CHAPTER I. INDIAN AGENCIES
Charles D. Poston, First Superintendent of Indian Affairs—Succeeded by George W. Leihy—Leihy Succeeded by George W. Dent—Dent Succeeded by George L. Andrews—Andrews Succeeded by H. Bendell—Office Abolished—Pima and Maricopa Reservation Set Aside—Yuma Reservation Established—Colorado River Reservation Established—Conditions on Navaho Reservation—Moqui Reservation Established—Mohave Reservation Established—Wallapais Placed on Reservation, but Return to Homes—Territory Set Apart for Them—Outbreak of Wallapais Checked Singlehanded by Captain Thomas Byrne—Temporary Reservation for Apache-Mohaves Established at Camp Date Creek—Crookedness of Indian Ring—Temporary Reservation Established on the Verde—Indians Removed from Verde to San Carlos—Chiricahua Reservation Established—Outbreak of Chiricahuas—Reservations Established at Camps McDowell, Grant, and Fort Apache—San Carlos Reservation Established—Salaries
One of the great drawbacks to the early settlement of the Apache question was the authority given to the Indian Agents upon the reservations. The following is a brief review of the establishment of these agencies from the formation of the Territory up to the year 1875. Charles D. Poston was the first Superintendent of Indian Affairs. As we have seen, he came in by way of California, accompanied by J. Ross Browne and some others, arriving at Fort Yuma about Christmas time, 1863. There they distributed quite a number of presents to Pasqual and his band. The company then went on to Tucson, and during the month of January, 1864, Poston and Browne made a tour into Sonora and back. Poston sent in his resignation with his report when he was elected the first Delegate to Congress from Arizona. George W. Leihy then held the office until November, 1866, when he was killed by the Indians. George W. Dent served from 1867 to 1869, and was succeeded by George L. Andrews, who held the office in 1869 and 1870, and was in turn succeeded by H. Bendell, who held it in 1871 and 1872, the office being abolished in the latter year, the agents reporting directly after that time to the Indian Commissioners in Washington. The Government, however, sent out special inspectors occasionally to
In February, 1859, the Government caused a reservation to be set apart on the Gila for the Pimas and Maricopas, this having been the home of the Pimas for centuries. This reservation embraced all the lands which they had under cultivation at the time of the acquisition of Arizona. The survey was made by Colonel A. B. Gray; and embraced one hundred square leagues of arable lands, most of it susceptible of irrigation. The length of the reservation is about twenty-five miles, and its breadth about four miles, and the Gila river runs through it from one end to the other. They had a good many horses and cattle. In 1858, the first year of the Overland Mail Line, their surplus of wheat was one hundred thousand pounds, which was purchased by the stage line. In 1859 Mr. St. John was sent among them as a special agent, with a supply of Indian trinkets and agricultural implements. That year they sold two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of wheat and a large quantity of melons, pumpkins and beans. (Browne, “Apache Country,” p. 110.)
Fish, in his manuscript, says: ‘‘“The production of grain and trade increased each year, and in 1866 they sold wheat and corn amounting to about two millions of pounds, besides a large amount of barley, beans, etc. The most of this was bought by Indian traders, located at Maricopa Wells and the Pima Villages, at
The Pima agents were A. M. White to 1865; Levi Ruggles in 1866, 1867, 1868 and 1869, with C. H. Lord as Deputy in 1867; F. E. Grassman in 1869 and 1870; J. H. Stout in 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875.
A reservation for the Yumas was set apart in 1863 on the California side of the Colorado at Fort Yuma. This reservation extended for twenty-five miles along the river and to the west as far as the foothills. In 1864 Francis Hinton was employed by Superintendent Poston as agent for the Yumas. After the occupation of Fort Yuma by the United States troops, the Yumas were held in check, but the power and glory of this nation has departed.
Mr. Poston, when in Congress, as we have heretofore Stated, succeeded in getting an appropriation of a hundred thousand dollars for colonizing the friendly Indians in Arizona on a reservation on the Colorado river. In 1864 he selected a reservation on the Colorado river bottom at Half Way Bend, in latitude 34° 10′, which extended from a point four miles above Ehrenberg some forty-five miles up the river. Here comfortable adobe buildings were constructed after 1867. These lands were set apart by Congress in an act approved March 3rd, 1865, and consisted of a hundred land twenty-eight thousand acres, bordering on the
During the Navaho war in New Mexico in 1862 and 1863, as we have seen, the Navahos were placed on the Pecos reservation in that Territory. The Coyotero (White Mountain) Apaches, seeing how the Navahos had been vanquished, were easily placed upon a reservation, but discontent was soon manifested among them, and when the California Volunteers were withdrawn, they ran away. “In May, 1868,” says Fish, “General Sherman and Colonel Toppan, peace commissioners, visited New Mexico, and arranged to remove the Navahos from the Pecos to their old home near Fort Defiance. By treaty of June 1st, 1868, their reservation was located in the northeast corner of Arizona, and adjacent parts of New Mexico. It comprised an area of fifty-two hundred square miles. Some important additions were afterwards made to it on October 29th, 1878, and January 6th, 1880, making it the largest reservation in the United States. The agent at the Navaho reservation in 1878 said: ‘Within ten years, during which the present treaty with the Navahos has been in force, they have grown from a band of paupers to a nation of prosperous, industrious, shrewd, and (for barbarians) intelligent, people.’” They were reported at that time to be eleven thousand, eight hundred in number, and the owners of twenty thousand horses, fifteen hundred cattle, and five hundred
The Mohave reservation was set apart on March 30th, 1870, the area being fifty-five hundred and seventy-two acres. The Indians living along the river bottom gleaned a precarious living from what they could raise, from the native products of the country, and what they could beg at the post. This reservation of the Mohave Indians herein noted, must not be confounded with that of the Apache-Mohaves. As will be hereafter shown, they were two different tribes, the Apache-Mohaves being an offshoot of the Mohaves, but of a more warlike nature.
The Mohaves, however, complained, and quite justly, that the Government failed to furnish them implements, tools, seed, etc., to enable them to work their lands and support themselves, and here it can be stated, and very truly, that the Indian Department always neglected
The Wallapais lived in the mountains east of Mohave. They were a brave and warlike people, and were continually at war with the whites. After their submission they did good service against the Apaches. In 1871 Vincent Colyer established a reservation at Beale Springs, where they were gathered. In 1874 they were moved to the Colorado reservation, and placed with the Mohaves, much against their will. The heat of the river bottom did not agree with them, and the debauched condition of the Mohaves was a source of annoyance, as well as an example to the women and young men that would soon destroy the sacred marriage relations in their own tribe. In vain they pleaded to be allowed to return to their own mountain home. They pleaded their services in helping the whites to conquer hostiles and promised, if allowed to go back, to become self-supporting. Not obtaining permission, they left in a body, and, on reaching their home, they raised the white flag and protested that they had come back to live in peace, so they were given a chance and they lived up to their promises. A tract of two thousand square miles on the Grand Canyon bend of the Colorado river was set apart for them in 1881 and 1883, where they now live. They have greatly degenerated, however; and are considered a destitute and vicious lot of beggars. The Beale Springs reservation was abolished by General Howard in 1872. While the Wallapais were at Beale Springs, they were under the
“Back they went, following after the one unarmed man. Straight to the beef scales went the now thoroughly aroused officer, and in less time than it takes to relate, he had detected the manner in which false weights had been secured by a tampering with the poise. A two year old Texas steer which, horns and all, would not weigh eight hundred pounds, would mark seventeen hundred, and other things in the same ratio. Nearly the whole amount of the salt and flour supply had been sold to the miners in the Cerbat range, and the poor Hualpais, who had been such valiant and efficient allies, had been swindled out of everything but their breath, and but a small part of that was left.
“Tommy seized upon the agency and took charge; the Hualpais were perfectly satisfied, but the agent left that night for California, and never came back. A great hub-bub was raised about the matter, but nothing came of it, and a bitter war was averted by the prompt, decisive action of a plain, unlettered officer, who had no ideas about managing savages beyond treating them with kindness and justice.”’’
In 1871 Colyer established a temporary reservation at Date Creek. About two hundred and twenty-five Indians, mostly Apache-Mohaves, had been gathered in here prior to this date, and allowed to roam and get a living by hunting or as best they could. In June, 1871, the Government commenced to issue rations from this agency to the Indians in this part of the Territory. They were, however, transferred to the Camp Verde reservation in May, 1873, and moved from the Verde in March, 1875. Previous to being put upon the reservation they were in open hostility with the whites, committing most of their depredations around Wickenburg and vicinity. Lieutenant F. H. E. Ebstein had charge of the Date Creek Agency, and was superseded in July, 1872, when General O. O. Howard abolished the reservation, or feeding station as it was sarcastically called. When the transfer was made, Williams became agent at the Verde.
‘‘“About this time,”’’ says Fish, ‘‘“the ‘Indian Ring’ began to get in their work, and they were remarkably successful in the manipulation of contracts, etc. While Dr. Williams was in charge of the Apache-Yumas and Apache-Mohaves,
The Indians got but little of what was appropriated for them. It was notoriously the fact, and a standing joke in this country was, “Do Indian Agents Steal?” No one ever heard of an agent being punished. General Crook stated that there never was a person punished in Arizona for defrauding the Indians. The more docile the Indians were, the more abuse they got. When they became self-supporting, like the Navahos, the Government gave them nothing. If they were deadly and murderous like the Apaches, the Government took care of them and fed them. Issuing rations was the proper thing when we had destroyed the native means of subsistence, but the tribe that worked and helped itself should have been aided further toward civilization in other ways. ‘‘“A few years ago,”’’ says Fish, ‘‘“the Government erected fifty cottages for the Wallapais near Kingman,
In 1871 Colyer established a temporary reservation at the Verde, this being on the dividing line between the Apaches proper and the Yavapais, quite central, and one with which the Indians were well satisfied. After the surrender of Chalipun, in 1873, at Camp Verde, there was no time lost in putting them to work. Colonel Julius W. Mason superintended the getting out of an irrigating ditch, and Walter S. Schuyler had the immediate charge of the Indians. The reservation was established some miles above the post. There were few tools, but they were strung along the line of the ditch, and every tool that could be, was secured. There were a few old tools of different kinds at Fort Whipple, which were sent down, and the best possible use made of them. With these and with sticks hardened in the fire, the Apaches soon had a ditch completed five miles long, with a width of four feet, and three feet deep. Mason and Schuyler labored assiduously with the Apaches, and soon had about fifty-seven acres of land planted with melons and other garden truck, of which the Indians are very fond, and preparations for planting corn and barley on a large scale were made. The prospects of the Apaches looked bright, and there began to be hope that they would soon become self-sustaining, but it was not to be. The “ring” of Federal officials, contractors and others, succeeded in securing the issue of peremptory orders that the Apaches should leave
This removal was in March, 1875, and was in charge of Special Commissioner Dudley. On the way to the San Carlos reservation, the Tontos and Yavapais had a fight among themselves, in which five were killed.
The placing of the Indians on the Verde was in accordance with General Crook's arrangement with them when they surrendered, he then promising them that they should stay there as long as they were peaceable and good Indians. The removal of them to San Carlos was opposed by Crook, and had a bad effect on the Indians, as it seemed to them that Crook had failed to keep his promises, and the result was that, to a certain extent, they lost faith in the general, and in all promises made by the whites.
The Chiricahua reservation was established in October, 1872, by General O. O. Howard, on the conclusion of his treaty with Cochise. Prior to this time all attempts to induce this tribe to leave its old home had resulted in failure. In pursuance of this treaty Cochise ceased hostilities, and used his influence with such effect that in October and November, over a thousand Apaches had gathered upon this reservation, not only the Chiricahua Apaches, but also some of the Mescaleros, who were closely affiliated with them. The reservation included approximately that portion of Cochise county lying east of the Dragoon mountains. Its southern boundary was the international line between the United States and the Mexican
The reservation being on the Mexican border, there was much raiding across the line, which Agent Jeffords insisted was not done by his Indians, but by those from San Carlos and other points, a statement which was not generally credited by those outside of the reservation. Superintendent L. E. Dudley, of New Mexico, endeavored to have the Chiricahuas removed to the Hot Springs, but they refused to go. In April, 1876, after the killing of Rogers and Spence, which has been heretofore noted, the Indians, fearing punishment, fled to the mountains of Mexico, and from that time on, for six long years, the history of the Chiricahuas was one of continual struggle, as will be shown in future pages of this history. By the
Vincent Colyer established a temporary reservation at Camp McDowell in 1871, but it was abolished the following year by General Howard. He also established reservations the same year at Camp Grant and Fort Apache. The establishment of the White Mountain reservation is dated November 9th, 1871. As all these reservations were for the Apaches, they were practically one after the move from Camp Grant. In 1872 General Howard changed the Camp Grant reservation to the Gila, naming it San Carlos. This reservation seems to have extended to the New Mexico line.
The salaries of the officers for the San Carlos reservation for the year 1884 were as follows: Agent, $2,000; Storekeeper, $900; Physician, $1,200; Clerk, $1,200; Chief Scout, $1,000; Head Farmer, $900; Issue Clerk, $900; School Teacher, $800; two School Teachers, $600; Matron, $600; Seamstress, $600; Assistant Farmer, $750.
In the early years of these reservations the great objection on the part of the Indians to coming upon them and remaining, was the system of “tagging,” (Bourke, “On the Border with Crook,” p. 219,) which they regarded as humiliating, and to which their proud spirits could not submit. This caused many of them to leave the reservations, and yet it would seem it was the only way of keeping them where the agent could locate his Indians. The Apaches were gradually disarmed, and the use of “tizwin,” the native liquor, was suppressed. One cause of trouble and outbreaks was the putting of strange and different tribes on the same reservation, which caused the usual jealousies and bickerings that always arise under these conditions.
The total expenditures of the government on account of the Indian service, from 1789 to 1900, amounts to more than three hundred and sixty-eight millions of dollars. More money has been paid to extinguish Indian land titles, than to extinguish the titles of foreign nations, and the cost of our Indian wars has been equal to the cost of all our foreign wars.
|Pimas & Maricopas||5,000|
|Mohaves at Mohave||677|
|Mohaves at Needles||667|
|Mohaves at Fort Mohave||700|
|Pimas, Gila Reservation||3,723|
|Maricopas, Salt River Reservation||93|
|Maricopas, Gila Reservation||203|
|Pimas; Salt River Reservation||543|
|Papagos, Gila Bend Reservation||75|
|Papagos, San Xavier||517|
|Papagos, Peerless Well||248|
|SAN CARLOS AGENCY:|
|San Carlos Apaches||1,134|
|White Mountain Apaches||1,739|
The foregoing figures are probably a little under the real number in some instances. According to the census of 1900 there were but 26,480 Indians in Arizona. There is some omission in this, probably; some of the Pueblo tribes may not have been included.
Soon after being placed in command of the Department of California, General Ord visited Arizona, making a personal inspection of the principal forts in the Territory, and laying his plans for future operations. It does not appear, however, that his visit resulted in much good. He was a Civil War veteran, a graduate of West Point, and a First Lieutenant in 1849 in the regular army, and, later, was a Major General in the Civil War, where, through long and distinguished services, he gained a place in the history of our country during those trying times.