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Location of Maricopas—Join the Pimas— Fight With Yumas—Reservation—Location of Mohaves—Characteristics—Dwellings—Agriculture—Reservation— Location of Apache-Mohaves—Characteristics —War and Raid on Whites—Sub jugation of—Location of Yumas—Characteristics —Location of Apache-Yumas— Language—Gave Trouble to Whites— Subjugation of.

MARICOPA. An important Yuman tribe which since early in the 19th century has lived with and below the Pima and from about latitude 35° to the mouth of the Rio Gila, southern Arizona. In 1775, according to Garces, their rancherias extended about forty miles along the Gila from about the mouth of the Hassayampa to the Aguas Calientes, although Garces adds that “some of them are found farther down river.” They call themselves Pipatsje, “people,” Maricopa being their Pima name. Emory states that they have moved gradually from the Gulf of California to their present location in juxtaposition with the Pima, Carson having found them, as late as 1826, at the mouth of the Gila. They joined the Pima, whose language they do not understand, for mutual protection against their kindred, but enemies, the Yuma,

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and the two have ever since lived peaceably together. In 1775 the Maricopas and the Yumas were at war, and as late as 1857 the latter, with some Mohave and Yavapai, attacked the Maricopas near Maricopa Wells, southern Arizona, but with the aid of the Pima the Maricopa routed the Yuma and their allies, ninety of the ninety-three Yuma warriors being killed. After this disaster the Yuma never ventured so far up the Gila. Heintzelman states, probably correctly, that the Maricopas are a branch of the Cuchan (Yuma proper), from whom they separated on the occasion of an election of chiefs. Like the Pima, the Maricopa are agriculturists, and in habits and customs are generally similar to them. Venegas (History of California), states that about 6,000 Pima and Coco-Maricopa lived on the Gila river in 1742, and that they extended also to the Salado and the Verde; they are also said to have had some rancherias on the west side of the Colorado river in a valley thirty-six leagues long. Evidently the Indians referred to by Venegas as domiciled on the west side of the Colorado river, were the Yumas, from whom the Maricopas were separated. Garces estimated the population at three thousand in 1775.

By act of February 28th, 1859, a reservation was set apart for the Maricopa and Pima on the Gila river, Arizona; this was enlarged by executive order of August 31st, 1876; revoked and other lands set apart by executive order of June 14th, 1879; enlarged by executive orders of May 5th, 1882, and November 15th, 1883. No treaty was ever made with them.

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The Maricopas, after making their treaty with the Pimas, which has been given in a previous volume, were self-supporting, cultivating their land, and always raising a surplus over what they consumed. It does not appear that they had any particular religious creed. There is no record anywhere of any legends concerning them. Their belief, probably, was the same as the Yumas and the Mohaves, confined to that of one great spirit, and never speculating as to how man was created, or when he appeared on the earth.

The Maricopas were friendly at all times to the whites. King Woolsey exercised great influence over them. When he organized his expedition, which resulted in the Pinole Treaty, an account of which has heretofore been given, the chief of the Maricopas joined him with 50 warriors, as did also the Pima chief. They followed the trail of the hostiles into the mountains and into the canyon known as Bloody Basin. The chief of the Pimas became alarmed and refused to go any farther. The Maricopa Chief, Juan Chiavria, followed Woolsey and in the ensuing fight it is said that Woolsey saved Juan Chiavria's life, by killing a hostile Indian who was about to stab the chief to the heart. After that the entire tribe held him in great reverence, and when his farm at Agua Caliente was raided by the Mohaves, Juan Chiavria sent word to them that if they did not cease their depredations upon his white friends in the Gila Valley, he would raise an army of Maricopas, Pimas and Papagos, and destroy the entire tribe. Needless

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to say, the Mohaves were good thereafter as far as the Gila river settlements were concerned.

MOHAVE (from hamok “three,” avi “mountain”). The most populous and warlike of the Yuman tribes. Since known to history they appear to have lived on both sides of the Rio Colorado, though chiefly on the east side, between the Needles (whence their name is derived) and the entrance to the Black Canyon. Ives, in 1857, found only a few scattered, families in Cottonwood valley, the bulk of their number being below Hardyville. In recent times a body of Chemehuevi have held the river between them and their kinsmen the Yuma. The Mohave were strong, athletic, and well developed, their women attractive; in fact, Ives characterized them as fine a people physically as any he had ever seen. They were famed for the artistic painting of their bodies. Tattooing was universal but confined to small areas on the skin. Their art in recent times consists chiefly of crude painted decorations on their pottery. Though a river tribe, the Mohave had no canoes, but when necessary had recourse to rafts, or balsas, made of bundles of reeds. They had no large settlements, their dwellings being scattered. These were four-sided and low, with four supporting posts at the corners. The walls, which were only two or three feet high, and the almost flat roof were formed of brush covered with sand. Their granaries were upright cylindrical structures with flat roofs. The Mohave hunted but little, their chief reliance for food being on the cultivated products of the soil, as corn, pumpkins,


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melons, beans, mescrew, pinon nuts, and fish to a limited extent. They did not practice irrigation, but relied on the inundation of the bottom lands to supply the needed moisture, hence when there was no overflow their crops failed. Articles of skin and bone were very little used, materials such as the inner bark of the willow, vegetable fiber, etc., taking their place. Pottery was manufactured. Baskets were in common use, but were obtained from other tribes.

The tribal organization was loose, though, as a whole, the Mohave remained quite distinct from other tribes. The chieftainship was hereditary in the male line. Their dead were cremated. The population of the tribe in 1775–76 was conservatively estimated by Garces at 3,000, and by Leroux about 1834, to be 4,000; but the latter is probably an overestimate. Their number in 1905 was officially given as 1,589, of whom 508 were under the Colorado river school superintendent, 856 under the Fort Mohave school superintendent, 50 under the San Carlos agency, and about 175 at Camp McDowell, on the Rio Verde. Those at the latter two points, however, are apparently Yavapai, commonly known as Apache-Mohave.

No treaty was made with the Mohave respecting their original territory, the United States assuming title thereto. By act of March 3rd, 1865, supplemented by Executive orders of November 22d, 1873, November 16th, 1874, and May 15th, 1876, the present Colorado river reservation, Arizona, occupied by Mohave, Chemehuevi and Kawia, was established.

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Wherever the whites came into close contact with the Indians, the demoralization of the tribe surely followed. This was the case with the Yumas and also with the Mohaves. The Mohaves, when first discovered by the Catholic priests, were a cheerful, friendly, splendid race of men. To the early explorers, Lieutenant Ives in particular, they were of great benefit. Their great chief at that time, Iretaba, who, from all accounts, was a splendid specimen of the untutored savage, was especially friendly to Ives. He was sent to Washington and was so impressed with the greatness of our nation that his constant endeavor during the rest of his life was to keep the Mohaves from warring against the whites.

The first reservation set aside for the Indians, after the organization of the Territory, was, as we have seen, for the Mohaves, and the first fort built in northern Arizona was Fort Mohave in the heart of the Mohave nation. The Indian agents robbed them, and the tribe became completely demoralized. For a long time, up to the time of which we are now writing, 1869 and 1870, they pretended friendship to the whites, but oftentimes in their forays, committed all kinds of crimes. According to Mike Burns, it was the Mohaves who committed the Oatman massacre, charging it to the Tontos. They raided King Woolsey's ranch and drove off several thousand dollars worth of stock.

They seem, in common with the other Yuman tribes, to have had no legends of any particular kind. They all, however, believed in a Great

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Spirit, a controller of the Universe, and, it is said, were Sun worshippers. The Medicine men, it seems, did not exercise so great power among these tribes as they did among the Apaches.

The Mohaves now, with the exception of a few around Ehrenberg, are doing remarkably well. In some succeeding volume it will be interesting to note their progress at the Indian schools, in common with other Indian tribes.

The Apache-Mohaves, or, as they are sometimes called, Yavapais, (Sun-people), are a branch of the Mohave tribe, which, according to Mike Burns, separated from the river Indians, as did the Maricopas from the Yumas. When this separation took place is not known. Their range extended from Bill Williams' Fork as far south as Castle Dome and east to the Superstition Mountains, in and around Phoenix. They are described as tall, erect, muscular and well proportioned, the women being stouter and having more handsome faces than the Yumas.

This tribe was at war with the whites, and gave them as much trouble as any other band of Indians, hardly excepting that of Cochise. Their raids extended from the Superstition Mountains around McDowell, and west beyond Prescott and Wickenburg, and even, it is said, as far south as Sentinel. The Battle of the Caves, a description of which will be given in a succeeding volume, broke the power of this tribe, and the remnants gathered upon the Verde reservation. Most of them, in latter days, drifted back to their old hunting grounds, the

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McDowell reservation, which was assigned for their use November 27th, 1901, by the Secretary of the Interior, until Congress should take final action. When removed to the Verde Agency in May, 1873, their number was estimated to be about one thousand. By Executive order of September 15th, 1903, the old reservation was set aside for their use. At that time they numbered between five and six hundred, but this number probably included some Apache-Yumas.

In 1905 the ravages of tuberculosis were reported to be largely responsible for a great mortality, the deaths exceeding the births four to one. On their reservation they have been making rapid progress in civilized pursuits, being, at this time, entirely self-supporting. They are good laborers, industrious and reliable.

YUMAS (Yahmáyo, “son of the captain.”) One of the chief divisions or tribes of the Yuman family, formerly residing on both sides of the Rio Colorado next above the Cocopa, or about sixty miles above the mouth of the river, and below the junction of the Gila. Fort Yuma is situated about the center of the territory formerly occupied by them.

These Indians, for the most part, are on the California side, their reservation being established in that state, but as their history is closely connected with Arizona, it is probably not out of place to give this short sketch of the tribe.

When Oñate visited the locality in 1604–05, he found the Yumas established in nine rancherias on the Colorado, entirely below the mouth of the Gila. Physically the Yuma were an athletic

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people, tall, straight, and sinewy, superior in this respect to most of their congeners. They were brave and, as we have seen, were at war with the whites until conquered by Major Heintzelman in 1853, since which time they have been peaceful. They were in no sense nomadic, seldom leaving their villages, where, like the Mohave, they practiced a rude agriculture, raising corn, beans, pumpkins and melons. This tribe was much demoralized through contact with the whites during the early 60's. They are now making rapid advances in civilization.

The Apache-Yumas, or Yulkepaia, which, according to Corbusier, probably means “spotted belly sparrows,” was a body of Yuman Indians known as Apache-Yumas, said by Corbusier in 1886, to have sprung recently from a mixture of Yumas, Mohaves and Yavapais. They claimed as their home the desert stretch of western Arizona between the Colorado river and the country of the Yavapai, over which they roamed until placed on the Verde reservation, Arizona, in May, 1873. In 1875 most of these, numbering in all about five hundred, were removed to the San Carlos reservation. They speak the Yuma dialect. They were warlike and gave our soldiers and settlers much trouble before they were finally subdued.

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