CHAPTER XIV. THE INDIAN—THE PIMO, THE MARICOPA, THE PAPAGO, THE ZUNI, THE MOQUI...


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THE INDIAN—THE PIMO, THE MARICOPA, THE PAPAGO, THE ZUNI, THE MOQUI—THE APACHE—THEIR DIVERSITY.

SO divided and sub-divided are, and have been the various tribes of Indians in the Territory of Arizona for the past few decades, that it would take a volume in itself to enumerate and describe them. Many of these too, are so insignificant in numbers as well as unimportant in history, and are so thoroughly on their ‘‘last legs,’’ that it would be useless, had we both time and room.

So interested had our party became with Indian life; and so much in excess of anything we had yet seen, in point of numbers, and in permanent settlements were the Pimos, that we made a stop here longer than usual, and had our ideas of Indian life very much exalted by doing so. The Pimos are located on a rich and fertile strip of land two hundred miles from the Colorado River, east. Although to a man just from the Yosemite the plain might seem a


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little tame, the back-ground of picturesque mountains that jut up and relieve the valley plain, with the little Indian village of dome shaped dwellings scattered along the foreground is interesting. They number a little over four thousand, including the Maricopas, who, about the year seventeen hundred and sixty, allied with the Pimos. The genial character of this tribe (or these tribes) must be well established, they having held strongly to their alliances to the present time. Their little huts are built with reeds of various kinds, nearly upright, slanting a little toward the centre with a domed top. The height will average about seven feet and the whole is covered over with a layer of mud plaster. A description of the Pimo Indian will disappoint the school boy who starts at the word Indian with visions of scalping-knife and tomahawk, and a head ornamented with flying feathers. But be must wait until he comes to the Apachès to have his fancies realized.

All over this village may be seen the Pimo women going to and fro, on some active mission of labor; while over the whole sunny reservation may be seen patches of peas, beans, pumpkins, melons, and vegetables of all kinds; while vast fields of wheat, barley, corn and the larger crops may be seen further off. Sorghum has proved a profitable crop in this valley. In 1863, they sold seven hundred thousand pounds of wheat and


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A MARICOPA INDIAN GIRL PICKING BERRIES.


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flour to the government garrisons and travelers and miners through the southern Gila valley. One might say this looks a little like business, and have a curiosity to see this people. Nor can the people nor the government in its Indian policy claim any credit for this condition of these Indians. As early as the sixteenth century Father De Nica from Mexico found these people cultivating the soil. For three hundred years they have been known then to cultivate this land. How much longer we have no authenticity to show; and I was informed by good authority while in Arizona, that during that time it is pretty well established the land has never been manured in any way, and that two crops a year is the accustomed yield. These facts speak well both for the Indians and for Arizona lands. The average yield of wheat is twenty-nine fold. The crops are planted in December and July.

The morality of this Indian is deplorable, while the social customs are interesting. The mode of courtship is, that a young Indian approaches the hut of his sweetheart. He does not reach it at this stage of proceedings, but selects some comfortable rock for a seat or some tree or bush, and there remains in anxious repose for a certain length of time—an hour or so we believe it is, while his horse he ties to a tree near the house. This he does for three days. If the maiden favors him she will feed his horse, and the jig is up.


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He goes any time after the three days and claims her. When a husband dies the wife is offered to any man who wants a wife. This is done at the grave, after sufficient mourning has been made to satisfy their grief. There is no law, however, to prevent the widow from continuing to mourn a reasonable length of time. It being a custom among these tribes for the women to do all the toiling, while the men are considered to have ample on their hands in hunting and attending to the cause of war; a well and able-bodied woman does not want long for the protection and love of a man. This matter of the apportionment of work to the males and females seems to be identical in all the Indian tribes of our country. They seem to think the trials of war, and the vigilance required in hunting to keep the household supplied with meats, is sufficient to offset all other labors of whatsoever sort or kind, for all others are heaped upon the women. It is somewhat saddening to a person used to the civilized world's regard for women to see these creatures trudging along the trail or road, with a ponderous basket strapped on her back, packed with many pounds burden, while alongside of her rides her husband on a horse with nothing in his hand but his gun. In many cases the person will be her son; while the mother will be an old and feeble woman. In one case, I actually saw one of these old women, a cripple with a staff. The young man rode


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PIMO INDIANS AT HOME.


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along with as unconcerned a smile as though he had just shot a dozen quail on the wing with one shot. Well! perhaps he had.

The morals of these Indians are bad. The missionary labors for seven years, have been, apparently, absolutely lost. Not one convert is reported to have been made, and licentiousness is becoming more and more prevalent. In their native state and before the influence of the whites, however, the Pimos are reported as strictly virtuous, not tolerating any incursions whatever, upon the marriage system.

Southeast of the Pimo reservation one hundred miles, is the Papago reservation. These together with the Pimos may be considered the model Indians of southern Arizona, except the Moqui in the extreme northeast, who are the best in the State. Their reservation consists of over seventy thousand acres, and their industry is proverbial. Being nearer to the mountainous or elevated portions, they are inclined to pastoral pursuits rather than agricultural, although both are represented well. The Papagos resemble the Pimos with some few traits peculiar to themselves. They once belonged to the tribe of the Pimos, and and speak the same language. As far as records show, these tribes, which number over ten thousand in all, have sustained themselves by civil pursuits, and have always been friendly to the whites, and anxious


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to learn of, and pattern from them. Had it not been for these Indians, which constitute the larger share of all others in the Territory, the white man would not to-day be able to travel with safety from the Colorado River across the plains to Tucson and to the rich mines to the east.

Contrary to the Pimos and Papagos, the word Apacheé has for many years been identified with scenes of bloodshed and murder, theft and treachery. These comprise six separate tribes, and occupy the eastern and southeastern portion of the State. It is hard to conceive of so close a proximity of two classes of people, recognized under the head of ‘‘Indians,’’ and yet so thoroughly different, occupying the same land at all. It suggests, however, that though peaceful in nature they were war-like and brave in spirit when necessity required it. The most warlike and desperate of all our American Indians save the Sioux, they have never-the-less been driven back and held at bay by the other and more docile tribes. Numbers and bravery of course were in their favor.

The following constituted the force of the Apachè in '76; under the following chiefs:—Is-kilte-shy-law with twelve hundred Warriors; Ma-guils with four hundred Warriors; Pedro with three hundred Warriors;


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A SQUAD OF INDIANS AT A GAME OF CARDS.


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Es-ki-min-i-gui with — Warriors; Diablo with three hundred Warriors.

By this it will be seen that their whole force could not have exceeded two thousand available warriors. Their success too, was founded more on their treachery and stealthiness than on their bravery. They were, in fact, what the name of one of their chief's would imply— ‘‘Diablo’’ in Spanish, meaning Devil. Their warfare consisted in murdering innocent men, women and children, as many a grave, and skeletons of wagons, horses and human beings throughout the Territory will attest. So sly and cunning were they, and so skilled in their art of trickery, that their depredations would almost amount to sleight of hand. While sitting and talking with them, they would steal a hat from off your head and you not know it. They occupy the eastern portion of the State; but their incursions extended throughout the whole Territory until '74, when their chief—the remarkable Cochise, died. This Cochise was the terror of the country. His many strongholds were almost impenetrable to any but Indian experts, and always commanded some public highway. Often in traveling through the Territory men would drop from their horses, ignorant of where the cause came from; or would be in an instant and without any warning beset by these ‘‘devils’’ who would seem to rise right up from the ground.


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But no matter what the diversity may be in these different nations and tribes of Indians, the most interesting are those of the Zuni and the Moqui inhabiting a section of country in the extreme northeastern part of Arizona, and extending into New Mexico; The Moquis are in Arizona, while the Zunis are in New Mexico; and while our party are spending the night with this interesting people, the Pimos, I will give some entertaining facts concerning the Moquis and Zunis of the northeast.


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AN UNWELCOME VISITOR.

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