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Tucson, the county seat of Pima county, is situated on a sloping mesa on the right bank of the Santa Cruz river. It stands in a wide plain, surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges. It is about midway between the Gila river and the boundary line of Sonora, and is about 250 miles east of the Colorado river, and nearly 300 miles north of the harbor of

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Guaymas, on the Gulf of California. It is situated near latitude 32° 20' north, and in longitude 110° 55' west from Greenwich. The early history of Tucson is involved in obscurity. It is generally believed that it was established as a Spanish military station to protect the mission of San Xavier del Bac, about the year 1694. Tucson remained a small and insignificant pueblo until the California gold fever of '49 and '50, when the rush of adventurers along the southern route to the golden shores of the Pacific infused new life into the sleepy old town. After the occupation of the country by the American troops, in 1855, Tucson became the most important point in the Territory, and its growth has been steady ever since. With the completion of the Southern Pacific railroad, the old pueblo has made rapid strides in population, wealth, and material prosperity, and contains, at the present time, between seven and eight thousand inhabitants, many of whom are Mexican. Tucson, in its general appearance, resembles a Spanish-American town. The houses, built of adobe, or sun-dried brick, are generally of one story, with flat roofs, and narrow doors and windows, with court-yards in the interior. The streets in the older part of the town are narrow and tortuous, and the houses make very little pretentions to architectural beauty. The advent of the railroad, however, has drawn hither an active, energetic American population, and the old order of things is being rapidly done away with. Tucson contains the largest mercantile houses in the Territory, who do a heavy trade with Sonora and the northern States of Mexico. The business of the twon for 1880, amounted to over $7,000,000. The place contains some fine private residences, which would be a credit to any town on the coast. The Catholic cathedral is an imposing structure, built of brick and adobe. The Presbyterian church is a tasteful building of sun-dried brick. The Baptists have also a place of worship, and the Methodists have laid the foundation for a large and handsome edifice. Besides the public school, which is largely attended, the Sisters of St. Joseph have an academy for girls, with an attendance of nearly 100 pupils. A parochial school is also maintained with an enrollment of 285 pupils—160 males, and 125 females. The Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights of Pythias, Good Templars, and United Workmen, have flourishing lodges. Tucson has two banking-houses, four hotels, two breweries, two flouring mills, a foundry, and large mercantile establishments in every branch of trade. Three daily and weekly newspapers are published here. The Arizona Star, by L. C. Hughes, is a bright and able chronicle of the wants and resources of the southern country; the Arizona Journal, by F. B. Thompson, is a reliable and newsy exponent of public sentiment, and an active champion of the material interests of the country; the Arizona Citizen, the second oldest newspaper in the Territory, is conducted with ability by R. C. Brown, and is devoted to the vast and varied resources of Pima county and Southern Arizona. El Fronterizo, by Carlos Velasco, is published weekly, and supplies the Spanish-speaking population

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with the current news in their native tongue. The suburbs of Tucson afford some pleasant drives. San Xavier church is nine miles up the Santa Cruz, while Fort Lowell is at the base of the Santa Catarina mountains, seven miles away. The valley of the Santa Cruz, opposite Tucson, presents a beautiful appearance, with its green fields and groves of cottonwood. Situated on the main highway between the east and west, and on the direct route to the Gulf, with one railroad passing through it, and others projected, and with the rich mineral belt lying all around it, Tucson has every reason to feel secure in its future.


Tombstone, the county seat of Cachise county, is one of those mining towns which has sprung into existence, as if by magic, from the discovery of the wonderfully rich ore bodies which surround it on all sides. A little more than two years ago, the site of the present town was a desolate waste; to-day an active, energetic population of over 6,000 souls gives life and animation to its crowded streets. The town is built on a mesa at the southern end of the Dragon mountains, nine miles east of the San Pedro river, about seventy miles south-east of Tucson and twenty-eight miles south of Benson, on the Southern Pacific railroad. It is situated near latitude 31° 30' north, and in longitude 110° west of Greenwich. The first house was erected in April, 1879, and since then its growth has been remarkable. Surrounded on all sides by immense bodies of rich ore, Tombstone presents the appearance of a typical mining camp in the full tide of prosperity. The town is built of wood and adobes. It contains many fine business houses, a large and commodious theater and public hall, four large hotels, two banks, and numerous private residences, displaying both taste and comfort. It contains four churches: Methodist, a handsome edifice, Catholic, Presbyterian and Episcopal. It has one public school, which is largely attended, and also a private academy, which receives generous patronage.

Tombstone is the center of an immense area of rich mineral territory. It has a large and growing trade with the adjacent mining camps, and with Sonora. Its mercantile houses carry heavy stocks, and do a thriving business. Tombstone has two newspapers, the Nugget and the Epitaph, published daily and weekly. The former is the pioneer journal of the camp, and in its general make-up and the ability displayed in its columns, is worthy of the generous support it is receiving. It is conducted by H. M. Woods. The Epitaph is a live, newsy journal, devoted to the vast resources of the Tombstone region, and has worked incessantly to bring those resources to the attention of the outside world. Clum & Reppy are its proprietors. Water is brought to the town in iron pipes from the Dragoon mountains, sixteen miles away. A project is on foot to tap the cool springs in the Huachacas, twenty-one miles distant, which would supply the town with pure mountain water for all time to come. Tombstone is at present one of the most active towns

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on the Pacific coast. New buildings are going up constantly, while rich discoveries are being brought to light in the vast mineral belt which extends in all directions. Its future growth and prosperity is assured, and it promises yet to rival the metropolis of the Comstock in its most prosperous days.


Prescott, the capital of Arizona, and the county seat of Yavapai county, is situated in a beautiful mountain glade, surrounded by the northern spurs of the Sierra Prieta. The town was laid out in May, 1864, and named ‘‘in honor of the eminent American writer and standard authority upon Aztec and Spanish American history.’’ Its site is in latitude 34° 30' north, and in longitude 112° 30' west from Greenwich. The town has a beautiful situation, being surrounded by low hills, crowned with lofty pines, and covered with fine grasses. The streets are broad and laid out with the cardinal points of compass. In the center of the town is a large plaza, in which stands the county court-house, the finest structure in the Territory. It is built of brick and stone, two stories in height, with a mansard roof, crowned by a handsome tower. Prescott has the appearance of a homelike, Eastern town. Its buildings are of wood, brick, and stone. It contains the handsomest mercantile establishments in the Territory, many of which would be a credit to older and more pretentious communities. It is the center of an extensive mining, pastoral, and agricultural region, and has a large and prosperous trade. Besides its fine business establishments, Prescott can show many elegant private residences. It has a fine theater and a large public hall. Three saw mills are in constant operation near the town.

Prescott has one bank, a fine brick structure 72 by 29 feet, and two stories in height, two hotels, three breweries, fifteen mercantile establishments, and, like all frontier towns, numerous saloons. The town is situated about 5,500 feet above sea level, and possesses one of the most delightful climates on the continent; and with its pine-covered hills, green valleys, and beautiful gardens, is one of the most attractive towns on the Pacific coast. The Catholics, the Methodists, the Baptists, the Presbyterians and the Congregationalists, have handsome churches. A fine brick school-house, two stories in height, is one of the ornaments of the town. The Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, and the Foresters have flourishing societies. Two newspapers are published here, the Arizona Miner, the oldest newspaper in the Territory, and the Arizona Democrat. The former is conducted by C. W. Beach, and is untiring in its efforts to give publicity to the vast resources of Northern Arizona. The Democrat is owned and edited by Hon. Gideon J. Tucker, formerly of the Albany Argus and the New York Daily News. It is ably conducted, and justly appreciated for its devotion to the material interests of the Territory. The population of Prescott is about two thousand. With its charming situation, fine climate, and the varied

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resources which surround it, the town is destined to be a place of importance.


Phœnix, the county seat of Maricopa county, is situated in the great Salt river valley, twenty-five miles above the junction of the Gila and the Salt rivers, and about two miles north of the latter stream, ninety miles south of Prescott, and twenty-eight miles north of the Southern Pacific railroad at Maricopa station. It is in latitude 33° 25' north and in longitude 112° west. The first settlement was made in December, 1870, in what was then a barren desert. By bringing the fertilizing waters of the Salt river over the plain, the valley has been made the most fertile and productive in the Territory. Phœnix is a beautiful town, with wide streets shaded with groves of cottonwood trees, and cooled by streams of water running through the principal thoroughfares. It is the center of trade for the productive farming region which surrounds it on all sides, and has a number of handsome mercantile establishments which do a prosperous business. It has three churches, Methodist; Presbyterian and Catholic, all handsome structures. The houses are generally built of adobe, as that material is found to be best adapted to this climate. A large, two-story brick school-house, is one of the chief adornments of the town. The Odd Fellows, Masons, Red Men, United Order of Workmen, and Good Templars have organizations here. The Maricopa Library Association is one of the most prosperous societies in the town. Two newspapers are published in Phœnix, the Phœnix Herald and the Arizona Gazette, the former by John J. Gosper, and the latter by McNeil & Co.; they are both well conducted, newsy journals, able exponents of the interests of the people and the resources of the Salt river valley, and are published daily and weekly. The population of Phœnix is about 1500, and is rapidly increasing. With its splendid water facilities and rich soil, with its fine farms, beautiful gardens, and shady groves, Phœnix is a handsome and a prosperous town, with a bright future before it.


Globe, the chief town of Gila county and its county seat, is situated on Pinal creek, a tributary of the Salt river, about 120 miles north-west from Wilcox station on the Southern Pacific railroad, and about 90 miles north-east of Florence. It is a live mining town in the midst of a rich and extensive mineral belt. The place has a pleasant situation in the valley of Pinal creek, surrounded by rolling grassy hills, and backed by the lofty, pine-covered Pinal mountains to the south. The town is built principally of wood and brick, and presents a neat and attractive appearance. It has twelve mercantile houses, one bank, two hotels, a handsome Methodist church, a fine public school-house, two wagon shops, two drug stores, blacksmith shops, breweries, and several saloons. The town sprang up after the rich silver discoveries in this region in 1876. It has now a population of over 1,000, and a large and steadily growing

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trade with the mining camps adjacent. Globe has two weekly newspapers, the Silver Belt and the Chronicle. The former is conducted by Judge Hackney, and is a reliable and consistent advocate of the wants and interests of Gila county, and the Territory in general. The Chronicle is owned by W. H. Glover, and is a staunch friend to its section and a credit to Arizona journalism. Globe has an eligible situation in the center of a vast mineral and grazing region, and is growing steadily.


Florence, the principal town of Pinal county, is situated about 25 miles north-east of Casa Grande, on the Southern Pacific railroad, 80 miles north of Tucson, and 45 miles south-east of Phœnix. The town has a beautiful situation in the rich valley of the Gila. It is surrounded by groves of cottonwood, clear streams of water flow through every street, and beautiful gardens, where fruits and flowers grow luxuriantly, make it one of the most attractive towns in the Territory. Its buildings are principally of adobe, many of them tastefully adorned. Florence has several large business houses, two hotels, two commodious public schools, a Catholic church, a brewery, restaurants, saloons, and two flouring-mills. The town was laid out in 1868, and has a population of 800, one third of whom are Mexican. It is the county seat of Pinal. The Territorial Enterprise, a weekly newspaper, is published here. It is an able and industrious champion of the many resources of that portion of the Territory. Florence is about 500 feet above sea level, in the center of one of the finest bodies of agricultural land in the Territory, and with rich mines north, south, and east, will always be a prosperous town.


Yuma, the county seat of Yuma county, is situated near the junction of the Gila with the Rio Colorado, and about twenty miles north of the Sonora line. On a commanding bluff, opposite the town, on the California side of the river, is Fort Yuma, built on the site of a mission established here by the Spanish fathers as early as 1771, and destroyed by the Yuma Indians ten years later. The first settlement at the site of the town of Yuma was made by Dr. Lincoln and others in 1849, who established a ferry over the Colorado to accommodate the thousands who flocked to the newly discovered gold region of California. An outbreak among the Indians destroyed the ferry and killed all the owners, except three persons. In 1850, the ferry, was again started by Don Diego Jaeger and others. This party were again attacked in 1851 by the Indians, who compelled them to abandon their enterprise and retreat to California. In 1852, Heintzelman and Stoneman (both of whom afterwards rose to high commands in the civil war), marched across the Colorado desert with a detachment of United States troops, and established the post of Fort Yuma. The ferry was again started, and the village of Arizona City

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grew up around it. In 1864, Yuma was made the distributing point for the military posts in Arizona, and advanced rapidly in population and business. It contains several large stores, three hotels (one owned by the railroad company), a large wagon shop, blacksmith shops, saloons, etc. It has one public school with a daily attendance of 50. The Sisters of Charity have also a flourishing school at this place. The Territorial prison is situated here. It is a secure and roomy structure, built of stone, and situated on a bluff above the Colorado. The railroad company have built extensive shops at this point and give employment to a large number of men; they have also erected a fine bridge over the Colorado. The population is about 1,200. Yuma has two newspapers, the Sentinel and the Arizona Free Press. The former is conducted by J. W. Dorrington, and sets forth the local news of its section in an attractive manner. The Free Press is owned and edited by Samuel Purdy, Jr. It is an interesting journal, conducted with marked ability, and has done much to bring to notice the resources of Yuma county. Yuma's situation at the junction of the two largest streams in the Territory, the rich mining country which lies to the north and east of it, and its unrivaled climate for those troubled with lung diseases, will always insure its permanency and prosperity.


Mineral Park, the county seat of Mohave county, is situated on an elevated bench, on the western slope of the Cerbat range, 30 miles east of the Colorado river, and about 150 miles northwest of Prescott. The town is built mostly of adobe. It is the center of a rich mineral region. It was founded in 1871, and contains three stores, one hotel, one restaurant, one blacksmith shop, one public school, and four saloons. It does a thriving trade with the surrounding mining camps. The line of the thirty-fifth parallel railroad passes about ten miles east of the town. Present population about 300.


Pinal, a prosperous town in the county of the same name, is situated on Queen creek, about thirty-five miles north-east of Florence. The town is built of wood and a light-colored basaltic rock, which is found in abundance in the vicinity, and which gives the town a permanent and substantial appearance. The place has several large stores, two hotels, one bank (a handsome structure of stone), restaurants, saloons, blacksmith shops, and all the other branches of trade which are found in a prosperous mining town. Pinal has one church, and a public school which is well attended. The Pinal Drill is published here once a week by J. D. Reymert. It is a live journal, full of the local and general news of its section. The Odd Fellows have a fine hall and a flourishing organization in Pinal. The mill of the Silver King mining company is situated at this point, and many productive mines in the vicinity make Pinal a growing and prosperous town. Population about 600.

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Harshaw is lively mining camp, situated in the northern spurs of the Patagonia mountains. It is built principally of wood. It has several mercantile establishments, who do a flourishing trade with Sonora and the adjacent mining camps. It has a population of about 600. The fine mill of the Hermosa mining company is located at this point. The place is about seventy miles south-west from Tucson. The town has a delightful situation, surrounded by the oak-covered hills of the Patagonia range. It is the center of a rich and extensive mineral region, and is destined to be a place of importance.


Among the other towns of note in the Territory, may be mentioned Silver King, which has been built up around the famous mine of the same name. It is situated about five miles from the town of Pinal, and is a thriving mining camp, having three stores, two hotels, and several saloons. Population about 250.


Charleston, in Cachise county, is situated on the San Pedro river, about nine miles west of Tombstone. At this point are located the reduction works of the Tombstone Milling and Mining Company. The town has four stores, two hotels, besides blacksmith shops, saloons, etc. It is on the main road to Sonora, and does a large trade with that State. The population of the town is about 300.


Galeyville is a lively mining town, situated on Turkey creek, on the eastern slope of the Chiricahua mountains. It is twenty miles south of the Southern Pacific railroad, and thirteen miles west of the New Mexican line. It has a beautiful situation, surrounded by groves of oak. The town was laid out in November, 1880, and has a population of about 400. There are six stores, four restaurants, two blacksmith shops, two feed and livery stables, three butcher shops, thirteen saloons; barber, boot and shoe shop, etc. The town is surrounded by a rich mineral belt, and promises to become a place of importance. The country in the vicinity has an abundance of wood, water, and fine grasses.


St. Johns, the county seat of Apache county, is situated on the Little Colorado river, about two hundred miles in a direct line east of Prescott, and about twenty miles west of the boundary line of New Mexico. It is in the center of a rich agricultural and grazing region, contains a population of 700 souls, a large portion being Mexicans. The town is on the direct road from Fort Wingate to Fort Apache, and about forty miles south of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. A large and commodious court-house has recently been erected. The town does a large

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trade in grain and wool, and has four stores, saloons, blacksmith shops, etc.


Safford, the county seat of Graham county, is on the Gila river, near Camp Thomas, and in the center of that rich farming region known as the Pueblo Viejo. The town is steadily growing, has a population of about 300, and has a large trade with the agricultural region which surrounds it. It contains several stores, a hotel, saloons, etc. With its unrivaled farming and grazing resources, Safford is destined to become a large town.


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