CHAPTER XIV. THE INDIAN—THE PIMO, THE MARICOPA, THE PAPAGO, THE ZUNI, THE MOQUI...
SO divided and sub-divided are, and have been the various tribes of Indians in the Territory of Arizona for the past few decades, that it would take a volume in itself to enumerate and describe them. Many of these too, are so insignificant in numbers as well as unimportant in history, and are so thoroughly on their ‘‘last legs,’’ that it would be useless, had we both time and room.
So interested had our party became with Indian life; and so much in excess of anything we had yet seen, in point of numbers, and in permanent settlements were the Pimos, that we made a stop here longer than usual, and had our ideas of Indian life very much exalted by doing so. The Pimos are located on a rich and fertile strip of land two hundred miles from the Colorado River, east. Although to a man just from the Yosemite the plain might seem a
All over this village may be seen the Pimo women going to and fro, on some active mission of labor; while over the whole sunny reservation may be seen patches of peas, beans, pumpkins, melons, and vegetables of all kinds; while vast fields of wheat, barley, corn and the larger crops may be seen further off. Sorghum has proved a profitable crop in this valley. In 1863, they sold seven hundred thousand pounds of wheat and
A MARICOPA INDIAN GIRL PICKING BERRIES.
The morality of this Indian is deplorable, while the social customs are interesting. The mode of courtship is, that a young Indian approaches the hut of his sweetheart. He does not reach it at this stage of proceedings, but selects some comfortable rock for a seat or some tree or bush, and there remains in anxious repose for a certain length of time—an hour or so we believe it is, while his horse he ties to a tree near the house. This he does for three days. If the maiden favors him she will feed his horse, and the jig is up.
PIMO INDIANS AT HOME.
The morals of these Indians are bad. The missionary labors for seven years, have been, apparently, absolutely lost. Not one convert is reported to have been made, and licentiousness is becoming more and more prevalent. In their native state and before the influence of the whites, however, the Pimos are reported as strictly virtuous, not tolerating any incursions whatever, upon the marriage system.
Southeast of the Pimo reservation one hundred miles, is the Papago reservation. These together with the Pimos may be considered the model Indians of southern Arizona, except the Moqui in the extreme northeast, who are the best in the State. Their reservation consists of over seventy thousand acres, and their industry is proverbial. Being nearer to the mountainous or elevated portions, they are inclined to pastoral pursuits rather than agricultural, although both are represented well. The Papagos resemble the Pimos with some few traits peculiar to themselves. They once belonged to the tribe of the Pimos, and and speak the same language. As far as records show, these tribes, which number over ten thousand in all, have sustained themselves by civil pursuits, and have always been friendly to the whites, and anxious
Contrary to the Pimos and Papagos, the word Apacheé has for many years been identified with scenes of bloodshed and murder, theft and treachery. These comprise six separate tribes, and occupy the eastern and southeastern portion of the State. It is hard to conceive of so close a proximity of two classes of people, recognized under the head of ‘‘Indians,’’ and yet so thoroughly different, occupying the same land at all. It suggests, however, that though peaceful in nature they were war-like and brave in spirit when necessity required it. The most warlike and desperate of all our American Indians save the Sioux, they have never-the-less been driven back and held at bay by the other and more docile tribes. Numbers and bravery of course were in their favor.
The following constituted the force of the Apachè in '76; under the following chiefs:—Is-kilte-shy-law with twelve hundred Warriors; Ma-guils with four hundred Warriors; Pedro with three hundred Warriors;
A SQUAD OF INDIANS AT A GAME OF CARDS.
By this it will be seen that their whole force could not have exceeded two thousand available warriors. Their success too, was founded more on their treachery and stealthiness than on their bravery. They were, in fact, what the name of one of their chief's would imply— ‘‘Diablo’’ in Spanish, meaning Devil. Their warfare consisted in murdering innocent men, women and children, as many a grave, and skeletons of wagons, horses and human beings throughout the Territory will attest. So sly and cunning were they, and so skilled in their art of trickery, that their depredations would almost amount to sleight of hand. While sitting and talking with them, they would steal a hat from off your head and you not know it. They occupy the eastern portion of the State; but their incursions extended throughout the whole Territory until '74, when their chief—the remarkable Cochise, died. This Cochise was the terror of the country. His many strongholds were almost impenetrable to any but Indian experts, and always commanded some public highway. Often in traveling through the Territory men would drop from their horses, ignorant of where the cause came from; or would be in an instant and without any warning beset by these ‘‘devils’’ who would seem to rise right up from the ground.
AN UNWELCOME VISITOR.