CHAPTER IX. EARLY HISTORY OF PHOENIX.
STORES - HOTELS - FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION - THANKSGIVING DAY-BIOGRAPHY OF J. J. GARDINER-BUILDER OF FIRST PLANING MILL, ALSO CITY HALL; VALLEY BANK BUILDING, ETC.-SALOONS-BREWERY-MATT CAVANESS, BIOGRAPHY - BARBER SHOP - PHYSICIANS AND DRUG STORES - BUTCHER SHOP - OTHER BUSINESSES - ANECDOTE OF WORMSER-CORRALS-FIRST LARGE WELL IN PHOENIX-BIOGRAPHY OF J. D. MONIHON-THE GOLDMAN BROTHERS-H. MORGAN & CO.-NUMBER OF SALOONS-DANCE HOUSES AND GAMBLING PLACES - THE GOLDWATER BROTHERS - GRAND BALL - MARRIAGE OF CHARLES H. KENYON AND MISS MOORE-DR. W. W. JONES, JOE AND MIKE GOLDWATER ATTACKED BY INDIANS - JOE GOLDWATER WOUNDED - JOE GOLDWATER FIRST POSTMASTER OF EHRENBERG.
To give with perfect accuracy the early history of Phoenix is a most difficult task. The printed records are fragmentary and incomplete, and the historian must rely upon evidence given by the few old settlers remaining, and the descendants of others.
In 1872 Heyman Menassee, a merchant of Wickenburg opened the fourth store in Phoenix, during March of that year. Edward Irvine, in March or April of the same year, opened the first book and news depot under the firm name of E. Irvine & Co. Mr. Irvine, at this time, was the regular correspondent for the weekly "Miner" of Prescott, writing, as a rule, under the nom de plume of "Bob." His pioneer news depot was located on south First Street, just off Washington, fronting on the west side of the City Hall Plaza, and was used by Mr. Irvine also as a law office, he having been regularly admitted to practice in the Territorial courts. Mr. Irvine came to the Salt River Valley in 1870, and was well known among the early settlers. He was the owner of what was afterwards known as the Irvine Addition to the City of Phoenix. In 1879 he built the two story building on the southwest corner of Washington and First Streets, now occupied by the J. W. Dorris Grocery Co. This was the second brick building in Phoenix, and was at the time the most pretentious structure in the town. Many of the professional men of that day had their offices on the second floor. The corner lot occupied by the building was, as before noted,
The pioneer hostelry of Phoenix was built and conducted by John J. Gardiner, and was known as the "Phoenix Hotel." It was a one story adobe building, constructed in the form of a hollow square, and stood at the northwest corner of Washington and Third Streets, where the Capitol Hotel is now located. This ground is still owned by the heirs of Mr. Gardiner, who are to-day among the largest owners and heaviest tax payers in Phoenix. In the early days this hotel was extensively patronized, and contained, among other luxuries, a curious swimming pool for the benefit of the summer guests. From the acequia along the west side of Third Street a small ditch ran into the inside court of the hotel, where it formed a large pool in a deep excavation, the overflow water finding an outlet in another small ditch which connected with the acequia along the north side of Washington Street. The pool in the court was covered
"But few people were in town yesterday. The great and glorious Fourth passed off very quietly. It was ushered in by a salute of small arms just after midnight, and a booming of anvils in the early dawn.
"When light enough to distinguish objects, a flag, the only one in Phoenix, was seen gracefully waving over ‚Gardiner's Hotel.‚ This flag was made expressly for use on the occasion. Mrs. Gardiner provided an excellent Fourth of July dinner, while the lads and lassies held a ball in the evening, and so passed the day."’’
Mr. Gardiner was born June 21st, 1841, in Gloucestershire, England. He learned the business of millwright and machinist, being employed in a flour mill at the age of eighteen. He came to America in 1862, arriving after a voyage of three weeks on the sailing vessel, "John J. Boyd." He first located in Omaha, Nebraska, and in partnership with Henry Clifford he bought teams and for several years was engaged in freighting across the plains. His first trip was to Salt Lake City, from whence he went to Montana and Nebraska. The Indians being very troublesome, and a constant menace to travelers, they only went in large companies, and though some were not so fortunate, Mr. Gardiner was never molested, and prospered financially. In 1869 he went to Los Angeles, and the following year came to Arizona, settling in Phoenix, where he died February 9th, 1905. For twelve years he engaged in hauling supplies from Yuma to Tucson, Camp Grant and Prescott, as well as to different mining camps in the mountains. In this service he had five wagons, each provided with ten mules, and frequently as much as six tons were transported in a trip.
JOHN J. GARDINER.
His first wife having died, he married in Phoenix Miss Laura B. Franklin, to which union two children were born, Charles and Mary. Mrs. Gardiner was born in Los Angeles and educated in Mills College, Oakland, California. Her father, Samuel Franklin, was a pioneer farmer of California, and for many years was a miner in and around Prescott, after which he settled in the Salt River Valley. A son was born to Mr. Gardiner by his first wife, who now resides in Riverside, California.
Johnny Roach was the pioneer saloon man of the town. In what was known as the "Old Brewery," Cromwell A. Carpenter operated a saloon in the early part of 1872, his place of business being located about where the Central Hotel, owned by Joe Thalheimer, now stands. In April of that year Carpenter retired from business, and was succeeded by Cavaness & Cosgrove, whose saloon was well stocked with favorite brands of liquors and cigars. This of course, became the favorite resort of those requiring liquid refreshment.
Cavaness & Cosgrove also conducted a good wagon and blacksmith shop in the rear of their establishment, where repairing and shoeing could be done "on short notice," and owned ox teams which freighted government stores throughout the central portion of the Territory. Aside from these enterprises they also managed what was called Phoenix Wells Station, on the Agua Fria, on the direct road from Phoenix to Wickenburg and Camp McDowell, which was
Early in the history of Phoenix there was constructed on the northeast corner of Washington and First (then Montezuma) Streets, a substantial adobe building by James M. Cotton and George E. Mowry. It was built in connection
"Messrs. Mowry & Cotton's new building on the corner of Washington and Montezuma Streets is fast approaching completion. This and the house of Dennis & Murphy are connected so as to form one. Sawed lumber is used entirely in the roof, and is found to be as cheap as and superior to the cottonwood poles. A piazza extends around it on Washington and Montezuma Streets and the weather boards are nicely painted."’’
The foundation of these buildings was commenced in the latter part of April, 1872, and the glass doors and windows for the Mowry and Cotton side of the structure were received by "overland freight" in the latter part of August, the lumber used in its construction being from the mills around Prescott.
The combination building fronted sixty feet on Washington Street and forty-five on Montezuma Street, the main portions of the old structure standing until recently, and housing for many years the old and well-known firm of Goldberg Bros., clothing merchants, composed of Aaron Goldberg, who reached Phoenix in June of 1875, and Dave Goldberg, a younger brother, who came to this city in December of 1876.
"On Saturday evening (Sept. 25th, 1872), by way of housewarming the youth and beauty of Phoenix and vicinity had a ball in the new house of Mowry and Cotton. At the upper end of the dancing floor, on a raised platform, sat the musicians, a young girl with a harp, a boy with a violin, and a little old man, the father of the other two musicians blowing upon a flute. Between thirty and forty ladies were in attendance and gentlemen in abundance. Dancing was kept up until way in the night which, with flirtation, chit-chat, etc., made the hours pass away pleasantly. After the dance the party repaired to the Capitol House for supper."’’
Messrs. Cotton & Mowry, when their building was completed, opened a high-class liquor establishment, and it was used for this purpose for many years. In front of this establishment in the early days, a unique, yet serviceable sidewalk formed of empty beer bottles, turned bottom upward and sunk into the dirt, extended around this old building on both the Washington Street and First Street sides. The partnership between Cotton and Mowry was dissolved on August 16th, 1875.
In May, 1872, Dr. Thibodo, from Wickenburg, and Dr. Forbes, from Tucson, located in the town to practice their profession in partnership. These were the first medical practitioners in Phoenix. Commenting upon the entrance of the two pioneer physicians into the professional life of the town, the following is taken from a letter from Phoenix:
In the latter part of 1872, Dr. Forbes opened the first drugstore in the town in connection with his practice. Dr. Thibodo lived in Phoenix for many years, erecting the "Thibodo Building" on the south side of Washington Street, between Center Street and First Avenue, where he conducted a drugstore until his removal to California, in the later nineties, where he passed away. Before removing to California he married the widow of Johnny Le Barr, who had been assassinated on Washington Street by a man named McCluskey.
"Pete" Holcomb was the first butcher of the town, opening his shop at first in the pioneer building known as "Hancock's Store," in the latter part of 1871. He later took in a partner, E. T. Hargraves, the firm being known as "Hargraves & Holcomb."
In June, 1872, S. Granio, a gentleman from Sonora, Mexico, came to the valley and started a small store and butcher shop combined, in what was called the "Mexican Carriage Shop," and sold meat in competition with Hargraves and Holcomb. In October, of the same year, Copeland & Steel opened another shop.
In June, 1872, Johnny George and Jack Walters completed a new adobe building, fronting 66 feet on Washington Street, between First Street and Central Avenue and separated into two compartments by a covered alley, one of which was used for a restaurant, running back sixty feet, and the other for a saloon, running back forty feet. A second story of frame served as the hotel part of this establishment, the second to maintain accommodations for travellers arriving in Phoenix. This was also the first two-story building to be erected in the town. The saloon was opened for business on Sunday, June 9th, 1872, the proprietors serving liquors and dinner free to all. The restaurant was opened to the public soon after, in connection with which they conducted the hotel. Their place of business was known as the Capitol House, and was a very popular retreat, George having charge of the hotel and restaurant, and Walters of the saloon. This building was located on East Washington Street about where the Capitol poolroom is now located, and adjoining on the west the little adobe store of Morgan and Dietrich. The main portion of this old building was destroyed in the great fire of 1886, which swept away nearly the whole of the north
John George had been a miner in California, and came from that State into Arizona. He was a man of small stature and good disposition, being very popular with his associates. In later years he lived upon a ranch to the southwest of what is now the Capitol Grounds, the place being more generally known to-day as the Fickas Ranch. He continued to reside upon this property until the time of his death, which occurred in the early nineties.
Barnett & Block, who had established a mercantile business in the Salt River Valley before the Phoenix Townsite was laid out, moved within the limits of the town about the middle of the year 1872, and immediately took a prominent place among the business houses of the town. They constructed a large adobe building on the southeast corner of Center and Jefferson Streets, which was torn down in the year 1915, to make room for what is now the Jefferson Hotel. This firm was one of the successful trading establishments of the Valley, doing a heavy business in government contracts, and the buying and selling of grain and flour. Their freight teams were numerous and were constantly on the road through Central Arizona. About the middle seventies, they sold out their interests here to the Prescott firm of Wormser & Wertheimer, who continued the business at the same location
"While still around Prescott, Wormser, although reputed a shrewd and thrifty business man had, at one time, been very hard up for money, and had gone to his friend, Dr. W. W. Jones, of Wickenburg, for financial help. Dr. Jones loaned him a goodly sum on his personal note. Time passed, the note became due, and finally outlawed. Wormer's luck was still against him, and money was scarce. Then he came to the Salt River Valley, recouped his fortune by lucky investments, and remembered the outlawed note due Dr. Jones, who then lived at Tempe, and was often in Phoenix. Dr. Jones was a Virginian by birth, of proud bearing and distinguished lineage, who, at an early day, had sought his fortune in the west. Although a man of education and culture, when he reached Arizona he became as one ‚to the manor born‚ and, in outer accountrements, differed not at all from the hardy pioneers about him. Upon engaging him in conversation, however, his scholastic attainments and gentlemanly training
"One day, while walking along Washington Street in Phoenix, he met Wormser, who, on this occasion, stopped him and said: ‚Doctor, I owe you some money.‚ Dr. Jones recalling the loan which he had long since charged up on the side of his losses, agreed with him. ‚Doctor,‚ said Wormser, after some hesitation, ‚if you will knock off de interest on dat money, I vill pay you de principal.‚ Dr. Jones could be disdainful and scornful when he so desired, and, on this occasion, he merely looked with contempt at the portly merchant and, turning on his heels, walked away. Wormser, crestfallen, also continued on his way. Several months after the occurrence of this incident, the two men again met near the same place and Wormser again spoke to Dr. Jones: ‚Doctor,‚ he said, ‚If you vill come down to my office, I vill pay you dat money, both de principal and de interest.'
"Dr. Jones replied that he would do so, and, in time, visited his debtor, when he received every cent due him. After this episode no one could question Wormser's integrity in the presence of Dr. Jones without arousing the latter's ire, since he had a practical demonstration of Mr. Wormser's honesty in his payment of this outlawed debt."’’
"Monihon and Starar Bros., have just finished a large corral, back of the one they now occupy, three hundred feet long by one hundred and forty feet wide. Numerous other improvements are under way, which I will notice at some future time."’’
This last corral covered the half block of ground bounded by Center and Adams Street, First Avenue, and Broadway Alley, upon which are now located the valuable properties of E. H. Winters, widely known as the proprietor of the old Beehive Store, Charlie Donofrio, of confectionery fame, and others. It was claimed that this "horse hotel" could accommodate two thousand animals and two hundred wagons at one time. In October, 1872, the proprietors sunk a well on the premises in order to obtain a sufficient supply of water, and at thirty feet struck a fine, clear flow. This was about the first large well in successful operation within the townsite of Phoenix. Later Starar Brothers disposed of their interest in this enterprise to their partner, who, in turn sold out in 1875 and took a trip back east. He returned to Phoenix and, in 1889, constructed upon a portion of the ground formerly occupied by the stable and corral, what is now known as the Monihon Building.
Mr. Monihon, the builder of this substantial brick structure, was one of the best known men in Central Arizona. He came into the Territory in 1863 in Captain Joseph P. Hargrave's Company, "F" of the 1st California Volunteers. After his discharge from the army, he lived in the Prescott country for many years, and, in partnership with W. E. Dennison, was interested in the "Plaza Feed & Livery Stable" at Prescott, during 1868. This partnership was dissolved in October of that year, Mr. Monihon retaining the entire business, which he shortly afterward sold to Gideon Brooke and Jacob Linn of Prescott, the latter having been a member of the famous Walker Party. After working for a number of years in the mines around Prescott, particularly at Big Bug, where he was engineer at the mill, he located in Wickenburg, and on March 1st, 1869, opened the "Wickenburg Feed and Sale Stable." When in Prescott he was for a time employed as mail rider, an extremely dangerous occupation in those days, between the mining camp of Bully Bueno and Prescott, a country infested with bands of hostile savages. Leaving Wickenburg Mr. Monihon located in the Salt River Valley, where he met with deserved business success. As before noted, in conjunction with Captain Wm. A. Hancock, he built the first courthouse.
Mr. Monihon was an enterprising citizen, and at one time was Mayor of Phoenix. His widow, a daughter of Hiram H. Linville, who came to the Salt River Valley from California in 1876, with her father, still resides in Phoenix where she has managed with marked ability the extensive
In June, 1872, Miguel L. Peralta, a Wickenburg merchant opened a store in Phoenix and soon became one of the principal business men of the town. He had but limited capital, and his first place of business was located on the west side of South First Street, about midway between Washington and Jefferson Streets. Remaining here but a short time, Peralta decided to construct another and larger adobe building on the northeast corner of Washington and Center Streets, and when this storeroom was finished he transferred his business to it. Meeting with reverses Peralta sold his various interests, the Washington Street store being purchased by Messrs. Charlie and Leo Goldman, who are still residents of this city, and the oldest continuous merchants in Phoenix. After Adolph, the first of the Goldmans to reach Phoenix, had conducted his store for some years in the Heyman Menassee Building on Washington Street, where he had first located, he found that it was too small for his growing trade, and purchased the building which Peralta had left vacant on South First Street, to which he removed his business, where he continued in business for several years. As a merchant he was successful, dealing extensively, at first, in hay, grain and flour, when, deciding to visit his native land of Bavaria, he sold his mercantile interests to his brother Charles. The latter, after clerking for a number of years for C. P. Head & Co., at Prescott, had opened a small store in Williamson Valley, and had come from that place to Phoenix in
He conducted the business founded by his brother at the same location until he formed a partnership with his brother Leo, who had previously been in business in the town of Pinal, Pinal County. They bought the Peralta lot and store building on Washington Street, to which they transferred their business. For nearly twenty years they conducted business at this location, selling it in 1900 for the highest price which had ever been paid up to that time for a lot in this city.
When Leo Goldman first came to Phoenix, on May 1st, 1877, he clerked for his brother Adolph, remaining with him for some little time. When the great Silver King Mine of Pinal County commenced its wonderful record of production, Leo Goldman gathered together his savings and opened a small store at Pinal, then a thriving and busy little town some distance to the south of the mine. When the Silver King was in full blast, Leo Goldman enjoyed a lucrative trade from that mine, and when he closed out his business there to come to Phoenix, it was said he had a snug little fortune.
The Goldmans, during their years of business, have experienced many reverses of fortune. At times their losses have been great, particularly in the dry season of 1891-92. Their business was largely a credit one, and many men in this valley, now in independent circumstances, owe their success to the assistance given them in early days by Goldman & Co. They never failed to grant an extension and were, themselves, at times, hard
In July 1872, H. Morgan & Co., who, for a number of years prior, had been engaged in business on the Gila River, as has been noted, began the erection of a store building in Phoenix which was finished in the latter part of August, stocked and opened to the public. The following item in the "Miner" of September 21st, 1872, thus refers to this firm:‘‘
"H. Morgan & Co., have finished their new building on Washington Street, joining on to the new building of John George so as to form but one structure. A piazza extends along the whole front built entirely of sawed lumber, neat and tasty in appearance, and with the trees in front, their rich green foliage forming a natural curtain, it is a pleasant place in which to loaf."’’
Daniel Dietrich was a member of this firm which, in later years became known as "Morgan & Dietrich" their place of business being on a portion of the ground now occupied by Goldberg Bros.' new building (1918). They sustained a heavy loss through the fire of 1886, which, with other setbacks, principally inability to collect accounts due, caused the firm to finally collapse.
In the month of June, 1872, there were fifteen saloons in Phoenix proper; one at east Phoenix, and another at what was called the Halfway House, making seventeen in all where the needful stimulant could be procured. Of this number eight dealt exclusively in liquors, while others sold it in connection with other merchandise. At the little village of Tempe Charles T. Hayden had a large store, and also kept a stock of liquors. Aside from these there were probably half a dozen pleasure resorts in the Valley, where cocktails could be had upon demand. For the amusement of the townspeople there were four dance houses, two monte banks and one faro table. Another of the latter was installed very shortly after the month above mentioned. Billiard tables did not reach the town until a couple of months later. The first gambling game to be introduced into the public resorts of Phoenix was a Mexican monte game, which attracted much attention and patronage. This was
In the early part of July, 1872, the Goldwater Brothers, Joe and Mike, came to Phoenix to look over conditions with the view of engaging in business if circumstances warranted such procedure. At that time their principal place of business was at Ehrenberg, on the Colorado River, where they conducted a large store under the firm name of J. Goldwater & Bro., and to which location they had moved from La Paz, where they had established themselves when they first came to Arizona. Being favorably impressed with the outlook in the Valley, they purchased from Columbus H. Gray an uncompleted building which the latter was constructing near the northwest corner of Jefferson and First Streets, together with a couple of town lots. Mr. Gray had intended to use this building, when completed, as a Masonic Hall as soon as a Lodge of Masons could be gotten together in the town. The Goldwaters gave a contract to Pearson & Barber to finish the building, and to erect another alongside of it. Both of these buildings were roofed with shingles, at that time an expensive form of roofing, and were of stout, solid construction. Before the completion of their storeroom the Goldwaters purchased a large stock of
"We have just heard from reliable authority that M. Goldwater has purchased from Hellings & Co., all the goods which they had in their store. Mr. Goldwater will house these goods in town until he completes his new house and commences business." (Correspondence from Phoenix, July 26th, 1872.)’’
When Pearson & Barber had completed their contract, it gave the Goldwaters two large rooms facing on the southwest corner of the City Hall Plaza, one fifty by twenty-five feet and the other fifty by sixteen feet. On the evening of November 27th, 1872, a grand ball was given in these newly furnished rooms by Mr. W. H. Pope, which was largely attended by the ladies and gentlemen of Phoenix and vicinity; by Mrs. James A. Moore, Miss Mary E. Moore, Charles H. Kenyon and lady (who had been married earlier in the evening); Larkin W. Carr and Chris Taylor, from Maricopa Wells Station, T. W. McIntosh and lady, from the Gila, and a number of gentlemen from McDowell. The description of this event then states:‘‘
"The music by the Fifth Cavalry Band was extremely good, the supper, at the Capitol House, was excellent; dancing was kept up all night, and the whole passed off very pleasantly. Thanks are due Mr. Pope for his untiring energy in the management of the whole affair as well as the gentlemen on the various committees, and to J. D. Monihon in particular. During the night the bride and groom (meaning Mr. and Mrs. Kenyon),
Besides the stock of goods bought from Hellings & Co., the Goldwaters brought in from the outside between seventy thousand and one hundred thousand dollars worth of goods, and early in December of 1872, they moved into their new premises and opened their well stocked establishment to the public. When these merchants started in business in the Valley, they had in view the control of the grain output of this section, in which ambition they were more or less disappointed. While they had more financial backing than any other local firm and were able to advance quite a little money to many of the farmers, they were never able to obtain control of the grain market, and, after operating with indifferent success for two or three years, sold out their business to Messrs. Smith & Stearns, and removed to Prescott. Mike Goldwater was the manager of the Phoenix branch, while his brother Joe continued to look after the Ehrenberg store. Barnett & Block were their keenest competitors, and Mike Goldwater, being unpopular with the farmers, they were not only able to underbid him for government contracts, but were always able to fill their contracts at the stipulated price in spite of Mike's efforts to corner the market. Barnett & Block, however, conducted their extensive business in such
The Goldwaters were good business men and once, when the company that was working the Vulture mine owed the firm some $30,000, and had no money with which to meet the obligation, it turned over to them the property, which they were to work at their own expense until their debt was satisfied. Although the mine had furnished large quantities of rich ore, it had never, up to that time, proven a profitable venture for the stockholders. In the hands of the Goldwaters, however, with C. B. Genung as manager, it was a paying proposition. It did not take them very long to obtain their money. From this time forward, their wealth was well established.
The Goldwaters were natives of Poland, emigrating to this country in the early sixties. They came to the southwest with little or no money in 1862 or 1863, and here laid the foundation for a comfortable fortune. Morris Goldwater, a son of Mike, became a partner in the Ehrenberg firm in 1872, and came with his father to this Valley to assist in conducting the business here. When the military telegraph reached Phoenix from Maricopa Wells, straight across the desert and over the Salt River Mountains through Telegraph Pass, Morris Goldwater became the first operator of the Phoenix Station, which was located in Goldwaters' store. Of late years he has been prominent in the political life of Arizona, having been a member of the Constitutional
In 1872 while driving along the road from Prescott to Ehrenberg, in company with Dr. W. W. Jones, Joe and Mike Goldwater were attacked by Indians. An account of this is given in the "Arizona Sentinel" of June 22, 1872, and is as follows:‘‘
"A party of three gentlemen, Dr. W. W. Jones and Joe and Mike Goldwater, all of Ehrenberg, left Prescott in the latter part of last week on their way home. These gentlemen were travelling in two buggies. They had not travelled more than fourteen miles, in the vicinity of Mint Valley, when they were attacked by a band of not less than thirty Indians, supposed to be the ever murderous Apaches. The three gentlemen could of course offer no resistance, and their only means of escape was to outrun them. The Indians pursued them for about four miles on the road, when, fortunately they met a party of whites travelling in the direction of Prescott, which caused the savages to abandon the chase, and, in their turn, to seek security in their mountain holds. During this cowardly attack Joe Goldwater was shot in the back, somewhere near the shoulder blade; his brother Mike, had two balls put through the rim of his hat, and Dr. Jones escaped with only a few bullet holes through his shirt and coat. They drove to Skull