Reservation where I established a trading store in partnership with a man by the name of Read.

"At the time I came into the country it was controlled by a lot of outlaws who would rob a man on the highway, and would enter the stores and take what they wanted. They finally killed a German on the main line to Prescott, and that started the mischief. Bill Cavanaugh was the murderer. He also went by the name of Snyder. He had a race horse and was an all round sport. At one time I ran a race with him at Fort Wingate. At that time I was an all round athlete, a foot racer, a wrestler, a fighter, and anything that came along.

"When I came to St. Johns I asked the storekeepers why they allowed the thieves to rob them. I sent for guns and ammunition, and the fight started in St. Johns, and the first week seventeen of them were killed, and eight of our boys. J. G. H. Colter was one of us. It was a rough fight, and lasted a long time. It would die out and

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then start up again. Then the Clantons came in and we had trouble with them. When we ran them out, they came in here. One of them, Humphreys, married a relation of mine. He was captured but let go on account of being my relative by marriage. There was quite a fuss stirred up about this matter; about our taking the law into our own hands, and they sent for the troops from Fort Apache to come and capture and arrest us. Captain Carter, I think, was the name of the officer in command. I stood up to him, and told him that we would not be arrested; that we were in the right, and I was prepared to look him in the eye and resist arrest. He said we were perfectly right, and he didn't arrest us. I was in St. Johns when they arrested Colter, Milligan, and some others in Springerville, and killed some of them when they had them under arrest. I didn't do any of the killing myself, but I supplied the guns and ammunition for the fighting, was, in fact, the man behind the guns. That kept on until I was elected sheriff in 1885. It would die down and then come up again.

"Finally the sheep and cattle men took up these outlaws. Colter and Milligan were cattle men, but were on our side. It was a fight between the cattlemen and the sheepmen and the rustlers, but finally some of the cattlemen took up with the rustlers. We had it all settled, we thought, and were getting on peaceably, when Huhning, Tee and Smith, three of them who were elected to office by my efforts, turned around and wanted to put me out of office. They tried to put me out on account, as they put it, of absence from the Territory. I

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was on my ranch inside of the reservation, and they tried to make out that this was absence from the Territory; that was their excuse. Rudd was County Judge. I refused to go out, and held the office. I was the strongest. I had the position and held it. Then it was decided in my favor. Then we compromised and there has been peace ever since. That war lasted years. It would flare up at times like fire. The first war was ended in two weeks. These outlaws came in from Colorado and Texas. Cavanaugh, who went by the name of Snyder, was one of their leaders. They killed Colonel Hunt, and wherever they went they left a trail of blood. In this first fight, as before stated, there were seventeen of them killed. It stayed quiet for a year, and then it flared up again. One of them was arrested here for the killing of Spencer. On the first trial he came within one of being acquitted, and then on the next trial he was acquitted. They were all outlaws, and we had to get rid of them.

"When Cleveland was first elected President, I was elected to the Territorial Senate, and was also elected to the first State Senate. I have held several public positions and my experiences in Arizona have been long and varied.

"I knew Victorio and Geronimo personally; knew them very well. I knew Victorio particularly well when he came through Fort Wingate. We got them both there in the fort, but they had not broken out on the warpath then; they broke out afterwards and killed a great many people. They came to Lasa Ward and killed every one there and took one woman. She took hold

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of one of the Indians and wouldn't let go. They killed everyone else. They just made a rapid march through there. They first came in there, I think, in 1871 or 1872, and, I think, made the raid in 1879. They wanted to stay at their home at Ojos Caliente, Tularosa, New Mexico. They wanted to stay there; they belonged to the Mangus Colorado tribe, the Warm Springs Indians. I knew Cochise and Pedro, knew them well. They captured Sol Barth and several others, Chavez, Calderon and others, and took them out and turned them loose, all naked, and the only thing they had to eat was a dog they found. They had to walk seventy-five miles to the nearest settlement, and had no guns or ammunition."


Mr. Hubbell, at this writing, is still living.

The following is given me by Prof. E. C. Bunch, Principal of the Benson Schools:


"In giving you a few reminiscences of my early days in Arizona, I write from memory, which may cause some inaccuracy in dates.

"On August 1st, 1876, in company with several families of immigrants from northwest Arkansas, I crossed the line from New Mexico into Arizona, about fifteen miles east of St. Johns. Our company attracted considerable attention as it was the first company of immigrants to come into the Little Colorado country with their families, livestock and household belongings, with the avowed purpose of making homes and staying in Arizona. We were told that the farming land was about all taken up, but the cattlemen

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were directed to unlimited fields for grazing, which was the main thing they desired.

"The irrigated land was distributed about as follows: Sol Barth and brothers, Morris and Nathan, claimed all the water of the Little Colorado below Round Valley, where the first settlement was made in 1870 by W. R. Milligan, Joe McCullough, Dionicio Baca, Anthony Long, and followed within the next three years by Humphrey Holden Jordan, together with many Mexican families who did the work on the canals, raised grain and looked after the stock.

"Silver Creek was held by James Stinson, while C. E. Cooley held undisputed control of Show Low.

"Colter and Murray, who had arrived the year previous to our coming, had taken all of Nutrioso that Mr. Jones, the first settler, would admit he did not own.

"On the Little Colorado, Milligan and Sol Barth were the leading characters of that day, each being a man of means and resourceful, having large freight outfits which were constantly on the roads. Barth's teams, some thirty wagons, three yoke of oxen to each wagon, hauled freight from Trinidad, Colorado, to the various military posts throughout Arizona and New Mexico. After 1873 Milligan's teams were employed in farm work and hauling his grain to Fort Apache, where he had extensive contracts.

"As Round Valley seemed to be the most progressive settlement, and Mr. Milligan needed all the men he could find to aid him in carrying on his extensive works (having at that time both a sawmill and a grist mill under construction),

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our party decided to make Round Valley the stopping place. Thus ended a journey overland with wagons and teams, both horses and oxen, besides a couple of thousand head of cattle intended for the range, from Carroll County, Arkansas. We were five months on the road.

"We received a hearty welcome from the settlers in Round Valley. The families divided house room, aid was given to erect new houses for the new people, and we were under shelter within a week, and all the young men at work. Milligan, as I have stated, was a resourceful man. He had, at this time, a contract to deliver 800,000 pounds of barley at Fort Apache, at the modest price of 5¼ cents per pound. As he expected to raise all this grain, together with wheat to meet his needs for flour, you can see his farming was on no small scale. He and Anthony Long had contracts for erecting several houses for the Indians of the White Mountain Apache band. Each house was about 14x18 feet, built of logs and roofed with dirt. The contract price was $1,600 for each building, and I was told by men on the work that it often took ‚Tony‚ Long and six Mexicans a whole day to build one of these houses, so as to get the Indian Agent to receive it.

"The power for the grist and sawmills was furnished by an overshot wheel which was erected first at the point where his irrigating ditch emptied its water back into the river. He used this power to thresh his grain after the harvest of 1876. I was then put in charge of the teams and sent to mill at Albuquerque. We took five wagons, three yoke of oxen to each wagon,

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and depending entirely upon the grass for feed for our oxen, made the round trip in twenty-six days, bringing back, besides flour, enough groceries to stock an ordinary store.

"The one event I can never forget was the bringing in the first sawlog. It was on Sunday morning, early in October. All the men were asked to lend a hand. Two log wagons and teamsters, and all the Mexicans that could get on to the wagons, Mr. Milligan, Master Mechanic McCurren, the head sawyer N. B. George, myself, and a number of interested neighbors, went into the canyon for logs. I am sure there were men enough to have lifted the logs onto the wagons, but we could not all get hold at once. After all manner of suggestions and trials, we finally succeeded in getting one log on each wagon, where it was securely chained and conveyed to the mill, and during the week cut up into boards. Later the grist mill was completed, and although it would not answer the demands now, it furnished flour to the settlers and from that time to the present, the valley has known the advantages of a grist mill.

"I think a tribute should be paid to many of the men who moved on at the first approach of civilization. There was old man Humphrey, who could do artistic as well as much plain swearing. Old man Stephens, who was an expert with a broad axe, hewing logs in competition with the sawmill; Jordan, Benton, Walker and others whose names have passed from my mind. These men were not angels, and I never dug deep into their past histories, nor inquired the names they bore before coming to Arizona, but they had big

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hearts and many good traits. Others, like Milligan, Baca, Long, Creagh, Colter, Murray, Franklin, Ruiz, Becker, Rudd and Martin, remained in Arizona, and became leading citizens.

"Harry Springer was the pioneer merchant, for whom Springerville was named, though in 1875 Julius Becker opened a small store which grew into the big store of ‚Becker Brothers,‚ and later, into the ‚Becker Commercial Company.‚ Gustave Becker is the man who built up this great establishment, which has extensive interests in both Arizona and New Mexico.

"When I came to Arizona, Banta was here writing up the doings of men, not even sparing the military officers, whose works were, sometimes, ‚not in good form.‚ He is still here, ‚kicking‚ against the trend of society, though he still believes there are greater evils abroad in the land than the ‚Tango Dance,‚ ‚Split Skirts,‚ or even the boys playing baseball on Sunday.

"In 1878 Sol Barth sold the water of the Little Colorado River to the Mormon people under the leadership of Amon Tenney and David K. Udall, and the real agricultural development began in the Little Colorado Country.

"In the early eighties Springerville became the center of the cattle industry, and soon acquired a name abroad as a real ‚wild and woolly‚ town of Arizona, where everything went ‚from the hip.‚ While these days were less exciting than those of the seventies, newspapers carried greatly exaggerated stories to the outside world, and men became famous as ‚bad men,‚ who were known locally as petty rustlers. The same result is seen in the case of the Indians;

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Geronimo has become the hero of Apache history, because the newspapers were here to give exciting stories of his exploits, while Cochise, Nana, Victorio and Hoo (Juh), are seldom mentioned. To me, or to any of the people scattered along the San Francisco river from Alpine to Clifton, he looks like a kid compared with Victorio, who killed more people from 1879 up to the date of his death than were killed altogether after his death in all the raids. Military history gives no account of the all-day fight at Alma, just over the line in New Mexico, when several prominent men, and dozens of poor Mexican families were butchered. Among the prominent men killed that morning, before the people could get into the fort, was Mr. Cooney, Superintendent of the mines. His body was placed in a tomb, blasted in the large rock which the Indians used to hide themselves while lying in ambush. I suppose it is still there as it was skillfully sealed with cement and stones. Only one man was killed inside the stockade, though a constant fire was kept up all day. Mr. Murray was shot in the arm after dark, having run into a few Indians who had crawled up near the stockade to carry away their dead. Next morning no dead Indians were found, but it is well known that they lost several. As to which side was winner in these encounters with the pioneer settlers, it is only necessary to compare the warriors led by Victorio, estimated at from six hundred to a thousand, to the handful surrendered with Geronimo. Of the many who were killed by the Apaches, I can recall but few names, though they

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were well known at the time. Of those whose loss I keenly felt, owing to close associations, were Paddy Creagh, deputy sheriff, and James Richmond, who were killed on Eagle Creek while returning from Clifton and the Gila Valley where they had been to assess the property which then belonged in Apache County. Another was Robert Benton, an old pioneer of California, Nevada and Arizona. During Indian uprisings he would come into town and make my cabin his home. It always gave me a feeling of security to have the old man around as I had learned much of his prowess and coolness in times of danger. It seems a strange fate that he, who had spent much time and a long life on the frontier, and fought Indians in the whole Rocky mountain region, should be killed in the very last raid of the last tribe to be subdued. Seven dead horses lying around him, many empty shells from his Winchester, and a body left unmutilated, is sufficient proof to me that the old man fought a good fight, and contributed in the fullest measure his share toward making Arizona a fit place for our children to live. Many of these pioneers who were married had Mexican wives, and a great majority of the families were Mexicans.

"To this day I have a kind, sympathetic feeling for the Mexican people, at whose hands I have seen so many deeds of mercy, such kind hospitality extended to every one in need who came amongst them. One well-known Mexican said: ‚I have no concern who eats at my table, just so every one is fed.‚ Berrando's sign at Horse Head Crossing (now Holbrook), painted

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by an American and intended to discourage free meals, read as follows: ‚If you have the money, you can eat.‚ Seeing the misery its enforcement caused, however, and the gloom thrown over the light hearted tourists who were trying to make Prescott from Santa Fe without a cent, he added the following line in his own way: ‚No got a money, eat anyway.'"


Professor Bunch adds the following "briefs" as he terms them:


"1. William R. Milligan was the first white man to settle in Round Valley in 1870. His irrigating ditch covered about a thousand acres. He brought in a ten-horse power threshing machine, and built a sawmill and a grist mill.

"2. Henry Springer opened the first store and gave his name to the town.

"3. Julius Becker founded the house of Becker Brothers in 1875.

"4. Sol Barth and brothers, Morris and Nathan, were the leading men of St. Johns, doing extensive trading and stock raising in addition to a heavy freighting business.

"5. Charlie Franklin afterwards known as A. F. Banta, was ‚Alcalde‚ or ‚Jues de Paiz‚ and writer for various papers, not yet having established a print shop of his own.

"6. Judge Stinson raised stock and farmed on Silver Creek (now Snowflake and Taylor).

"7. C. E. Cooley farmed Show Low; sold his produce at Fort Apache, where he was a particular favorite with the army officers, and his great services in Indian Affairs were acknowledged

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by General Crook in a letter which Mr. Cooley had framed and hung in his room.

"8. The first outlaws to infest the county were Mexicans. They robbed all travellers to or from Springerville and St. Johns. It was this band who robbed Colonel Brickwood at the ‚lagoon‚ near Concho, taking his horse in exchange for an old mule, which he rode barebacked into Milligan's Fort, a distance of thirty-five miles. I can never forget the young man's appearance when he reached Milligan's. This gang went the way of all men who defy the law.

"9. A second band of outlaws from Utah and Nevada established headquarters in Springerville in 1878, and did much killing and robbing, but failing to agree over the division of the money taken from an old German near where Holbrook now stands, a shooting took place, in which several of the gang were killed, and one, ‚Snyder,‚ whose real name was Cavanaugh was badly wounded. It was while I was ‚sitting up‚ with him, attending him as nurse, that he told me the cause of the trouble within their ranks.

"Several men were killed in St. Johns in a pitched battle with the Mexicans, and the people of Springerville finished the band. Nine repose on the hillside overlooking the mill near Eager. Other bands organized and seemed to run the country for short period of time, but when the citizens decided to put a stop to such outlawry, it was done with little fuss."




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