MINING RESOURCES


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The very name of "Arizona" is suggestive of streams yellow with golden sands, and mountains glittering with virgin silver. Popular belief has long considered this region as a synonym for marvelous mineral wealth, and long before that wealth was proved to have an existence, tradition and story had woven about the name a glamour of golden fancies, which modern enterprise and modern energy are at last about to turn into solid facts. The first mention of the Territory in history is connected with the search for the treasures supposed to be collected in the Cities of the Bull; but although the expedition did not result so successfully as a similar one in an earlier age, which sought and found the Golden Fleece, it was indirectly the means of leading to the discovery of the buried treasures which underlie the mountains and valleys of this wonderful land. The hardy adventurers who followed Coronado little dreamed that the mountains, plains, and mesas, which they passed over in their wearisome journey to "Cibola," contained riches, which would make the fabulous wealth of the Moquis cities appear mean and insignificant. It has remained, however, for a later age and another race to bring to light this vast wealth, and send it forth to benefit mankind, and enlarge and enrich the trade and commerce of the globe. The Territory of Arizona is one vast mineral field; from the line of Utah on the north, to the Mexican border on the south, and from the Colorado of the west, to the boundary of New Mexico, mineral is found in nearly every mountain range, and in every isolated peak. Nowhere on the continent is there such an extensive distribution of the precious metals. While in other mineral-bearing States and Territories the deposits are confined to certain well-defined limits, in Arizona no such distinction prevails. It would appear as if nature had here, in a prodigal mood, scattered her treasures with a lavish hand, and neglected no portion of her chosen mineral domain.

In the richness and variety of its ores, Arizona is also distinguished from the mining regions of the west. This predominating features of the country was noted at an early period in its


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history. No mining State or Territory has yielded such masses of pure silver, and few have equaled the wonderful gold deposits of Antelope Hill. To Arizona belongs the honor of producing the largest nugget of native silver ever found—2,700 pounds. This mass of pure metal was confiscated by Philip V., and taken to Madrid. The mine was also declared government property, but it does not appear that the royal robber ever derived much benefit from it. The many rare and beautiful combinations in which silver is found make Arizona the favorite field of the mineralogist, while the ease and simplicity by which these ores are reduced commends itself to investors and to metallurgists alike. Pure native silver, chlorides, ruby silver, bromides, silver glance, sulphides, carbonates, and sulphurets are the most generally distributed of the silver ores, but there are many other varieties peculiar to the Territory, which space will not permit to mention here. Gold is most generally found in its matrix of quartz. It sometimes occurs in conjunction with pyrites of iron, copper, and lead, and is met with in its pure state in creeks and gulches in all portions of the Territory. Copper is found in red and black oxides, as a green and blue carbonate, sometimes as a sulphate, and often in its native state. Silver ores in Arizona, which assay into the thousands, are of common occurrence, and create no comment. Large quantities of ore going from $5,000 to $10,000 per ton, have been shipped from the Territory, and several mines are steadily producing "rock" that will go from $15,000 to $20,000 per ton. These are simple facts which can not be gainsayed.

Probably no portion of the mining domain possesses so many natural advantages for the successful working of ores. Wood and water are abundant in nearly all of the mineral-bearing mountain ranges, and in places where water is scarce at the surface, a sufficient quantity is found by sinking a short distance. The climate of the country can not be excelled. Work can be prosecuted all the year round. While mountains of snow and intense cold retard operations in other States and Territories, Arizona's equable climate is specially adapted to out-door operations, even in the middle of winter. This fact alone is worthy the careful consideration of men desiring mining investments. The old shafts and tunnels which have been discovered in various parts of the Territory, show that the Spanish explorers and the early missionaries had proven the richness of Arizona mines, and had, in their crude way, worked them successfully. The almost indisputable evidence which an earlier race of miners have left in several of the gold-bearing streams of the Territory, proves conclusively that the people who once occupied this land, and whose origin is lost in the mists of conjecture, delved for the precious metals in this region—at once the oldest and the newest portion of the American Union. The same difficulties which obstructed the operations of Toltec and Spaniard has also stood in the path of their Anglo-Saxon successors. Isolation and savegery have retarded


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Arizona's development. These two words express the causes which have prevented the country's advancement, and deprived her of the position which she is soon destined to attain—the leading bullion-producer on the globe.

But now that the savage has succumbed to his destiny, and the mountains and valleys which once resounded with his war-whoop, re-echo the music of civilized industry; now that the Demon of Isolation, whose shadow hung like a funeral pall over the land, has been driven to more distant fields by the shriek of the locomotive, Arizona is rapidly coming to the front as the most promising mineral region in all North America. An army of prospectors are swarming through her valleys and mountains; new discoveries are constantly being made; mills and furnaces are going up; the yield of bullion is steadily on the increase; capital is seeking investment; railroads are penetrating in every direction, and henceforth the career of Arizona is to be onward and upward. The scope of this work will not admit of a detailed or elaborate description of every mining district in the Territory. It is believed, however, that in the following brief summary of the leading camps, enough will have been shown to prove all that we have claimed for the richness and extent of the mineral field; the natural appliances for the reduction of ores, and the unrivaled opportunities which the country presents for the investments of capital.

CACHISE COUNTY

In the fall of 1877, Mr. A. E. Sheiffelin, an active and industrious prospector, was stopping at Camp Huachuca. He made frequent trips into the hills now embraced within the limits of Tombstone, searching assiduously for "float" and "croppings." Bands of renegade Indians roamed in the country east of the San Pedro at that time, and the whole region, which had once been the chosen ground of the famous Cachise and his band, was marked with the graves of white victims, who had been murdered within its "dark and bloody ground." Sheiffelin was admonished that he would find a "tombstone," instead of a "bonanza," beyond the San Pedro, and would add another to the many who found bloody graves among its lonely hills. The indomitable prospector paid no heed to these warnings, and his pluck and energy met with their just reward. In February, 1878, he discovered the Lucky Cuss, Tough Nut, and other mines which have since attained a national reputation. In remembrance of the solemn joke, he named the district "Tombstone." The great richness and extent of the new discoveries soon spread far and wide, and thousands rushed to the Silverado of the south-west. An army of prospectors swarmed over the hills, many other valuable discoveries were made, a city sprung up as if by magic, mills and hoisting-works were erected, bullion began to find its way out of the camp, and to-day, a little more than three years after its discovery, Tombstone can show a population of 7,000 souls, and is one of the most prosperous mining camps in the western country.


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As near as can be ascertained, the mineral belt of Tombstone extends nearly eight miles east and west, and about five miles north and south. On the western edge of the district, along the San Pedro river, silver had been discovered as far back as 1859, but the hostility of the Indians prevented any development. The country in which the mines of Tombstone are situated may be described as a series of rolling hills, which have a gradual ascent until they merge into the Mule mountains on the south, and stretch away in an undulating plain to the Dragoon range on the north. The geological formation of the district presents many features worthy of study. Porphyry appears to be the predominating rock, though a capping of lime overlies the leading mines of the camp. Quartzite is found everywhere, and a granite formation is met with on the western edge of the district. As depth is attained, the surface lime disappears and porphyry and quartzite constitute the country rock. A notable feature of the Tombstone mines is the size of the veins and the ease with which the ore is reduced. The silver occurs as a chloride with very little base combinations, and can be worked by pan process, to 90 per cent, and upwards. The cost of extraction is merely nominal, and the facilities for reduction are all that could be desired. The present output of bullion is over $500,000 per month, from 140 stamps. This yield is being steadily increased, and valuable paying properties are being added to the list of bullion producers every month. It is estimated that the bullion yield for the present year will amount to $7,000,000. This is a good showing for a camp a little over three years old, which did not drop a stamp until June, 1879. The daily output of ore at the present time is about 500 tons. Fourteen of the leading mines have complete hoisting-works with the latest improved machinery. Water has been struck in several claims at a depth of between 500 and 600 feet, but the inflow is as yet very light, and no difficulty is experienced in getting rid of it. There are over 3,000 locations in Tombstone district. In this brief sketch there are doubtless many promising properties deserving of notice besides those mentioned, but space will not admit of a separate description of each.

The Tombstone Gold and Silver Mining Company own the Lucky Cuss, the East Side, Tribute, and Owl's Nest. This group constitutes one of the most valuable properties in the district. The Tough Nut, the leading mine, is thoroughly opened by shafts, drifts, winzes, and open cuts. Immense ore bodies, sometimes 20 feet in width, are met with. The ore is found in spar and quartz, and is said to average $100 per ton. The company have two mills on the San Pedro, one of 10 and another of 20 stamps. It has paid dividends from the start, and has a large surplus on hand. This is the first organized company in the district. It employs about 125 men, and its production of bullion up to date, is said to be about $1,000,000. The Grand Central Company's property is embraced in a claim 1500 feet in length and 600 feet in width. It is incorporated


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under the laws of Ohio, with a capital of $10,000,000, divided into 100,000 shares. It is a magnificent property. The vein is from 8 to 12 feet wide, and runs from $80 to $100 per ton. The main shaft is down 500 feet, with three levels—500, 1100, and 600 feet, respectively. The reduction works consist of 30 stamps on the San Pedro, which are kept constantly at work. While only in operation a few months, it is estimated that $500,000 has already been produced. Regular dividends are declared, and the property is steadily increasing in value as depth is reached. The Western Company own the Contention, one of the first locations in the district, which has produced a large amount of bullion. The property joins the Grand Central on the north. The writer was not permitted to see the mine, and therefore can say nothing definite about its present condition.

The Girard has a shaft 400 feet in depth and a vein from 4 to 6 feet in width. The ore is of high grade and has milled $100 per ton. The property is incorporated in Jersey City with a capital of $2,000,000, divided into 200,000 shares. The company have put up fine hoisting-works and will soon have a mill in operation on the San Pedro. The Head Center embraces 1,300 feet in length and 500 feet in width. It is incorporated under the laws of the State of California with a capital of $10,000,000, in 200,000 shares. The vein averages from 4 to 8 feet, yielding about $70 per ton, about 45 per cent. of the bullion being gold. The company own a 10-stamp mill near Contention City. The main shaft is down 600 feet. The first level is 500 feet, the second 400, and the third 500. Hoisting machinery of the most improved pattern has been erected. The Vizina is incorporated under the laws of the State of New York on a basis of $5,000,000 and 50,000 shares. The mine is opened by three shafts, the deepest being about 400 feet. It is the intention of the company to erect a mill at an early day. Meanwhile the mine is being thoroughly opened. Over $200,000 has already been taken out from ore worked in a custom mill. Fine hoisting machinery has been erected, and the work of development is pushed forward steadily. The Empire is bounded on the south by the Sulphuret and the Girard. It is incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts. The main shaft is down 450 feet and has struck a large body of high-grade ore. A hoisting engine, with a capacity to sink 1,200 feet, has been put up, and this valuable property is being thoroughly opened. The Sulphuret adjoins the Empire and the Head Center. It is incorporated under the laws of Pennsylvania. Its main shaft is down 600 feet. It has a fine location; has first-class hoisting-works, and is being opened in a systematic manner. The Bob Ingersoll, one of the most valuable claims in the district, shows 5 feet of ore that will mill $100 per ton. It has a shaft down 200 feet, and is steadily improving as it is being sunk upon. This mine is incorporated. The Sydney is a fine-looking property with a vein 12 feet wide, 4 feet of which is ore that goes from $50 to $100 per ton. The mine is owned by


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San Francisco parties. The Grand Central South has a shaft 250 feet in depth. It is a large vein adjoining the Grand Central, and is considered by many the coming mine of the camp. It is incorporated in San Francisco.

The Tranquility joins the Empire and the Girard on the west. It has expensive hoisting-works, and is showing some very fine ore. None of the stock of this mine is on the market. The Flora Morrison is bounded on the east by the Grand Central. It is incorporated under the laws of Pennsylvania; 250,000 shares, $2 per share. It has a shaft 300 feet deep, besides drifts, cross-cuts, and winzes, and is showing fine ore. The Way Up has a shaft 300 feet, and is producing ore of a high grade. It is incorporated in New York; 150,000 shares, $10 per share. The Lucky Cuss, one of the first locations in the district, has a shaft 300 feet, and over 500 feet of drifts and cross-cuts. It has produced some of the richest ore ever taken out in the camp, and yielded about $50,000. The Sunset, south of the Lucky Cuss, has produced over $50,000. The Wedge shows a vein 3 feet wide, of high-grade ore. It has a shaft 100 feet deep, which is steadily pushed downwards. The mine is incorporated. The Gilded Age adjoins the Goodenough, and embraces a large portion of the town site. It has one shaft down 100 feet, which has produced rich ore. The Mountain Maid has a vein from 2 to 4 feet, and runs from $50 to $300 per ton. It has 3 shafts, the deepest being 200 feet. Like the Gilded Age, it extends across the town site. Among the many other claims in the immediate vicinity of the town, may be mentioned the Cincinnati, Grand Dipper, Naumkeg, Hawkeye, Plum, Rattlesnake, Wide West, Topaz, Omega, Omaha, Alpha, Prompter, Sunrise, Parallel, Little Wonder, Revenue, Survey, Defense, and hundreds of others worthy of mention here if the space permitted. Many of these claims are steadily and surely developing into fine paying properties.

In the western portion of the district are several well-defined and valuable mines showing rich ore and large veins. The following are the most prominent: Owl's Nest, carrying 3 feet of ore that goes from $50 to $80 per ton. This claim has 3 shafts, the deepest being 100 feet. It is owned by the Tombstone Mining Company. The Junietta has a 2-foot vein assaying $150 per ton. The deepest shaft is 100 feet. The Silver Bell has a shaft 50 feet, and carries ore worth $100 per ton. The Stonewall has a large ore body that has yielded $75 per ton. It has a shaft 120 feet. The Monitor is a 6-foot vein of free-milling ore, going $40 per ton, with a shaft 120 feet, in a granite formation. The Merrimac has 4 feet of ore that has milled $60. It has two shafts 60 feet each, and one 40 feet. Both these claims belong to the Monitor Mining Company, an Eastern incorporation. The True Blue is a 2-foot vein of $100 ore, with a shaft 200 feet. The Lucknow has a shaft 50 feet, and has ore that averages $50 per ton. The Delhi, Miami, Franklin, Randolph, Red Top, Argenta, Three Brothers, and many others, are in this neighborhood, and are well worthy of notice.


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Three miles from the San Pedro, is another group of mines which are producing remarkably rich ore. The Bradshaw, in its bullion yield and development, is the best known of these claims. It is a large vein, carrying ore that works from $80 to $100 per ton. It has been sunk to a depth of 400 feet; has improved hoisting machinery, and has already produced nearly $50,000. It is owned by an incorporated company in San Francisco. A 10-stamp mill is nearly completed, and the mine promises to be one of the regular bullion-producers of the district. The Alkey is a 4-foot vein, producing ore worth $100 per ton. It has a 50-foot shaft. The Bronkow, the first location in the district, is a vein 6 feet wide. It has a shaft 60 feet deep. Continual litigation has retarded the development of this property. In this necessarily brief résumé, full justice can not be done to the immense silver veins of Tombstone district. The salient points only have been given; but to have a proper conception of the size, richness, and extent of the veins in this wonderful camp, a personal examination is necessary. It is safe to say that nowhere on the coast have there been found ore bodies larger, richer, or more extensive. There are hundreds of fine prospects as yet undeveloped, which give every indication of being valuable, and which offer admirable opportunities for investment.

California District is situated in the Chiricahua mountains, twenty miles south of the Southern Pacific railroad, near the New Mexican line. The country is well wooded, and water is abundant. A thriving camp has sprung up, and many rich and valuable mines have been discovered. The ores are generally smelting, carrying much horn silver. The veins are large and well defined. Its proximity to the railroad and its abundance of ore, make Galeyville one of the most promising camps in Cachise county. The following are among the leading mines of the district: The Texas, the principal mine of the camp and the first discovered, is a large vein from 4 to 30 feet wide. The ore is a galena and chlorides, and averages about $40 per ton. A shaft 300 feet, and 3 tunnels, 250, 30, and 40 feet, respectively, expose large ore bodies. A 30-ton smelter has been erected and is now fairly under way. The Texas Milling and Mining Company are the owners of the property, which includes ten other mines in the same group. The Continental shows 2 feet of ore, assaying $100 per ton, principally chlorides and bromides. It has a shaft 60 feet and a cut 30 feet. The Cashier shows 4 to 6 feet of ore, and assays from $30 to $200 per ton. There are many other claims in this district looking well and producing good ore, which must be omitted here, but which are well worthy inspection by those who are desirous of investing in desirable mining properties.

Turquoise District.—This district is situated about 18 miles north-east from Tombstone, at the southern end of the Dragoon mountains. There is plenty of water, and sufficient wood to last for years. The ores are smelting, easily reduced, and running from $40 to $300 per ton, with an average of about


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$80. The Mono mine shows a vein from 2 to 6 feet wide. It is a carbonate ore, which will smelt readily. Assays go about $80 per ton, on an average. The mine is opened by about 500 feet of shafts and drifts, and shows fine ore in every opening. It is owned by a New York company. The Defiance and the Dragoon claims are also owned by New York parties. The former shows from 2 to 20 feet of carbonate ore, which will average about $80 per ton. There are several hundred tons on the dump. Reduction works will soon be erected on this property. The Dragoon has a 60-foot shaft showing a 4-foot vein that goes about $80. The Bell is the south extension of the Defiance. It is a 4-foot vein, looking well. The Challenge and the Tom Scott are also very promising veins, with ore that goes $75 per ton. The Star and Bodie claims are two of the best properties in the district. The Star has a shaft about 60 feet deep, all the way in ore that runs about $60 in silver and $12 in gold per ton. The Bodie has a 70-foot shaft, with a 2-foot ledge that averages $80 per ton in silver. With its favorable surroundings and fine ore bodies, Turquoise is destined to become a prosperous camp.

Dos Cabezas or "Two Heads" district is situated in the Chiricahua range, in the north-eastern portion of Cachise county. Its ores are gold-bearing, carrying some silver, and its ledges are large. It is favorably situated near the line of the Southern Pacific railroad, and has plenty of wood and water. The following are the principal mines in the district: Silver Cave has three veins, 7, 5, and 3 feet wide, respectively. The yield per ton has been $35. Several shafts, drifts, and other openings have been made on this claim, and nearly $5,000 has been taken from it, the ore being worked in arrastras run by steam. The Juniper is a 6-foot vein, carrying gold and silver. The ore assays $150 per ton. About $6,000 has been taken from this mine, the ore being worked in arrastras. The Silver Cave South, has 4 feet of ore that assays $50 per ton and has several openings. The Galena Chief shows 3 feet of ore, assaying $50 per ton. The Murphy is a 4-foot vein, averaging $50 per ton. The Bear Cave has nearly 4 feet of ore that goes $80 per ton. The Greenhorn is also a 4-foot ledge, running $50 per ton. There are many other promising prospects in this camp well worthy of mention. With the erection of a 10-stamp mill, which is already on the road, Dos Cabezas will give a good account of itself.

Swishelm District.—This district is situated in the Pedrogosa mountains, in the south-east corner of Cachise county. Its ores are a carbonate. The veins are large, and the facilities at hand for smelting, good. A St. Louis company is now operating in the district with satisfactory results.

Hartford District.—This district is situated in the southern end of the Huachuca mountains. It has abundance of fine water, and some of the best pine timber in the Territory. Most of the lumber for Tombstone comes from this point. The ores are a copper and a carbonate of silver, assaying from $15


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to $60 in copper, and from $20 to $80 in silver. Some very fine properties have been opened up. The Undine, Mountain View, Lone Star, and IXL, are the principal mines. Several sales have been made, and with the unsurpassed advantages of wood, water, and magnificent climate, Hartford district is certain to become an important mining center. There are several other points in the Huachuca range that show fine prospects, and also in the Whetstone mountains, west of Tombstone.

Copper.—Besides its veins of silver and gold, Cachise county has also some of the largest and most valuable copper mines to be found in the Territory. At Bisbee, some twenty miles south of Tombstone, are found some of the richest copper mines in the United States. The veins are large, the grade high, and the appliances at hand for reduction can not be excelled. The mines are about sixty miles from the railroad at Benson, and about twenty miles from the Sonora line. The Copper Queen, the leading mine of the camp, is an immense mountain of ore. It has been explored 160 feet in length by 150 in depth, and 120 feet in width, and as far as the explorations have extended, rich ore has been encountered everywhere. The claim is 1,500 feet long, and 600 feet wide. Two 30-ton smelters are kept running steadily, and the daily output is about 13 tons of pure copper. The ore is a carbonate and a black and red oxide, and averages about 22 per cent. The claim has been opened by 700 feet of shafts, drifts, and cross-cuts, and has already yielded over $600,000 worth of copper. The property is owned by an incorporated company, with headquarters in New York. The Neptune company own nine claims, the most prominent of which is the Neptune, which shows ore going 24 per cent. This company are making preparations to erect a smelter on the San Pedro river, fifteen miles distant. The Twilight shows a 6-foot vein of red oxides, carrying 25 per cent. pure copper, and is opened by a 70-foot shaft. The Holbrook has a 10-foot vein of red oxides, but has little work done on it. The Copperopolis shows a 5-foot vein and a 40-foot shaft. The Atlanta carries 25 per cent. ore, and is opened by a 45-foot shaft. The Copper King is the western extension of the Copper Queen. It is a large vein, showing good ore. The Golden Gate, Ohio, Copper Prince, Cave, New York, Galena, Garfield, Bounty, Black Jack, and Dreadnaught are all fine prospects, although but little work has been done upon any of them. Bisbee, besides its immense copper veins, has silver and gold also. It is one of the most eligibly situated camps in Southern Arizona, and has a bright future before it.

PIMA COUNTY

This county is the oldest mining region in the United States. At what time the first discoveries were made by Europeans is not clear, although it is believed that the Jesuit missionaries operated here as early as the latter part of the seventeenth century. By the middle of the eighteenth century mining was prosecuted vigorously in the Baboquivari, the Santa Rita, Arivaca,


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Oro Blanco, Patagonia, and at several other points in the county. From the many old shafts and tunnels which have been discovered, it is evident that the industry was carried on extensively. In this region was found the famous Planchas de Plata, or "planks of silver," which yielded nearly five tons of the pure metal. Many of the rich mines which were worked in those days, have not been found, although the most diligent search has been made. The abandonment of the missions in 1828, and the hostility of the Apaches, almost put a stop to mining in Arizona, and it was not until some time after the country came into the possession of the United States, that it was resumed. Several companies were then organized, and a great deal of bullion taken out. The constant raids of the savages, and the withdrawal of the troops, on the breaking out of the civil war, almost put a stop to all work, and not until the Indians were subdued, in 1874, did the mining industry of Pima county take a fresh start. This industry has received a wonderful impetus by the building of the Southern Pacific railroad. Millions of dollars have been invested; new districts have been organized; an army of prospectors has invaded the country, and many valuable discoveries have been made. Gold, silver, copper, and lead, are found in every mountain range in the county. With the exception of the region known as the Papagueria, wood and water is abundant everywhere. The richness of its ores and the size and permanent character of its veins, have given Pima county a reputation second to no portion of Arizona.

Harshaw District.—This district is about 70 miles south-east of Tucson, in the Patagonia mountains. The hills are covered with oak and juniper, while the water supply is sufficient for the working of ores. The camp is about 50 miles south of the Southern Pacific railroad. The Hermosa is a large lode of free-milling ore. The vein is from 8 to 12 feet wide. The ore is a chloride and horn silver. One of the most complete 20-stamp mills on the coast is kept steadily at work, crushing about 80 tons per day. The yield of bullion up to date has been over $700,000. The mine is opened by a tunnel 700 feet in length, cutting the vein 300 feet below the croppings. A shaft has been sunk 100 feet below the level of this tunnel, and the mine is thoroughly opened by drifts and cross-cuts. The Hermosa is one of the leading mines of the Territory. The Hardshell is a short distance west of the Hermosa. It shows a vein from 10 to 12 feet wide, of the same character of ore as the latter mine. It is opened by a shaft 50 feet deep, and by several cross-cuts. The Hardshell gives every promise of becoming one of the first mines of Pima county. The Trench is one of the old mines worked by the early missionaries, and carries some ore of a high grade. It shows a vein from 3 to 4 feet wide, carrying sulphurets of silver. The main shaft is down 400 feet, and several levels have been opened. Steam hoisting-works of the latest pattern have been erected. The Alta, south of the Hermosa, is opened by several shafts, and shows a large


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ore body. It is owned by Eastern parties. The Blue Nose, the American, the Independent, and many other fine prospects in this camp, show good ore and large veins.

Washington Camp is about nine miles south of Harshaw, and was formerly known as the Patagonia district. It is in the southern end of the Patagonia mountains, and has a delightful situation, being in the midst of a heavily timbered region. The Santa Cruz river, four miles distant, affords an inexhaustible supply of water. The district contains large veins of low-grade ore, carrying a heavy percentage of lead. The Davis is an immense vein of carbonates, being in places 20 feet wide. It has been opened by several shafts, the deepest being 160 feet, and also by drifts, cross-cuts, and winzes. The vein throughout all its workings shows large quantities of ore. The property is owned by the Patagonia Mining Company, who have erected a furnace on the Santa Cruz. The Belmont is one of the oldest locations in the district. It is three miles from the Sonora line. It has a shaft over 100 feet, and a cross-cut at the bottom showing 30 feet of carbonate ore, carrying considerable iron. The San Antonio is also an old location. It is opened by three shafts, the deepest being 60 feet. It shows a large body of ore similar in character to the Belmont. The Holland is another large body of smelting ore. A shaft has been sunk nearly 100 feet, showing a strong vein in the bottom. The Washington is a vein, in places 30 feet wide. The ore carries iron and copper pyrites, and requires to be roasted. It is opened by several shafts and drifts. What is known as "Washing Pool mines" embrace the Grasshopper, St. Louis, Chicago, Ella, Ohio, Columbus, Blue Jay, and many others. They are all large veins, carrying ore of a good grade, though mixed with much base metal. The "Old Mowry" mine is four miles north of Washington camp. Before the breaking out of the civil war, the mine was worked by Lieutenant Mowry, giving employment to 400 men (principally Mexican). Large smelting works were erected, but the tall brick chimney is all that remains of the ruin. During the war the Apaches destroyed the building and machinery. The old shaft is down 350 feet. The ore is easily smelted, and carries from 40 to 60 per cent. lead. The mine is now owned by parties in Tucson. The Redoubtable, Pensacola, Pelican, Chico, Thurman, and scores of others show large veins, and many of them have shafts from 60 to 70 feet. Washington Camp is favored beyond most districts in its natural facilities for ore reduction. This, together with its immense veins, should yet make it one of the leading districts in the Territory.

Tyndall District is situated south of the high peaks of the Santa Rita mountains and about sixty-five miles from Tucson. The ores of the district are generally of a good grade, but the rich ore bodies are not large. This camp has suffered from bad management by unscrupulous speculators. The mines are favorably situated near the Santa Cruz, while plenty of wood is found on the mountain sides. The Josephine is a vein 5 feet


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wide, of free-milling ore that has worked $60 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 75 feet deep. The Emma shows a vein 6 feet wide, some of which has yielded $100 per ton. It has a 50-foot shaft. The Magnolia has 3 feet of milling ore that assays $70 per ton. It has a shaft 30 feet. The North Star has a shaft 50 feet, and shows a 5-foot vein that has yielded $50 per ton. The Bonanza is opened by an 80-foot shaft and shows over 7 feet of fine smelting ore. The Dayton is a 4-foot vein, some of which assays $150 per ton. There is a shaft on this mine 100 feet in depth. The Bushnell shows a 6-foot vein and a shaft over 100 feet. Some ore from this claim assays $300. It is a smelting ore. The Lost mine has a shaft 150 feet and a 4-foot vein assaying $60 per ton. The Major has a tunnel 100 feet in length. Its vein is 5 feet wide, and it has produced rock that has assayed $700. The Jefferson is a large body of smelting ore, nearly 7 feet wide. It has a shaft 150 feet in depth. The Red Cloud is a 3-foot vein of free-milling ore. It is opened by an 80-foot shaft, and has produced some very rich rock. The Laura, Happy Thought, Gold Tree, Helvetia, Red Oak, Hidalgo, Cachise, Hamilton, Alcalde, Davis, Crown Point, and many other promising properties, are found in Tyndall district.

The Aztec District is really a continuation of the Tyndall. The character of the ore is the same and the formation similar. The veins are large and well defined, and can be traced for a long distance. The same causes which have retarded the development of the Tyndall district have also operated here. Among the claims which deserve mention, are the Empress of India, San Ignacio, Old Salaro mine, Rosario, Las Cruces, Ricard, Anahuac, Toltec, Coronado, Henry Clay, Apache, Santa Rita, Hidalgo, Seneca, La Salle, Juarez, and many others.

Arivaca District.—This district is about 65 miles south of Tucson. Mining was carried on in this region long before the settlement of the country by the Americans. The camp has a delightful situation, a fine climate, and is possessed of abundance of wood and water. The formation is granite and porphyry. The Con. Arizona is owned by the Consolidated Arizona Gold and Silver Mining Company. It is opened by a main shaft 200 feet in depth, and by levels and drifts. The ore is a chloride, which mills freely. The vein is from 3 to 5 feet wide, and the yield has been about $100 per ton. A complete 10-stamp mill has been erected on the property, and also steam hoistingworks. The vein has fine walls, and gives every indication of being a permanent fissure. The company own three other claims on the same vein, among which the Silver Eagle has the most development. It has a shaft 78 feet, and shows a 4-foot vein that assays $75 per ton. The Albatross is a large body of sulphuret ore that gives an average assay of $80 per ton. It is a new discovery, and has been opened by a shaft 60 feet in depth. The Arkansas is a 4-foot vein, carrying chlorides and sulphurets of silver. The ore assays $100 per ton. The


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mine is opened by a 150-foot shaft and a tunnel 300 feet. The Dos Amigos shows a vein 3 feet in width that gives $80 as an average assay. It has a shaft 100 feet deep. The Idaho is a large vein, carrying ore that goes $30 per ton. It is opened by an 80-foot shaft. The Union shows a 4-foot vein of free-milling ore assaying $50 per ton. A shaft 120 feet deep has been sunk on the claim. The Fairview is a 4-foot vein carrying ore that goes $40 per ton. It has a shaft 130 feet deep. The Relief has a shaft 55 feet, and a vein 4 feet wide, going $50 per ton. The Postboy shows a vein 2 feet in width, of carbonate ore, that has assayed $100 per ton. It has a shaft 30 feet deep. The Longarine is opened by two shafts 100 and 80 feet, respectively, and by 300 feet of drifts and winzes. The ore is free-milling, assaying $80 per ton. The Clipper, Tennessee, Alpha, Grand Republic, Arion, Black Eagle, Blue-jay, Mentor, and Arivaca are among the many promising prospects of this district. No portion of Pima county presents a more inviting field for investment. The famous Cerro Colorado mine is about ten miles north of Arivaca. It was worked extensively, under every disadvantage, before the breaking out of the civil war, and has produced, it is said, nearly $2,000,000. The constant attacks by the Apaches compelled the abandonment of the property, and the buildings and hoisting-works were destroyed by the savages. It is now owned by the Arivaca Milling and Mining Company. The vein is not large, but the ore is of a high grade. Bounding Arivaca on the west is the Baboquivari range, which has been mined by the old missionaries in the early days, and contains some large veins of rich ore. The Oro Fino is a vein nearly 8 feet in width, assays from which give $50 per ton. It has a shaft 60 feet. The Black Hawk is an 8-foot vein of base metal, that gives $50 per ton. A 60-foot shaft has been sunk on the property. The Silver Chief shows 4 feet of ore that assays $60 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 150 feet deep.

Oro Blanco.—This camp is seven miles south-east of Arivaca. The country rock is generally porphyry. The ores are mostly carbonates and free-milling. Wood is plentiful. The ores carry gold and silver. The Warsaw is a vein from 3 to 4 feet wide. One from this mine has worked $80 per ton. It is opened by a 300-foot shaft, besides drifts and cross-cuts. A ten-stamp mill and roaster have been erected on the property. It has produced over $25,000. The Alaska is a 4-foot vein, carbonate ore, assaying $70 per ton. It has a shaft 150 feet deep, and a 200-foot tunnel. The Peelstick has a shaft 170 feet deep, has a 4-foot vein, and assays $60 per ton. The Yellow Jacket has a shaft 120 feet deep, and 400 feet of drifts and tunnels. It shows a ledge 3 feet wide — gold quartz. A ten-stamp mill has been erected on the mine, and a considerable amount of bullion taken out. The Montana is a large ledge of carbonate ore. A tunnel 100 feet in length has been driven on the vein. The Idaho shows a vein 4 feet wide, some of which assays as high as $200. It is opened by a


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shaft, 100 feet deep. The Susana is a vein of carbonate ore, going $60 per ton. A shaft 50 feet deep has been sunk on the property. The California has a shaft 100 feet deep. It is a strong vein of carbonates, that assays $50 per ton. Among the prospects worthy of mention in this district should be named the Sonora, North Carolina, Franco-American, Ready Relief, Southern Pacific, and many others.

Empire District.—This district is about twenty miles east of Tucson, in the rolling hills of the Rincon mountains. It is a short distance south of the Southern Pacific railroad. The camp has been brought into notice by the discovery of the "Total Wreck," an immense body of chloride ore, over 50 feet in width, and assaying from $10 to $500 per ton. The ore carries silver and gold. It has the appearance of a contact vein, between porphyry and lime. Work is prosecuted steadily. Three thousand tons of ore are on the dump, and reduction works will be erected at once. The Champion is a 20-foot vein, with a shaft 50 feet deep. The Dividend, Cross, Crescent, Ophir, and many others are on the same vein as the Total Wreck. They show large bodies of the same character of ore, and promise to become valuable properties.

Old Hat District is on the northern end of the Santa Catarina range, and thirty-five miles from Tucson. It contains plenty of wood and water, and is well situated for mining. The Bonanza has two tunnels, 300 feet in length. It is a large vein, assaying from $50 to $100 per ton. Work is carried on steadily, and a fine property is being opened up. The Braganza is a strong vein, producing ore that goes from $50 to $200 per ton. The other prominent mines are the Old Hat, Bandit, American Flag, Palmetto, Pioneer, Morning Star, Black Bear, Silver Glance, Montezuma, Mermaid, Pilot, Lookout, Manzana, and many more. With its beautiful situation, and abundance of wood and water, this district is destined to become a prominent mining center of Southern Arizona.

Silver Hill District.—This camp is fifty miles north-west of Tucson, and only eighteen miles distant from the railroad. The Abbie Waterman is the leading mine of the district. It shows a body of carbonate ore nearly 10 feet wide. It is a fine smelting ore, and assays high in silver. The mine is opened by several shafts and open cuts, showing the same body of mineral from end to end of the claim. This promises to become one of the most valuable discoveries in Pima county. The Amelia is the north extension of the Waterman. It is a large vein of fine ore. The Mamie Griffith, Monarch, Government, Lancer, Little Joker, White Cliff, and Rodrigues' Purse are all large veins, carrying ore of a good grade.

Papago District lies to the south-west of Tucson. It embraces a large area of country known as the Papagueria. This region contains veins of gold, silver, and copper. Water can be obtained by sinking, and mesquite and palo verde wood is met with nearly everywhere. The Montezuma mine is in this region, and also the famous Cabibi mines, which are rich in silver


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and copper. The Pichaco mine, in this district, has been worked for many years, and has produced a large amount of bullion. The San Pedro, Cabriza, El Cantavo, and many other large and promising veins are in this portion of Pima county. Westward from this group are the Ortega mines, rich in copper and silver; and still farther west are the noted Ajo copper mines, which were worked extensively in early times, and the ore shipped from Port Libertad to San Francisco. All this portion of Pima is rich in mineral, and will yet become the seat of a prosperous mining industry.

Amole District is west of Tucson and contains several valuable mines that assay from $100 to $1,500 per ton. The Cymbeline, the Homestake, and the Hope are all fine properties. The Neuguilla mine has a shaft 90 feet deep, showing a vein between 4 and 5 feet wide.

Pima District lies about thirty miles south-west of Tucson, in the low hills of the Sierritas. It has yielded ore of a high grade, and promises, with development, to become an important camp. The Esperanza and the Rough and Ready are the leading mines of the camp. The latter has produced ore going $700 per ton.

Helvetia District is situated on the eastern slope of the Santa Ritas. It has abundance of wood and water. It contains rich placer mines which have produced several hundred thousand dollars. The district has also some valuable veins of silver and gold, though but little work has yet been done.

Copper.—Pima county, besides its ledges of gold and silver, is also rich in copper. High-grade copper ores are found on the northern end of the Santa Rita range, about twenty-five miles south from Tucson. The outcroppings cover several hundred acres, and are composed of carbonates, red oxides, and copper glance. Some of the veins are nearly 50 feet in width, going from 15 to 25 per cent. The copper deposits in the Silver Bell district, fifty miles west from Tucson, are among the largest and most valuable in the Territory. They are immense dikes, in places 50 feet wide, carrying carbonates, and red and black oxides. A smelter, with a capacity of 30 tons, is being erected on this property by the Huachaca Mining Company. Besides the copper mines here alluded to, the whole region west of Tucson, to the boundary of Yuma, and south to Sonora, is rich in this metal.

YAVAPAI COUNTY

The largest political division of the Territory, has long borne an enviable reputation for the richness and extent of its mines, and for years was the leading bullion producer of the Territory. The principal mineral belt of the county lies between the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth parallels of latitude, and extends from the Apache line to the boundary of Mohave. There is no part of the Territory so generally blessed with those two important factors in mining operations, wood and water. The formation of the mineral-bearing portion of Yavapai county is mostly a


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granite; porphyry, slate, and quartzite are encountered in many places, while the northern part shows sandstone, trap, and rock of volcanic origin. The mineral veins are noted for smooth, well-defined walls, high-grade ores, and great variety of mineral combinations. In its production of gold, Yavapai is the leading county of the Territory. The metal is found in nearly every portion of the mineral belt, in alluvial deposits, and in ledges. Silver occurs in native, wires and nuggets, chlorides, horn silver, silver glance, ruby silver, sulphides, black sulphurets, and many other rich varieties. Copper is found in oxides, native, malachite, blue carbonates, and as grey copper.

The first mining by Americans in Yavapai county began in 1863, with the discovery of the rich placers at Weaver creek. About the same time the Walker party, from New Mexico, found the diggings of the Hassayampa and Lynx creek. Since then mining has been carried on with generally satisfactory results. Until the opening of the Southern Pacific railroad, two thirds of the bullion shipped from the Territory was produced in this county; and nearly half the mining locations in Arizona were made within its borders. Mining operations conducted by ignorant, incompetent, and sometimes dishonest men, have greatly retarded the development of Yavapai. Unfortunately, mining litigation has also done its share in this direction. But despite these obstacles, the intrinsic merit of the mines has been proven, and against bad management and and costly litigation they have been made to pay. The opening of the railroad on the thirty-fifth parallel will give the mines of Yavapai all the advantages of cheap and rapid transportation; will bring its vast mineral wealth before the world, and make it, what its unrivaled climate and great natural advantages destined it to be, one of the leading mining camps on the coast.

Peck District.—This district is thirty miles south-east from Prescott, in the northern foothills of the Bradshaw range. It was organized in 1875, and has become famous for the wonderful richness of its ores. It has every advantage in the way of wood and water. Owing to continuous litigation, the mines of the district have not been worked as mines of their richness and extent ought to be. No camp in the Territory has produced the same amount of bullion, considering the length of time it has been worked and the number of men employed.

The Peck is one of the leading mines of the Territory. Discovered in 1875, it was worked successfully till 1878, when the owners became involved in a lawsuit which has not yet ended. The mine produced during that short period $1,200,000. Ore worth from $5,000 to $20,000 per ton was frequently met with. Pending the settlement of lawsuits, one of the finest properties in the Territory is lying idle. The rich vein is about 18 inches wide, composed mainly of chlorides and carbonates. The average working test has been near $200 per ton. The mine is opened by a 400-foot shaft, and by four levels, aggregating 1,300 feet. A complete ten-stamp mill and roaster have been erected on the property. The Peck is a


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strong vein, with prominent quartzite croppings traceable across the country for several miles. The Silver Prince is situated about half a mile east of the Peck. It has produced very rich ore, similar in character to that of the Peck. Several tons of this ore shipped to San Francisco have averaged $1,000 per ton. The mine is opened by several shafts and drifts, and by a tunnel nearly 400 feet in length. The vein is a strong and well-defined one, the richer ore bodies occurring in chambers or bunches. The Black Warrior lies south from the Prince and on the same vein. It is one of the finest properties in the camp; has been thoroughly opened by shafts, drifts, and tunnels. It shows a vein from 2 to 3 feet wide, composed of sulphurets, galena, native and antimonial silver, assaying on an average, $200 per ton. The Warrior and the Prince are the property of a New York company. The Asa Buffum is a northern extension of the Peck. It shows a small vein of exceedingly rich chloride and carbonate ore that assays $1,000 per ton. The Alta is situated south from the Peck, and between that ledge and the Silver Prince. It shows a vein from 1 to 2 feet wide of high-grade chloride ore, giving an assay of $300 per ton. The Evening Star is the south extension of the Alta. It is opened by several shafts and drifts showing ore similar to the Alta, assaying from $300 to $1,000 per ton. The Lone Juniper is a south extension of the Black Warrior. It carries a vein from 1 to 2 feet of carbonates and chlorides assaying from $80 to $500 per ton. The property has been developed by several shafts, drifts, etc. The Doyle is south of the Warrior. It has a vein 2 feet wide of sulphuret ore. Average foot shaft and 100 tons of ore on the dump.

The May Bean is the first south extension of the Peck, and has produced very rich ore. It is owned by the May Bean Mining Company, and is explored by several tunnels and shafts. The Curtin is the north extension of the Prince. It is a large vein, having but little work done upon it. The Silver Chief is situated between the Peck and the Silver Prince. It has a shaft 40 feet and shows rich ore. The St. Paul, some distance south of the Peck, is a large vein carrying ore that averages about $30 per ton. But little work has been done on it. The Austin, south of the St. Paul, has produced ore worth $5,000 per ton. There are a great many claims on the Peck ledge which show good surface indications. The most prominent of these is the General Kautz, opened by a tunnel over 100 feet in length. The New York is north of the Curtin. It is a large ledge, showing good ore and opened by several shafts.

Tiger District.—This district is situated about thirty-five miles south-east of Prescott, on the southern slope of the Bradshaw range. No camp in the Territory has better natural advantages for the mining and working of ores. Wood is found in every direction, and water is abundant; while the climate is all that could be desired. The formation is a granite. The district was organized in 1871, and contains


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many large and regular veins of gold and silver. The cost of bringing in machinery, and the curse of litigation, have been the causes which have hindered the development of its valuable properties. The Tiger, which has given its name to the district, is one of the largest veins in the Territory, being over 70 feet between smooth and compact walls. It was the first silver mine of importance discovered in northern Arizona, and has produced some of the richest ore ever found in the Territory. The mine is opened by a three-compartment working shaft, 300 feet deep, supplied with steam hoisting-works, and equipped with cages and pumps. The ore is a sulphuret, carrying native silver, and has worked on an average, $110 per ton. A ten-stamp mill with roaster attached has been erected. The mine has produced $200,000, $5,000 being gold. The claim is 1,200 feet long by 200 feet wide. The Hammond and Riggs claim is the second south extension of the Tiger. It is a large vein, showing fine ore, and has a tunnel driven along the ledge 150 feet, and a shaft 65 feet deep. The Linn ground is the first extension north. It shows a strong vein of high-grade sulphuret ore, and is opened by several shafts and cuts. The Tiger is a true fissure and is located for three miles, the claims varying from 200 to 1,200 feet in length, most of which have been patented. Nearly all of the claims are opened by shafts and tunnels, showing large ore bodies similar in character to the discovery location.

The Gray Eagle is about two miles east of the Tiger. It is a large vein of sulphuret ore, carrying gold and silver. Average assays give $46 in silver and $22 in gold. It is opened by 350 feet of tunnels. The Oro Bonito lies between the Tiger and the Gray Eagle; it shows a 3-foot vein of gold quartz, some of which has worked $80 per ton, in arrastras. The mine is opened by several shafts and tunnels. The Eclipse is about two miles east of the Tiger; it has from 1 to 3 feet of chloride and horn silver ore, assays from which have gone up into the thousands. A 60-foot shaft has been sunk on the mine. The Lorena is a small ledge east of the Eclipse; the ore is a chloride of silver and goes about $200 per ton. There is a shaft 80 feet deep and 100 tons of ore on the dump. The California and Benton are supposed to be northern extensions of the Tiger. They are strong veins and carry high-grade ore; the former has a shaft 100 feet, and the latter 50 feet deep. The Moreland is the north extension of the Benton; it is a large vein, carrying some very rich silver ore.

The Buckeye is situated in what is known as Bradshaw Basin. It is a small ledge of very rich ore—gold and silver. It has produced several thousand dollars, and is opened by shafts and tunnels. The Kansas is east of the Buckeye; it has a strong vein of sulphuret ore, and has been explored by a tunnel, over 100 feet in length. The Thurman is a 3-foot vein of sulphurets carrying gold and silver, and assaying $60 per ton. Several shafts have been sunk on the property. There are many other valuable claims in the "Basin" on which but little work


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has been done. A ten-stamp custom mill has been erected at this place.

North of the Tiger district, in what was formerly known as Pine Grove, are several fine properties, foremost among which is the War Eagle, a vein from 2 to 5 feet wide, carrying gold and silver, which has worked from $25 to $40 per ton. The discovery claim is opened by a shaft 90 feet deep. It has produced over $30,000, and is one of the most valuable properties in the Bradshaw. The claim has been located for several miles, the extensions all showing finely. The Del Pasco, Bradshaw, Blandena, Cougar, Gretna, Shelton, and many other promising claims, are in the Tiger and Pine Grove districts. About five miles west of the Tiger is located the Southern Belle, a ledge of gold quartz from 4 to 5 feet wide; the ore, worked in arrastras, has yielded from $30 to $50 per ton. Several shafts and open cuts show a well-defined lode.

Tip Top.—This district is about fifty miles south-east of Prescott in the spurs of the Bradshaw range. The camp has long been noted for the richness of its ores, and is a favorite of chloriders, or poor miners who get out their "rock" and have it reduced at custom mills. The formation is a micaceous granite, and the veins, though small, are compact and regular. The district has produced more bullion than any other in Yavapai county, and its mines steadily improve in size and richness as depth is reached. The Tip Top is the principal mine of the camp; it was discovered in 1875, and has been worked continuously ever since. The main working shaft is down nearly 600 feet, and the claim is thoroughly opened by levels, winzes, tunnels, etc. The vein averages from 1 foot 18 inches in width; the ore is a sulphuret, carrying quantities of ruby silver, and assaying $300 per ton. A 10-stamp mill and roaster is in operation on the Agua Fria, about nine miles from the mine. This is one of the best properties in the county, and has produced over $1,200,000. The Cross-cut is west of the Tip Top, and is the largest vein in the district. It is traceable across the country for several miles, and located nearly all the way. The Foy, a location on this ledge, shows 2 feet of ore assaying from $75 to $200 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 180 feet deep, and by several open cuts.

The Pearl, another location on the Cross-cut, is opened by a shaft 100 feet deep; it shows a strong vein of high-grade milling ore, and is one of the most promising claims in the camp. The Swilling is north of the Tip Top; it has two shafts, 110 and 50 feet, respectively. It carries a 3-foot vein of milling ore assaying $50 per ton. The Virginia No. 2 is on Tula creek, about four miles from Tip Top. It shows 18 inches of free-milling ore, ranging by assay from $100 to $1000 per ton. The mine is opened by two shafts, 140 and 80 feet deep, and has produced $10,000 silver. What is known as the Rowe claim is near the Cross-cut; it contains some very rich ore, and is opened by a tunnel and several shafts. A number of tons of ore from this mine have been shipped to San


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Francisco, averaging from $500 to $1000 per ton. The Basin mine is three miles west of the Tip Top. It has been worked for several years—the ore being reduced in a custom mill—and has paid a handsome profit to its owners. The mine has produced a great deal of bullion, but the exact figures are not at hand. The "76" has a small vein of high grade ore of a similar character to the Tip Top, which assays from $200 to $1000 per ton. Three tunnels—200, 120, and 85 feet each—have been driven on the claim. The Incas is a narrow vein of exceedingly rich ore, assaying from $100 to $1,800 per ton. These others which carry rich ore and give every promise of becoming valuable when developed. The ores of the camp are nearly all silver-bearing.

Hassayampa District.—This district is situated about ten miles south of Prescott, in the midst of a heavily timbered and well-watered region. The Hassayampa creek, after which the district takes its name, has been worked for gold ever since the settlement of Northern Arizona, and has produced a great deal of money. The character of the ores in the Hassayampa region is a gold quartz on the surface, which gradually passes into silver as depth is reached. The formation is generally a granite, with some slate and porphyry. The Senator shows more development than any mine in the camp. It has been worked extensively, and has a shaft 200 feet deep, with levels, drifts, cross-cuts, etc. The vein is from 2 to 4 feet wide—iron, copper, and lead sulphurets, which have yielded from $25 to $40 per ton. The mine has produced $160,000 in gold. It has a ten-stamp mill. The Davis is about four miles south of the Senator, on Slate creek, a tributary of the Hassayampa. It is a large vein of sulphuret ore, averaging 5 feet wide. It is opened by a tunnel nearly 100 feet in length. The ore gives an assay of from $50 to $300 per ton. The Davis is traceable across the country for nearly two miles, and several extensions, showing good ore, have been located on it.

The Crook is three miles east of the Hassayampa. Some of the richest gold quartz ever taken out in the county came from this mine. It is opened by 670 feet of shafts and 850 feet of tunnels. It has a vein from 1 to 4 feet wide, yielding $28 per ton. The claim has produced over $50,000 in gold, and shows good ore in every drift and stope. It has a ten-stamp mill. The Perry is eight miles south of Prescott. It is a strong vein of sulphuret ore; has a shaft 75 feet and a tunnel 185 feet. Selected ore from this mine has yielded $400 per ton, in silver. The Pine Tree shows a vein 18 inches wide, giving an assay of $90 per ton. It carries silver and gold, and is opened by a tunnel 350 feet in length. The Savage has two hafts, 40 and 50 feet. It carries 18 inches of ore, worth $200 per ton. The Cash has 2 feet of base ore, assaying $60 per ton. It has a shaft 28 feet. The Consolidated Bodie shows 4 feet of galena and carbonate, assaying $60 per ton. It


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has two shafts, 100 and 180 feet. The claim is on the east fork of the Hassayampa. The Sumner is a large vein, 45 feet of micaceous iron, portions of which are rich in silver. Assays as high as $2,000 have been made from this mine. The Caney shows 2 feet of gold quartz that has worked $38 per ton. The Grovanor has a 3-foot vein of gold and silver ore that assays $27 per ton. It is opened by three shafts. The Madison shows 1 foot of black sulphurets of silver worth $200 per ton. The Delaware has a 50-foot shaft, with 2 feet of ore, carrying gold and silver. The Montgomery, Peacock, Often, Railroad, Nevada, Connecticut, Constantine, Glenn, Fox, Kautz, Silver Trail, Jim Davis, United States, Storm Cloud, Fremont, Sterling, Nifty, and hundreds of others, are located in the Hassayampa district. It is impossible in this brief sketch to give more than a passing glance at the many valuable properties in this camp, the most delightful summer resort in the Territory.

Walker District.—This district is about seven miles east of Prescott, and embraces the headwaters of Lynx creek, the richest gold bearing stream yet discovered in the Territory. It is estimated that over $1,000,000 has been taken from this creek since its discovery in 1863. Lynx creek is blessed with an abundant supply of wood and water, and a delightful climate. The veins carry gold and silver. The Shelton is a 4-foot ledge of carbonate ore, impregnated with iron pyrites. Assays go as high as $600 per ton. The ledge has a shaft 30 feet and a tunnel 100 feet. The Pine Mountain is a 2-foot vein of carbonate ore, assaying $120 per ton. It has a shaft 20 feet. The Gray Eagle has a tunnel 70 feet. It carries 4 feet of carbonate and sulphuret ore, assaying $80 in gold and silver. It has produced $4,000. The Mount Vernon carries 10 inches of rich gold quartz, worth $200 per ton. It has produced $15,000, is opened by several shafts, and a tunnel 100 feet in length. The American Flag shows 18 inches of base-metal ore that has worked $50 per ton. It has a 50-foot shaft, and has yielded $3,000. The Hidden Treasure shows a ledge 12 feet wide, assaying from $27 to $200 per ton, gold and silver. It is opened by a shaft 50 feet deep.

The Accidental is thoroughly opened by shafts, tunnels, drifts, etc. It is a rich vein, carrying gold and silver, and has produced over $50,000. The Mountain Lion is a promising-looking claim, carrying gold and silver. It has a tunnel 135 feet in length. The Orion is a 4-foot vein of sulphuret ore, assaying $ 0 per ton. A shaft 42 feet deep has been sunk on the ledge. The Hirshel has a 6-foot vein of carbonate and galena ore, assaying $50 per ton in silver, and $15 in gold. It has a shaft 65 feet deep. The Capital is opened by a tunnel and several open cuts. It carries 2 feet of chlorides, assaying $80 per ton. The Real del Monte, Empire, Mark Twain, Champion, Henry Clay, Pointer, Boston, Eureka, Eberhardt, Alturas, and scores of other valuable locations, are in this district.

Turkey Creek.—This district is about twenty miles southeast of Prescott. The ledges are principally silver-bearing, in a


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granite and porphyry formation. The camp has plenty of wood and water, and a climate unsurpassed in the Territory. The Tuscumbia is situated on a northern spur of the Bradshaw range. It is opened by a shaft 100 feet deep, and a tunnel 250 feet. The vein is about 18 inches wide, assaying $200 per ton. A five-stamp mill has been erected, and some $25,000 in silver has already been taken out. The Goodwin is from 4 to 6 feet, between smooth walls; the pay streak is from 1 to 3 feet, assaying from $50 to $800 per ton. The Holmes claim, on the Goodwin ledge, shows a vein from 1 to 4 feet wide, assaying from $60 to $1,000 per ton. The ore is a rich antimonial silver. There is a shaft 85 feet, and a tunnel 160 feet. It has yielded $2,800, in silver. The Hatz and Collier claim is a northern extension of the Goodwin. It shows a vein from 2 to 4 feet, that assays from $50 to $500 per ton. It is opened by several shafts and tunnels. The Continental is a large ledge, carrying a rich pay streak. It has a tunnel 200 feet in length, besides several shafts. The Peerless is a large dike, with a vein of rich ore. It has a shaft 90 feet. The Succor shows a 2-foot vein of galena ore, some of which assays $200 per ton. It has a shaft 100 feet. The Gold Note shows a good body of rich galena ore. It is opened by a shaft 100 feet deep. The Morning Glory is a large ledge of gold quartz. It is opened by a shaft 100 feet deep and by a 100-foot tunnel. The Trinity carries from 6 inches to 15 inches of sulphuret ore, that assays $100 per ton. It has a shaft 80 feet. The Compton has a shaft 48 feet, and carries from 1 to 2 feet of antimonial silver ore. The Bully Bueno, Town Site, Adirondack, Lincoln, Nevada, McLeod mine, Richmond, Kendall, Franklin, and many more, all show ore of a high grade.

Big Bug.—This district is situated east of Lynx creek, and about twelve miles from Prescott. It is surrounded by a forest of pine timber, and has abundance of water. The ores carry gold and silver. Considerable placer gold has been taken from this camp. The Bell has three feet of argentiferous galena ore, assaying $80 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 260 feet deep, and by a tunnel 200 feet long. It carries gold and silver. The Plat Bonita has a shaft 70 feet. It carries 4 feet of milling ore, assaying $60 per ton. It contains silver and gold. The Middleton shows 4 feet of milling ore, assaying $50 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 70 feet deep. The Poland has a tunnel 60 feet. It has a 3-foot vein of smelting ore, assaying $50 per ton. The Dividend is a 3-foot vein of gold-bearing quartz that has worked $20 per ton. It has a shaft 120 feet. The Galena is a ledge of gold quartz that has yielded $20 per ton. It has three shafts, 80, 100, and 125 feet, each. The Big Bug shows 3 feet of base ore that has worked $20 per ton, in gold. It is opened by an 80-foot shaft. The Eugenia shows 2 ½ feet of gold pyrites. It has a tunnel 100 feet in length. The Belcher is opened by several shafts and tunnels: It carries 2 ½ feet of free-milling gold ore that has yielded $20 per ton. The Lottie is a 4-foot vein of milling ore, carrying gold


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and silver, and assaying $60 per ton. It has a 100-foot shaft. The Champion has a shaft 100 feet deep. It is a 4-foot ledge of milling ore, assaying $60 per ton, and containing gold and silver. The Mesa, Pine Tree, Forest City, Black Fox, Challenge, Oury, Belcher, Ticonderoga, Independence, Crown Point, Rebel, Bunker Hill, Hamilton, and many other valuable prospects, are in Big Bug. Several Eastern companies are now operating in the district.

Groom Creek.—This camp is about six miles from Prescott, in one of the finest timbered and watered regions of Northern Arizona. The ledges are regular and compact in a granite formation; they carry gold and silver. The Lone Star has a vein 2 feet wide of argentiferous galena ore, assaying $100 per ton. It has two tunnels, 94 and 74 feet, respectively, besides several shafts. The Golden Chariot is a 2-foot vein of gold and silver ore. It is opened by several shafts and drifts. The Mountain shows a two-foot ledge of gold quartz. It has a 70-foot tunnel. The Dauphin has a shaft 45 feet. It shows a strong vein, 4 feet wide, of free-milling ore, carrying gold and silver. The Mirabile has 18 inches of high-grade free-milling ore. It is opened by a shaft 85 feet deep. The Minnehaha has two shafts, 35 feet each. It carries 20 inches of rich milling ore, some of which, shipped to San Francisco, has gone $300 per ton. The Nevada shows 20 inches of milling ore, assaying $160 per ton. It has two shafts, 40 and 35 feet each. The What Cheer is a large vein of free-milling ore, with a 50-foot shaft. Select ore from this mine has gone $300 per ton. The Alcyone shows 2 feet of galena that assays $60 per ton. A 35-foot shaft has been sunk on the claim. The Surprise has a shaft 40 feet and carries 2 feet of free-milling ore, assaying $150 in gold and silver. The Homestead, Uncle Joe, Adell, Heathen Chinee, Gazelle, Chicago, Old Put, Black Hawk, Canadian, Alta, Providence, Wakefield, Gray Eagle, Omaha, Benjamin, and scores of others well worthy of special mention, are in this district.

Cherry Creek.—This camp is situated about twenty-five miles east of Prescott, on the southern end of the Black Hill range. It is on the main road to the Verde; has plenty of wood and water, and a desirable situation. The ores carry gold and silver, and are easily reduced. The Black Hills is a ledge of argentiferous galena ore, 12 feet wide, and assaying $40 per ton. The mine is opened by a 40-foot shaft. The Silver Streak is a 4-foot vein, assaying $50 per ton in gold and silver. It has a 25-foot shaft. The Rustic shows 18 inches of carbonate ore, that assays $150 per ton. It is opened by a 35-foot shaft. The Hiawatha has a shaft 30 feet deep, with 2 feet of carbonate ore, assaying $50 per ton. The Hercules is a strong vein, nearly 4 feet wide, carrying silver and copper. It assays $60 in silver. The Sarah Jane shows a 2-foot vein of gold quartz, that assays $75 per ton. It has a 35-foot shaft. The Gold Ring, Carbonate Chief and Parole are fine-looking prospects, carrying rich ore and good-sized veins. There are numerous other locations


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in this district deserving mention, which must be omitted for want of space. Considerable gold is being taken out with arrastras, and the claims are steadily improving as they are sunk upon.

Weaver.—This district is the oldest in the county, having been organized in 1863, after the discovery of the rich gold deposits of Rich Hill. In a depression on the summit of this mountain about $500,000 in coarse gold was found lying on the shallow bed-rock, near the surface. The gulches running down from this mountain were also rich in placer gold; they have been worked since their discovery up to the present time, and have produced, it is estimated, $500,000, making the yield of Weaver district in placer gold, $1,000,000. The ores of the district are nearly all gold-bearing. Weaver is about thirty-five miles south from Prescott. The Leviathan is an immense gold-bearing quartz ledge, in some places 300 feet wide. Assorted rock from the mine has worked $50 per ton, in arrastras. It is opened by a tunnel, which cuts it 100 feet below the surface, and by several shafts and cuts. It is estimated there are 2,000,000 tons of ore in sight in this enormous vein. The Marcus shows a vein, 3 feet wide, of free-milling gold ore, to a depth of 68 feet, after which it changes to a sulphuret. The free-milling ore, worked in arrastras, has yielded as high as $200 per ton. The vein is opened by an incline 85 feet deep, and by a shaft 65 feet, connected by drifts. A new working shaft has been started, and is now down sixty feet. There are scores of other promising properties in this district, among which may be mentioned the Metallic Candle, with a shaft 40 feet deep, and a vein of gold quartz 20 feet wide; the Emerald has a tunnel 125 feet long and a shaft 20 feet deep; the Buckeye has a shaft 30 feet deep; the Cosmopolitan has a shaft 20 feet; the Sexton has a shaft 20 feet. Between thirty and fifty men are steadily at work in the placers of this district, all making good wages.

The Martinez District joins Weaver on the west. The ledges are gold-bearing, large, and well defined. A mill has been erected on the Cumberland, but incompetency and mismanagement caused it to prove a failure. The mine carries ore that assays $250 per ton, and has yielded over $4,000 from arrastras. The Martinez is a 6-foot vein assaying heavily in silver. The Model is situated in People's valley, but is included in Weaver district. It is a small vein of rich gold quartz, which averages about $50 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 150 feet deep, and by several tunnels. A Huntington mill, with a capacity of 5 stamps, has been erected on the property. The Miner is near the Model. It shows a vein of gold quartz 2 feet wide. It has a 100-foot shaft and several drifts, cross-cuts, etc. A five-stamp mill has been put up on the claim and is working satisfactorily. The mine is owned by the Bedrock Mining Company.

Tonto Basin.—This district is in the south-eastern part of Yavapai county. The veins are large, carry gold and silver, and there is a plentiful supply of wood and water. The House


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and Rouse claim has a shaft 100 feet and 250 feet of tunnels. The vein is 5 feet wide, free-milling silver ore. The Dougherty shows a 5-foot vein of silver ore, and is opened by a 94 foot shaft. The Osceola has a shaft 115 feet deep and a 6-foot ledge of gold quartz. The Golden Wonder is opened by a shaft 150 feet deep. The ledge is 5 feet wide. The Zulu is a large vein of free-milling gold and silver ore, assaying $100 per ton, and opened by a shaft 65 feet deep. The American, Silver Belt, Excursion, Last Chance, Accident, and many other valuable locations, have been made in this district.

Silver Mountain.—This district is south of the Tiger in the foothills of the Bradshaw range. Some of the largest ledges in the Territory are found here. The formation is granite and porphyry. Among these immense veins may be mentioned the Mammoth, from 50 to 300 feet wide, and traceable across the country for several miles. Five claims of 1,500 feet each, have been located on the ledge. But little work has yet been done, although some very fine ore has been taken out. The mine contains silver and gold. Among the other veins of unusual size are the Excelsior, Great Western, Mountain King, and Snowball.

Walnut Grove.—This district is about thirty miles south of Prescott, and embraces the eastern end of the Antelope range. The veins are small, but rich in gold and silver. Wood and water are found in abundance on the Hassayampa. Among the prominent claims may be mentioned the Crescent, Josephine, Vesuvius, Rebel, and many others. A five-stamp mill has been erected in the district, but is now idle.

Thumb Butte.—This camp is six miles west of Prescott, in the Sierra Prieta range. It contains some small veins carrying very rich silver ore. The surroundings are all that could be desired; wood and water are found everywhere. There are several claims with shafts from 20 to 70 feet, all showing fine ore.

Agua Fria.—This district is sixteen miles east of Prescott, in the foothills west of the stream of the same name. The ore is silver and of a very high grade. The mines are in contact formation between slate and granite. The Silver Belt is the leading mine of the district. It is opened by three shafts, 65,110, and 165 feet in depth. The ore is a carbonate, carrying chlorides, horn silver, and native silver, and yields $250 per ton. The ore is smelted and the base bullion shipped to San Francisco. The capacity of the furnace, which is run by the water power of the Agua Fria, is 7 tons in 24 hours. The Belt has produced nearly $100,000 in silver. The Kit Carson, Silver Flake, Agua Fria, and Raible and Hatz claim, are the other principal mines in the district.

Black Canyon.—This district is twenty-five miles east of Prescott. It extends from the eastern spurs of the Bradshaw range to the Agua Fria. The veins are principally gold-bearing, with regular and well-defined walls. There is plenty of timber on the slopes of the Bradshaw range, and water at all seasons in the Agua Fria and the Black Canyon. This latter


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stream, which drains a large area of mountain country, has produced considerable quantities of placer gold, and is yet being worked for the metal. The leading claims of the district are the Ballenciana, the Wickenburg mine, the Zika mine, and the Sonora. The Zika claim is worked in arrastras run by water power on the Agua Fria. It is a strong vein of gold quartz. The Wickenburg has a large ledge of quartz, showing pure gold all through the vein. It is worked by arrastras.

Copper.—Yavapai is rich in copper ores; they are found in every part of the country, some of them of a very high grade. Very large deposits are found east of the Agua Fria and in the southern end of the Juniper range; copper is also found in the Walnut Grove district, in the country west of Date creek, and in Castle creek, south of the Bradshaw mountains. So far as developed, these deposits show ore of a high percentage, and of a character easily reduced. The only copper mines which have been thoroughly opened are situated in the Black Hills, about twenty miles north-east from Prescott. The Eureka, the leading mine of the group, has been explored by several tunnels, which have tapped the vein nearly 200 feet below the surface. The ledge is from 8 to 16 feet in width, and over 1,600 tons are on the dump. The property has recently been purchased by Eastern parties, who intend to erect reduction works. The Wade Hampton is on the same ledge as the Eureka, and carries a large ore body similar in character. There are many other promising claims in this district, which possess the advantages of wood and water, and will be only forty miles from the Atlantic and Pacific railroad.

PINAL COUNTY

The first mineral discoveries were made in what is now Pinal county in the fall of 1871, but the hostility of the Indians and the isolated condition of the Territory at that time prevented any real development. The region was known to be rich in the precious metals, and after a peace was conquered from the Apaches, in 1874, prospectors flocked thither. The discovery of the famous Silver King in the fall of 1874, was the beginning of permanent mining in Pinal, and since that time it has been prosecuted without intermission and with the most flattering results. Few counties of the Territory can show a better record of bullion production. The Gila river, which flows through the center of this mineral belt, affords an unlimited water supply; while wood is found everywhere sufficient for all purposes of ore reduction. The ore bodies of Pinal county are noticeable for their size and richness. The formation of the country rock varies according to the locality, but granite and porphyry appear to be the predominating formations. A basaltic cropping is found in some places, and quartzite is sometimes met with. Gold, silver, and copper are the leading metals of Pinal. Large bodies of coal of an excellent quality, have lately been discovered in the eastern portion of the county. A railroad


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has been surveyed from Casa Grande to Pinal City, which will pierce the center of the mining region, and will be of incalculable benefit to the county. In its bullion product at the present time, Pinal takes the second place among the counties of the Territory; and with the opening of the projected rail communication, we may look to see that production largely increased.

Pioneer District.—The Silver King, the leading mine of Pinal, is situated in this district. The croppings of the vein are on a low, conical hill, in a basin, surrounded by spurs of the Pinal mountains. It is said that the mine was discovered from information furnished by a discharged soldier, who was stationed at this point during the Apache wars. After working the mine for nearly two years and taking thousands of dollars from surface excavations, the original locators sold the property to the present company, and the work of development was begun systematically. The discoverers of this magnificent property—farmers in the Gila valley—"builded better than they knew" when they conferred so appropriate a name on the wonderful mine. The vein matter is chiefly quartz; the ore is a sulphuret, carrying large quantities of native silver, polybasite, copper glance, blende, antimony, and other combinations. No such bodies of native silver have been found on the coast. The main working shaft is down over 600 feet, showing fine ore in the bottom; five levels have been run, and cross-cuts and winzes have thoroughly opened the mine. In places the ore body is 85 feet wide. A twenty-stamp mill has been put up at Pinal, five miles distant, and also a roaster and concentration works. The yield of bullion for May, 1881, amounted to $99,000. The ores are worked by the lixiviation process, which has proven a complete success. Whether we consider the size of the vein, the richness and variety of its ores, or its bullion yield, the King must be ranked as one of the great mines of the world.

The North King has a shaft 450 feet in depth, with improved hoisting machinery. The South King has been sunk to a depth of 150 feet. The property is owned by San Francisco parties. The Eastland is down 200 feet, and work is prosecuted steadily. This mine is producing some fine ore. Hoisting-works have been erected. The Last Chance shows a vein nearly 5 feet in width. The ore is a sulphuret, rich in silver. There is a tunnel on the claim 160 feet in length. The Mount View has a 4-foot vein of argentiferous galena ore. It is opened by a shaft 100 feet in depth. The Alice Bell shows 4 feet of galena ore, carrying considerable silver. It has a tunnel 80 feet.

The Belcher is one of the leading mines of the district. It is a chloride ore which gives an average of $82 per ton, the vein being from 3 to 5 feet wide. A ten-stamp mill has been erected on the property. The Eureka is on the same ledge as the Belcher. It shows a vein of chloride ore from 2 to 3 feet wide, assaying $100 per ton. It has produced about $5,000. The Surprise is a large gold ledge, 8 feet wide, assaying $40 per ton. It is owned by the Surprise Mining Company, who intend


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to erect a twenty-stamp mill the present year. The Gem is a 5-foot ledge of gold quartz. A mill has recently been erected on the property, which is owned by the Wide Awake Mining Company. The Lewis shows 4 feet of carbonate ore. It is on the same ledge as the Belcher and Eureka. The Silver Bell has 2 ½ feet of free-milling ore that assays $100 per ton. It has produced $10,000, and is owned by the Silver Bell Mining Company. The Silver Queen is the first location made in Pioneer district. It is a large body of metal, rich in copper and silver. The mine is opened by shafts, drifts, etc., and shows good ore throughout. Some distance south-west of Pinal is a group of mines lately sold to a California company. The ore in these claims is a carbonate, rich in silver. The veins are large, and well situated for wood and water. The company who purchased is known as the Pinole Mining Company.

Mineral Hill.—This district is in the foothills of the Pinal mountains, about fifteen miles north-east of Florence. The formation of the district is granite. The Gila valley furnishes both wood and water. The ore is smelting, the veins large, and of a good grade. They carry gold and silver. The Alice shows a ledge from 6 to 10 feet wide, carbonates and galena. Assays from this vein give $80 per ton. There is a 60-foot shaft and 180-foot tunnel on the property. The Pacific is a ledge from 8 to 20 feet wide. It is opened by four shafts, the deepest being 60 feet. Ore from this mine has assayed $100 per ton. The Le Roy is a 6-foot vein, going from 40 to 50 ounces per ton. It has a shaft 100 feet, and a tunnel of 150 feet. The Chocia is an immense vein, from 6 to 30 feet in width, portions of it assaying 50 ounces per ton, silver. A shaft 50 feet has been sunk on the property. The lodes of this district offer many advantages for a successful mining enterprise, and a prosperous camp is certain to spring up here.

Quarjarta.—Quarjarta district lies about six miles south of the Southern Pacific railroad, at Casa Grande. There is plenty of mesquite, palo verde, and ironwood, and water can be had by sinking in the bed of the Santa Cruz. The district has produced very rich ore, which was shipped to San Francisco, before the building of the railroad. The Quarjarta mine is opened by a shaft 146 feet deep, and by several open cuts. It shows 4 feet of ore that assays $60. The east extension is a large vein of carbonate ore. It has a shaft 50 feet, and 38 feet of drifts. It assays $50 per ton. The Antelope shows a 6-foot vein of gold quartz. Selected ore from this mine has yielded $100 per ton, in arrastras. There is a 40-foot shaft on the claim. The Sacaton is a fine-looking prospect. It shows a ledge over 14 feet wide, of carbonate ore, that assays $40 per ton. There are many other promising prospects in this district, which, with development, may prove valuable.

On Saddle Mountain, between the junction of the San Pedro and the Gila, some discoveries of large carbonate veins have recently been made. The new camp is well situated, being in the center of a wooden region, while the Gila and the San


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Pedro furnish an inexhaustible water supply. The Hayes, the most prominent of these new discoveries, has a vein of carbonates from 2 to 4 feet wide, which assay from $30 to $500 per ton. There is an 80-foot shaft on the claim. On the Golden Eagle there is a shaft 75 feet, and a cross-cut of 26 feet; the ore is carbonate, carries gold and silver, and assays from $70 to $100 per ton. The Maybell has a 60-foot shaft, and assays $100 per ton. There are some fifteen other locations, all showing good ore. A 5-stamp custom mill will soon be in operation at the mouth of the San Pedro.

Randolph District is situated in the Superstition range, north-west from Pinal City. The ledges of the district are large, with ore of a high grade. The first discovery, known as the Randolph, is over 40 feet wide, the ledge being traceable across the country for several miles. The ores are mostly carbonates and chlorides of silver. Assays run all the way from $30 to $1,000 per ton. There is plenty of water, and wood can be had six miles distant.

Casa Grande District is situated about 20 miles south from the station of the same name on the Southern Pacific railroad. It is a late discovery, and the ores are said to be of a very high grade. Its proximity to the railroad gives this new district many advantages. A lively camp has sprung up about the mines, and the work of development is pushed forward vigorously.

Copper—On Mineral creek, a tributary of the Gila, northeast from Florence, in the foothills of the Pinal mountains, are situated some rich copper mines. The camp is about five miles from the Gila river, and abundance of wood is found in the neighborhood. No better situation for a mining camp can be found in the Territory. A smelter with a capacity of 30 tons in twenty-four hours, has been erected at the river, and is running successfully. The Keystone is a large ledge carrying great quantities of native copper. The average of the ore is said to be about 25 per cent. The mine is opened by several shafts, drifts, etc. The Ida Ingalls is a 14-foot vein of copper glance, a large part of it giving assays of 30 per cent. There is a shaft 100 feet, and a drift 60 feet on the property. The Monitor shows 7 feet of good ore. It has several openings.

GILA COUNTY

This county was created by act of the legislature of 1881, from portions of Pinal and Maricopa, and is one of the most thoroughly mineralized divisions of the Territory. Gold, silver, copper, lead, coal, and iron are found within its borders. In the richness of its silver ores, the region now embraced in Gila county has long been famous. With the exception of the Planchas de Plata, no such bodies of pure silver have been found in the Territory. This region was once the home of the Pinal Apaches, who guarded long and well the treasures which were known to be hidden in their mountain homes. As early as 1871, an expedition numbering nearly 300 men, and led by


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the Governor of the Territory, penetrated this region, but as their quest was for placer gold, they discovered none of the rich silver lodes over which they passed. It was not till 1875, that Globe district was organized and its boundaries defined. At that time the larger portion of the present county of Gila was embraced within the limits of the San Carlos Indian reservation, but the richness of the new discoveries caused the boundaries of the reservation to be narrowed, and the mineral region declared a portion of the public domain.

The geological formation of the county is generally granite, porphyry and syenite. Quartzite is found in several places, and also limestone and micaceous slate. The rolling hills adjacent to Pinal creek show large beds of cement overlying the primitive rock. Water in abundance is found by sinking in the washes and gulches throughout the county, while Pinal creek is a running stream for nearly nine months in the year, and carries at all seasons in its underground channel, water in abundance for the purposes of ore reduction. Of wood, it is estimated there are 40 square miles of pine in the Pinal mountains, besides oak and juniper in large quantities in different portions of the county. The ores of Gila show a great variety of mineral combinations. In the Pinal mountains they are a sulphuret, carrying base metal, and requiring to be roasted before being milled. In the vicinity of Globe, Richmond Basin, and McMillenville, the ores are generally free-milling, with some iron and copper. The copper ores of the county are generally of a high grade and easily reduced. Gila county has rich mines, and many of them; it has wood and water in plenty; its climate is unsurpassed; a railroad will soon tap the mineral field; capital is steadily seeking investment, and the future of this region is as bright as its past has been prosperous and productive.

Globe District.—This district embraces the leading mines of Gila county. Probably no portion of the Territory of the same extent has produced ore of such wonderful richness. Tons of this ore, shipped to San Francisco in the early days of the district, have given the Globe country a reputation which has extended all over the coast. Among the leading mines of the district we enumerate the following: The Irene is a strong vein of carbonate ore, in some places 20 feet wide, and carrying a pay streak of about 6 feet, which will go close to $80 per ton. The mine is opened by a shaft 240 feet deep, and a tunnel of 330 feet connecting with the shaft. The mine has well-defined walls. It is owned by the Irene Mining Company of New York. Over 300 tons of ore are on the dumps and a mill will soon be erected. The Alice is a 4-foot vein of free-milling ore, assaying $100 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 235 feet deep, and a tunnel nearly 300 feet in length. The property is owned by the Globe Mining Company. The Centennial shows 2½ feet of grey carbonates, worth $100 per ton. It has a shaft 100 feet, and two drifts, one of 130 feet and one of 100 feet. The Democrat is opened by a shaft 33 feet deep and by a tunnel


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of 30 feet. It shows a 6-foot vein of free-milling ore running from $40 to $150 per ton. It is a strong vein, and one of the most promising properties in the district.

The Stonewall No. 1 is a large ledge with croppings in places 20 feet high. Three distinct ledges are traceable the entire length of the claim. The center vein carries large quantities of horn silver; the others are rich in carbonates. The average of the main vein is 50 ounces silver, per ton. There are two shafts, 50 and 100 feet deep, respectively. The ore body at the bottom of the deepest shaft is 12 feet wide, with good walls. The California shows a vein 5 feet wide, that assays from $40 to $100 per ton. A tunnel has been run on the claim nearly 200 feet, and several shafts sunk, the deepest being 50 feet. The mine is about four miles north of the town of Globe. The Miami is a well-defined vein, carrying 3 feet of ore that has worked $70 per ton. Two shafts have been sunk, 80 and 90 feet respectively. There is a ten-stamp mill attached to the property, which has produced over $25,000. The Champion shows a 4-foot ledge of free-milling ore. It is opened by a main shaft 125 feet deep, and by several drifts and tunnels. A ten-stamp mill has been erected, and has produced a large amount of bullion.

The Golden Eagle is a large vein of free-milling ore. The mine is thoroughly opened by shafts, drifts, tunnels, etc. A ten-stamp mill reduces the ore. The bullion yield has already exceeded $80,000. The Julius is six miles from Globe. It has produced some exceedingly rich ore, and over $10,000 has been taken from it. Fifteen hundred pounds of ore from this mine, worked in San Francisco, yielded $5,000. The Rescue is one of the first discoveries in Globe district. Several tons of ore shipped to San Francisco went over $1,000 per ton. One ton yielded $3,000. The vein is 4 feet wide, chloride ore. There is a tunnel 84 feet and a shaft 80 feet. The Emeline has a shaft 50 feet. It shows a compact vein of free-milling ore, 18 inches wide, which will average $150 per ton. The Chromo is one of the oldest locations in the camp. The ledge is made up of numerous spar veins, from a mere thread to 45 feet in width. The ore is found in these veins, and assays from $5 to $100 per ton. The ore is a chloride.

The Centralia is one mile from Globe. It is in a limestone formation, showing many beautiful fossils. There is a tunnel on the property, of 100 feet. The ore shows a carbonate, impregnated with a sub-oxide of iron. No extensive workings have been made, but the claim shows a fine prospect. It has produced ore that has worked $224 per ton. The Townsend is owned by the Townsend Mining Company. The vein is from 2 to 8 feet wide, gold ore. Small quantities worked by arrastra process, have given over $50 per ton. There is a tunnel on the property 150 feet in length. There are over 300 tons on the dumps. The company own a five-stamp mill. The Fame has a small vein, about 1 foot in width, of chloride and sulphuret ore that assays from $80 to $600 per ton. It has a shaft 50


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feet. The Independence has a shaft 120 feet, and a drift from the bottom, 30 feet. The vein is from 3 to 5 feet in width. The ore is a chloride, carrying malleable silver, and assays as high as $600 per ton. Selected ore has worked 584 ounces, silver. The mine is eight miles from Globe. The Anna is a large vein upon which but little work has been done. It has produced ore worth $170 per ton. The Cox and Copeland claim, seven miles from Globe, has produced several thousand dollars in native silver. Among the many other valuable claims in the vicinity of Globe, and within a radius of ten miles of the town, are the Bluebird, Buckeye, McCormick, Turk, Andy Campbell, South-west, Alice, Dondona, Florence, Empire, Imperial, and scores of others.

Richmond Basin.—The camp is situated on the western slope of the Apache mountains and about fourteen miles north of Globe. Wood and water are plentiful. The veins are strong and well defined. This camp is famous for the native silver nuggets which were found on the surface. It is estimated that over $80,000 in pure silver was picked up in this locality. The McMorris, the leading mine of the camp, is a vein nearly 8 feet wide. The ore is a native silver, silver glance, and bromide of silver. The main shaft is down 400 feet. An incline has been sunk 300 feet, and a tunnel driven 100 feet. There are three levels aggregating 700 feet. The mine has been one of the most productive in Gila county, and the yield up to date is estimated at $400,000. Steam hoisting-works have been erected and also a ten-stamp mill. The Silver Nugget takes its name from the "planchas" which were found within its limits on the surface. Some of these lumps of silver weighed five pounds. The ore of the Nugget, is free-milling. The vein is large, and is opened by two shafts, one of 160, and one of 100 feet, and a drift 180 feet in length. The ore is worked in a five-stamp mill. The East Richmond is a 9-foot vein, has produced very rich ore, and is opened by two shafts, 100 feet and 30 feet, respectively. The West Richmond is an extension of the McMorris. It shows a vein 8 feet wide. It has a shaft 96 feet, and one of 35 feet. The Dundee is a 4-foot vein that assays $60 per ton. It is a fine-looking prospect. La Plata has a ledge 7 feet in width. A shaft has been sunk 60 feet, and a tunnel run 120 feet. It is an extension of the McMorris, and has been sold for $60,000. The Cora, South Plata, Rifleman, Belle Boyd, and a great many others in this camp, show every indication of developing into valuable paying properties.

McMillenville.—This group of mines is situated about twenty miles north of Globe, about six miles east of Richmond Basin, and almost eleven miles south of Salt river. Nearly all the locations are on one immense fissure, traceable across the country for twelve miles. The country rock is porphyry and syenite. Wood and water are abundant. The Stonewall is the leading mine of the camp. It is a very large vein, impregnated with chlorides and native silver. A stratum running into the main


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vein, and from 1 to 2 inches wide, is almost pure silver, and has yielded many thousands of dollars. Steam hoisting-works have been erected on the property. The main shaft is down 600 feet, and there are over 700 feet of drifts, etc. A 5-stamp mill has been erected, and the total yield of silver is said to be $300,000. The Hannibal is the first extension north of the Stonewall, the vein being of the same size and of a similar character. It has a shaft 160 feet, and 200 feet of drifts and cross-cuts. The Washington is the second north extension of the Stonewall. Its shaft is down 100 feet. The Centennial and the Virginius are the third and fourth extensions of the Stonewall, north. The former has a shaft 25 feet, and the latter shows several feet of ore that assays $80 per ton. The R. E. Lee is the first extension south of the Stonewall. It is a large vein of free-milling ore; has a shaft 90 feet, and a drift 75 feet. The Henry Clay and the San Francisco are also on the same vein, but have little development. The Democrat and the Little Mack are on a spur which runs into the Stonewall vein. They have both produced very rich native silver ore, the total yield being estimated at $85,000. The North Star is north-west from the Stonewall. It shows a ledge from 3 to 8 feet wide, and has produced ore that has gone as high as $1,000 per ton. The mine is opened by a 120-foot tunnel and a 60-foot shaft. The Concord and the Nevada are promising claims. The former is over 20 feet, and the latter about 10 feet wide, with a tunnel 200 feet in length, and shows ore going from $5 to $60 per ton.

About sixteen miles south from Globe, on the southern slope of the Pinal mountains, is a group of mines which show large veins and high-grade ore. They are surrounded by a fine body of timber, and never-failing springs of water. The South Pioneer is the most prominent mine in the group. It is a 3-foot vein of sulphuret, rich in native silver. Assays from this ledge have gone as high as $20,000 per ton. Work is pushed forward steadily, and hoisting machinery and reduction works will soon be erected. The property is being opened by three shafts, the deepest at this writing, being 80 feet. The Pioneer is one of the finest-looking properties in Gila county. The Great Republic shows a 2-foot vein, assaying $150 per ton. The ore is the same character as the Pioneer. The mine has a shaft 80 feet deep. The Missouri mine is also a fine property, carrying a strong vein of sulphuret ore, with beautiful specimens of native copper.

Copper.—Gila county contains some of the finest copper properties in the Territory. The Globe copper mine is about one mile from the town to which it has given its name. It was the first mine located in what is now Gila county. It is a large vein, and has been taken up for several miles. The ore is a high grade, carrying $25 in silver. The True Blue is one of the most promising copper properties in the district. It is opened by several shafts and tunnels, and shows 3 feet of ore that gives an average of 30 per cent. A smelter of 30 tons


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capacity is nearly completed on this property, which is situated about three miles from Globe. The O'Doherty is another large vein, carrying high-grade ore, and opened by a shaft 50 feet deep. About eight miles from Globe, at what is known as the Bloody Tanks, is another group of copper ledges, on which a smelter of 30 tons capacity is now being erected by a New York company. The Chicago, New York, Old Dominion, and Buffalo are owned by this company. The veins are large, and the ore is said to be of a high grade.

MOHAVE COUNTY

Mohave is purely a mineral region. Its agricultural resources are confined to a strip of land along the Big Sandy, and to the valley of the Colorado. There are portions of the county which afford good grazing, but mining must be its main, and we had almost said, its only industry. Almost every mountain range within its borders is seamed with rich veins of gold, silver, and copper. The distance from supplies, the cost of freight, and the want of proper reduction works, have hitherto prevented the proper development of Mohave's vast mineral wealth. The building of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, which will pass through the center of the mining region, assures for this county, so long isolated and neglected, a bright future. The silver ores of Mohave are mostly sulphurets, carrying native silver, ruby silver, silver glance, and other rich combinations. Chlorides are also found, and some rich argentiferous galena. The veins are nearly all inclosed by well-defined walls. Water and wood are abundant in nearly every locality. A band of prospectors entered Mohave county in 1858, and explored the mountain ranges near the Sacramento valley. It was not until 1863, however, that any real work was done; but the hostility of the Hulpai Indians, who killed many miners in their shafts, compelled the abandonment of the country. In 1871 and 1872 the first permanent improvements were made. Since then Mohave county has struggled against every obstacle and disadvantage which her remote situation naturally entailed. The lack of reduction works necessitated the shipping of the ores to San Francisco, at an enormous expense. Ores that would not go $500 per ton left no profit for the owner. Despite these drawbacks, the county has steadily advanced; the great richness of its mines has been proven conclusively, and they only await the benefits of cheap transportation to become steady bullion-producers.

Hualapai District.—This district is situated in the Cerbat range, about 35 miles from the Colorado river. The formation is granite and gneiss. Wood is plentiful, and water in sufficient quantities for milling purposes. The veins are of fair size, and the ore is of high grade. The Lone Star has been worked to a depth of 200 feet, and is opened by over 300 feet of levels. It shows a vein of rich ore over 18 inches in width that assays $150 per ton. The ore is concentrated and shipped to San Francisco. It is a sulphuret, carrying considerable base


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metal. This mine has produced over $60,000. It has steam hoisting-works. The Keystone has a shaft 260 feet, one of 150 feet, and over 400 feet of levels, drifts, winzes, etc. A five-stamp mill, with roaster, has been erected on the property, and also steam hoisting machinery. The mine shows a 2-foot vein of sulphuret ore, that has worked $100 per ton. The property is owned by the New York Mining and Milling Company, and has produced over $100,000. The Fairfield is a 5-foot vein that assays $60 per ton. It has a shaft 185 feet. A tunnel is being pushed to strike the vein, which is now in 1,000 feet. The Stark and Ewing is an extension of the Keystone. It shows a 5-foot vein, and has a shaft 40 feet. The Ithaca has a vein ranging from 1 to 2 feet of chloride ore, assaying $70 per ton. It is opened by 500 feet of shafts, drifts, and tunnels. It has produced about $12,000. The Rattlesnake has a 70-foot shaft and a 75-foot tunnel. It shows 3 feet of chloride ore worth $50 per ton. All these claims are in the immediate vicinity of Mineral Park. About four miles north is the camp of Chloride, which shows rich ores and large veins, among which may be mentioned the following: The Connor, a 3-foot ledge, assaying $100 per ton. It has a shaft 100 feet, carries both gold and silver, and has produced $20,000. It is owned by the Arizona Northern Mining Company. The Empire has a vein of rich sulphurets, and has turned out $10,000. The Schuylkill is a 3-foot vein of carbonate ore, assaying from $50 to $75 per ton. It is opened by two shafts, one 65, and the other 40 feet. The Schenectady has a shaft 80 feet, with a 3-foot vein, running from $50 to $70 per ton. The Valley View is a large vein, running from 8 to 10 feet wide, with an average of $40 per ton. It is opened by three shafts and one tunnel. The San Antonio has a shaft 50 feet; a vein 2½ feet wide of free-milling ore, worth $100 per ton. The Donohue and the Rogers are also fine properties, and have produced about $18,000 each. In Todd's basin, about four miles south of Mineral Park, there is a group of mines which have considerable work done upon them. The most prominent are the Todd, a 4-foot vein of sulphuret ore, going about $60 per ton. The Oro Plata has a tunnel 100 feet, and several drifts and shafts. It has a 4-foot vein of free-milling ore, that goes over $50 per ton. It has produced $30,000. The Mariposa shows 18 inches of chloride ore, worth $150 per ton. It has two shafts, 40 and 30 feet, and has yielded $10,000. The Paymaster is a vein 3½ feet wide, assaying $60 per ton. A shaft has been sunk 50 feet. The mine has yielded $15,000. The Silver has a shaft 35 feet, and a body of ore 3 feet wide that averages $80 per ton.

Cerbat is about seven miles south of Mineral Park, in the mountain range of the same name. The country formation is granite. Wood is abundant, and water in quantities sufficient for ore reduction. The ores are generally of a high grade, but most of them carry sulphurets and require roasting before being milled. The Cerbat claim has a 4-foot vein that assays $100 per ton.


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The ore is a sulphuret, carrying horn silver. It is opened by a shaft of 120 feet, and by two drifts, 80 and 65 feet. The ore carries gold and silver. A complete five-stamp mill with a roaster attached, has lately been erected. The mine has produced $25,000 from steam arrastras. The property is owned by the Arizona Northern Mining Company. The Fontenoy shows a vein 2½ feet wide that assays $125 per ton. The ore is a chloride of silver, and the mine has already yielded over $30,000. It is opened by two shafts, 110 and 75 feet, respectively, and a tunnel 65 feet. The Seventy-eight, formerly known as the Sixty-three, carries a vein of chlorides from 1 to 3 feet wide. Ore from this mine, shipped to San Francisco, has yielded, on an average, $350 per ton. The mine has produced in the neighborhood of $300,000. The claim is opened by 300 feet of shafts and 700 feet of tunnels. The Silver shows a vein from 2 to 4 feet wide, that assays $80 per ton. It has a shaft 80 feet and 50 feet of tunnels. The Flagstaff is opened by two shafts, one of 150 feet, and another of 100 feet. It has a vein 3½ feet wide that averages, by assay, $70 per ton. The Gold Bar has a 3-foot vein of gold quartz and a shaft 200 feet deep. Ores from this mine have been worked by arrastra process with satisfactory results. The Black and Tan is opened by a tunnel 250 feet in length, and a shaft 75 feet. It shows 2 feet of ore that assays about $100 per ton, and has yielded $20,000. The Flores has a vein of free-milling ore 3 feet wide, working $50 in gold, and $20 in silver. It is opened by a shaft 95 feet deep and a tunnel 200 feet in length. It has produced nearly $35,000, the ore being worked in arrastras. The Vanderbilt has one shaft 90 feet and another 50 feet. It carries gold and silver. The vein is about 2 feet wide, and the ore assays $70 per ton. The Tulare has 4 feet of ore that assays $50 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 110 feet, and has produced over $10,000 in gold and silver. The Bay State is a carbonate ore. Its vein is 4 feet, assaying $40 per ton. It has 3 shafts, 90, 80, and 30 feet. The New London shows 3 feet of galena ore, worth $50 per ton. Its deepest shaft is 95 feet, and it has produced $9,000 in silver. There are many other claims in the Cerbat camp showing good ore and large veins. Nearly all the bullion produced has been taken from ore shipped to San Francisco by poor mine-owners, who have made their claims pay against every disadvantage.

Stockton Camp is situated on the eastern slope of the Cerbat range, about six miles south-east from Mineral Park. It has a delightful situation, fronting on the Hualapai valley, and is only eight miles from the surveyed line of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. The formation is granite; wood and water are found in abundance. The camp has been self-sustaining, having received no aid from outside capital. The Cupel has produced about $150,000. It is a 2-foot vein, and has worked $100 per ton. It is opened by 500 feet of shafts and drifts. The ore is a sulphuret of silver. The Prince George shows a 3-foot vein that assays $80 per ton. It has 100 feet of shafts and has produced $12,000. The IXL has two shafts, 110 and 80 feet. The


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width of the vein is 3½ feet, which assays $80 per ton. The Infallible is a strong vein 4 feet wide, with ore that averages by assay $70 per ton. It is opened by five shafts and 100 feet of drifts. It carries gold and silver, and has produced over $5,000. The Tigress has 18 inches of rich galena ore, worth $150 per ton. It is opened by several shafts and drifts, and has yielded $25,000. The Little Chief is a small but exceedingly rich vein. It has nearly 200 feet of shafts and other openings. The ore shipped has gone from $400 to $1,200 per ton. The total yield has been about $50,000. The Cincinnati, Bullion, Silver Monster, Fountain Head, Miner's Hope, and many others, are very encouraging prospects, with every indication of developing into paying properties.

Maynard District.—This district is in the Hualapai mountains, twenty-eight miles east of Mineral Park. It is the finest wooded portion of Mohave, and is producing some very rich ore. The Atlantic and Pacific railroad will pass within ten miles of the mines. The American Flag is the leading mine of the district. It is a 2-foot vein of sulphuret ore, giving an average assay of $100 per ton. It is thoroughly opened by 2,000 feet of shafts and drifts. Some of the richest ore ever taken out in the Territory has come from this claim. It has produced $70,000, the ore being shipped to San Francisco. A mill will shortly be erected. The Antelope shows a 4-foot vein of fine sulphuret ore. It is opened by 400 feet of shafts and drifts. The mine has produced $15,000. The Dean has a large vein, nearly 6 feet in width. It has a shaft 180 feet, and 600 feet of tunnels. The ore is a sulphuret and of a high grade. The Mariposa is opened by 700 feet of shafts and drifts. It carries good ore and has yielded nearly $8,000.

Cedar Valley District is about sixty miles east of the Colorado river at Aubrey Landing, and about sixty miles south of Mineral Park. Wood is abundant, and water for ore reduction can be had at the Sandy, fifteen miles distant. The veins are well defined, in walls of granite. The ore is a sulphuret of silver. The Arnold shows a vein 18 inches wide, that assays $100 per ton. It has a shaft 60 feet, and a tunnel 130 feet. It is owned by the Arnold Mining Company, and has produced $20,000, gold and silver. The Silver Queen has a shaft 130 feet, and over 200 feet of tunnels and cross-cuts. Its vein is 3 feet, assaying $60 per ton. A 5-stamp mill and roaster have been erected on the property by the Hampden Mining Company. The Hibernia is a strong vein, 4 feet wide, with an average of $60 per ton. It has a shaft 100 feet. The Hope is a large vein and has some very rich ore. It is estimated that it has yielded $20,000. The Bunker Hill is a 2-foot vein, and the Congress is a vein of the same size, both carrying good ore. These are only a few of the mines of Cedar Valley. There are scores of others, well worthy of inspection.

Hackberry District.—This camp is about 30 miles east of Mineral Park, in the Peacock range. The formation is a granite


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and porphyry. The camp was at one time the most prosperous in Mohave, but the stoppage of the Hackberry mine has caused it to become almost deserted. It is expected that with the advance of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, which will pass within three miles of the mines, operations will again be resumed. The Hackberry vein is about 40 feet in width. About 18 inches of this vein carries rich silver ore, which gives an average, by working process, of $200 per ton. There is one shaft of 400 feet, another of 270, and one of 180 feet. The mine is opened by levels, drifts, and cross-cuts. It is estimated that the total yield of bullion has been over $300,000. A fine 10-stamp mill and roaster have been erected on the property. The mine is owned by the Hackberry Milling and Mining Company. The Descent is a small vein of rich ore, which has produced nearly $30,000. It has two shafts, one of 90, and one of 100 feet. The Hester is an extension of the Hackberry. It has two shafts, 100 and 60 feet each. It has produced about $10,000. The Hackberry South is a 4-foot vein, assaying $50 per ton. It is opened by several shafts, and has yielded $15,000.

San Francisco District is situated nine miles east of Hardyville on the Colorado river, in the Union Pass range. It was discovered in 1863, and work has been carried on there at intervals ever since. The Moss is the leading mine of the district. It is an immense gold ledge, nearly 40 feet in width, and will average $12 per ton, from wall to wall. The mine has been worked extensively in years past, and has produced some of the richest gold rock ever taken out in the Territory. It has one tunnel 290 feet, one shaft 240 feet, one shaft 98, and 1,700 feet of levels, drifts, etc. The mine has produced nearly $130,000. Its proximity to the river makes this a valuable property for those who have the requisite capital to work it properly. The San Francisco Moss is an extension of the Moss. It is a vein 40 feet in width, carrying ore that averages all the way across, $6 per ton. There are many portions of the ledge that go much higher. It has 300 feet of shafts, drifts, and tunnels. The West Extension is an 18-foot ledge of gold quartz, with a 60-foot shaft.

Gold Basin District has just been organized, and is situated thirty-five miles north from Mineral Park, in the Cerbat range. The ledges are large gold-bearing quartz dikes. The El Dorado has a vein from 2 to 4 feet wide, that assays $40 per ton. The Northern Belle shows 2 feet that will assay $25 per ton. The Golden Rule is a vein about one foot wide, assaying $70 per ton. The Poorman has a foot of ore worth $60 per ton. The Indian Boy, Harmonica, O K, Antelope, Buckskin, and Banker, are all very fine-looking prospects, assaying from $15 to $100 per ton, in gold.

Owens District is in the southern portion of Mohave, near the line of Yuma. The formation of the country rock is granite and porphyry. Abundance of water is found in the Sandy, which flows through the district. The camp was established in the fall of 1874, and has been the most productive portion of


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Mohave county. The fame of the McCracken has extended all over the coast. The heavy cost of supplies of all kinds has caused the temporary stoppage of work on this property, but with the advent of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, which will pass within forty miles of the mines, work will no doubt be resumed. The Alta and the Senator are the leading mines of the district. They are on the great McCracken lode, which cuts across the country for miles. They show veins of free-milling ore, from 6 to 37 feet in width, which have worked $35 per ton. Over $200,000 has been expended in work and in improvements, and more than $800,000 in silver has been taken out. They are owned by the McCracken Consolidated Mining Company. Two mills have been erected, one of 20 stamps and one of 10 stamps. The ores of this great fissure are mainly chlorides, bromides, sulphides of silver, with some galena. Over 24,000 tons of ore have been extracted and worked. The mines are opened by a shaft 367 feet deep, sunk on the line between them, and by five adit levels run on the vein. In size of vein and free character of its ores, the McCracken has few equals in the Territory. The San Francisco and the Atlanta are north of the Senator and Alta, on the same vein. They are owned by the Peabody Mining Company, and have produced nearly $200,000. They show about 30 feet of chloride ore, with some galena that has averaged $30 per ton. The San Francisco has a shaft 300 feet, and over 300 feet of tunnels and drifts. The shaft of the Atlanta is down 150 feet. It has also a tunnel 200 feet in length. Work is carried on steadily. The Centennial and the Potts mine are about four miles south of the Senator, on the same vein, have had considerable work done on them, and show large ore bodies.

Greenwood District adjoins Owens district on the east. Its principal mine is the Burro, situated on a creek of the same name. It is one of the largest veins in the Territory. It shows 35 feet of ore going from $8 to $300 per ton. A shaft has been sunk 250 feet, and several cross-cuts made on the claim. It carries gold and silver, and has abundance of wood and water close at hand.

YUMA COUNTY

The mineral field of Yuma county, in variety and extent, will compare with any portion of the Territory. Gold, silver, copper, and lead abound in its mountain ranges. The history of mining in this county dates back to 1858, when Colonel Snively discovered the rich placers at Gila, twenty-five miles east of the Colorado. For nearly four years work was prosecuted steadily at this point, and a large amount of gold taken out. At Mesquite, some distance south of the railroad, very rich placer deposits have been discovered in the past year, and thousands of dollars have been taken therefrom. In fact, that portion of Yuma county south of the Southern Pacific railroad, is known to be rich in alluvial gold, but, on account of the scarcity of water, "dry washing" is the only way by which the mines can be worked. The first mining north of the Gila river by Americans


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began in 1862. In that year, Pauline Weaver discovered rich placers at a point seven miles east of La Paz. The fame of these discoveries spread far and wide, and within a year over 2,000 men were digging for the yellow treasure in the mountains east of the Colorado. It is estimated that gold to the value of over a million and a half of dollars was taken out. There are yet a number of Mexicans who stick by the old camp, and considerable gold finds its way to Yuma and other points. With the decline of the placer deposits, valuable discoveries of silver, copper, and lead were made in the mountain ranges that run parallel with the Colorado. Some of those discoveries have proven to be among the most valuable properties in the Territory.

Castle Dome District is situated about twenty miles north of Yuma, in the Castle Dome mountains. The district was discovered in 1863, by the eminent geologist, Professor Blake, but owing to the hostility of the Indians, nothing was done until 1869. The mines are about seventeen miles from the river, and surrounding the lofty, natural "Dome," after which the range has been named. The formation is a slate and porphyry. The veins are found in fluor-spar and talc. The ores are a galena and carbonate of lead, carrying about $35 in silver, and from 60 to 70 per cent. in lead, with traces of gold. The ores are concentrated, hauled to the Colorado river, and shipped to San Francisco. The principal mines are the Railroad, Flora Temple, William Penn, Pocahontas, and Caledonia. They are owned by the Castle Dome Mining and Smelting Company, of New York. The Flora Temple has one main shaft 300 feet, and is thoroughly opened by drifts, tunnels, winzes, etc. The vein is about 4 feet wide, and the average yield is 30 ounces silver and 78 per cent. lead. The William Penn has two shafts of over 200 feet each, connected by a level 400 feet in length. It is a strong vein, showing good ore in every drift and stope. The yield is about the same as from the Flora Temple. The Pocahontas and Railroad have each a shaft 250 feet, and are connected by a drift 200 feet in length. These mines show large bodies of fine smelting ores, and go about 35 ounces, in silver.

The mines of Castle Dome are among the most productive and profitable of any in the Territory. Their proximity to the Colorado and the low rates of freight to San Francisco, permit the mining of ores of a low grade. The product finds a ready market in San Francisco on account of its fine smelting qualities, being used principally as a flux to more rebellious ores. It is estimated that these mines have already produced nearly $2,000,000 and from present appearances they promise to yield many millions more.

Silver District.—This district was first brought to notice nearly fifteen years ago by Colonel Snively, the discoverer of the Gila diggings. As placers were then the only mines which were thought worthy any attention, Snively and his companions abandoned the district and it remained undisturbed until about three years ago. At that time George Sills, Neil Johnson,


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George W. Norton, and Gus Crawford relocated many abandoned claims and organized the district anew. Since then a great many discoveries have been made, some valuable properties have been developed, several important sales have been consummated, and Silver is to day the leading mining camp of the county. The district is situated on the Colorado river about forty miles above the town of Yuma, and about five miles from the stream. The formation of the country rock is mostly granite and porphyry, the surface showing some traces of volcanic action. The character of the ore may be generally described as an argentiferous galena, carrying rich sulphides, chlorides, and carbonates. The ore is generally found in combination with spar and quartz. There appear to be three main ore channels traversing the district, having a north-west and south-east direction. The veins are well defined and continuous, showing ore bodies of unusual width. The Red Cloud has the most development of any mine in the district. It is a large vein, 10 feet wide at bottom of shaft, with immense croppings. The mine was purchased from the original locators by the Red Cloud Mining Company, a New York incorporation. The company have sunk an incline following the dip of the vein 274 feet, and have started a working shaft which is down 300 feet. The vein is also opened by several open cuts and drifts. It is said that the yield of bullion has already reached $100,000. There is a 20-ton furnace at the river, five miles distant, which is working satisfactorily.

The Black Rock shows an immense outcrop, and appears on the surface to be nearly 200 feet wide. The property has been sold for $135,000. A shaft has been sunk 100 feet, following the foot wall, from which very rich ore has been taken. The purchasers of the property are pushing the work of development with energy, and the prospects for the opening of a valuable mine are not excelled anywhere. The Pacific adjoins the Black Rock, and is owned by the same company. It is a vein similar to the latter, showing fine ore. The Iron Cap has a shaft 200 feet deep, the vein between the walls in the bottom being fully 50 feet wide, showing good ore. The mine is owned by the Iron Cap Mining Company. The Silver Glance has produced some very rich mineral, and is one of the finest properties in the district. Like all the other veins, it is large and well defined. A tunnel over 200 feet in length has tapped the ledge nearly 150 feet below the surface. The Nellie Kenyon adjoins the Red Cloud on the north. The vein in some places shows a width of 30 feet. The ore is a rich galena, combined with fluor-spar. By assay, the yield is 40 ounces in silver. The mine is comparatively unprospected, but gives every promise of becoming valuable.

About a mile to the eastward of the above mines is another ore channel, showing some fine-looking properties, among which are the Hamburg, Caledonia, Yuma Chief, and several others. The Caledonia has a shaft 100 feet, and carries a large vein of smelting ore. East of the last-mentioned group, about one


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and a half miles, is the Klara camp, in which is located many promising-looking claims. The Klara is a vein over 30 feet wide, seamed throughout with ore. The property is being thoroughly opened by shafts and cross-cuts. The Mamie shows an ore body 15 feet wide, that gives an average assay of 40 ounces of silver per ton. The North Star is from 12 to 40 feet wide, and carries ore worth 30 ounces silver per ton. The New York, Great Republic, Southern Cross, and many other locations show large veins, although but little work has been done upon them. Silver District has a desirable location. Its veins are among the largest that have been discovered in Arizona. Its immense outcroppings show true fissures. Its ores are easily reduced, and of a good grade. With all these advantages, there is no reason why it should not take a foremost place among the bullion-producing camps of the Territory.

Montezuma District is five miles south of Castle Dome. The veins are large, many of them being 40 feet wide. Assays as high as 500 ounces, silver, have been made from several of them. They carry gold also, and copper. Very little work has been done in the district, but the surface prospects are most encouraging.

Ellsworth District is about sixty-five miles from Sentinel station on the Southern Pacific railroad, in the north-east corner of Yuma county, and near the line of Yavapai. The mines are situated in a rolling, hilly country, covered with a sparse growth of grass. Mesquite, ironwood, and palo verde grow on the hills, and water is found in sufficient quantities for the milling of ores. The formation of the district is a granite and porphyry. The veins are large, with bold outcroppings. The ores of Ellsworth district are a gold quartz, carrying some silver. The camp has a good situation, and will undoubtedly become one of the leading gold camps of the Territory. The Oro claim has a shaft 70 feet, besides open cuts and tunnels. It shows 5 feet of quartz that has worked $20 per ton. The mine is owned by the Oro Milling and Mining Company. A five-stamp mill has been erected on the property and $10,000 has already been taken out. The Nabob has a shaft 75 feet and a body of quartz 4½ feet wide. Assays from this claim have gone as high as $350 per ton. This is one of the most promising mines in the district, showing large croppings and well-defined walls. The Argenta has a vein 4½ feet wide, some of which assays as high as $180 per ton. This claim carries a great deal of galena, rich in free gold. The Socorro has a tunnel 50 feet in length. It is a 4-foot vein carrying ore that goes $25 per ton. The Richards and Ells claim is opened by a tunnel 100 feet in length. It shows 4 feet of ore, worth $20 per ton. The Last Chance has a 20-foot shaft and shows an ore body 4½ feet wide, that assays $29 per ton. The General Grant is down 20 feet, and has ore that goes $240 per ton. The Hawkeye, O K, Peacock, Ellis, Oskoloosa, Oro Grande, Turtle, and many others, all show good ore and large veins. But little work has been done on any of them, but what has been done is sufficient to prove their value.


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Plomosa District.—This district is about thirty-five miles east of Ehrenberg, on the Colorado river. It has been known since 1862, and has some large and rich bodies of copper and silver ores. A great deal of placer gold was taken from this neighborhood in early times. There is plenty of mesquite and palo verde growing on the hills, and water for milling purposes is only eight miles distant. The formation is granite, slate, limestone and porphyry. The Miami is an immense outcrop of gold quartz, running through a hill which is seamed with parallel veins its entire length. This ore body is about 300 feet wide. It has three shafts, 60, 50, and 40 feet, respectively. The ore is silver, carrying some copper. The Apache Chief is a vein 6 feet wide, assaying well in copper. A large amount of work has been done on the claim. It has a shaft 225 feet and a tunnel 100 feet, following the vein. The Pichaco shows 4 feet of galena ore that goes $50 per ton in silver. It has two tunnels, 100 feet each, and three shafts, the deepest being 100 feet. There are many other claims in this district well worthy of inspection by those looking for desirable investments.

Harcuvar District is situated about thirty miles north of Ellsworth, and about the same distance as the latter from the Colorado river. It contains several large copper veins, which show every indication of permanency. The country rock is granite. The veins average from 5 to 15 feet in width. Ores from this district have worked 37 per cent.

Bill Williams Fork District.—This district is near the southern boundary of Mohave county, and extending west to the Colorado. The ores are copper and of a high grade. The Planet, the principal mine of the district, was discovered in 1863, and has been worked at intervals ever since, yielding over 6,000 tons of copper ore, going from 20 to 60 per cent. The ores from this mine have been shipped to San Francisco. The claim is opened by many shafts, drifts, and tunnels, and shows large bodies of ore. The Centennial and the Challenge copper mines, near the Planet, are also fine properties.

MARICOPA COUNTY

Although generally considered an agricultural region, Maricopa county is rich in the precious metals, almost every mountain range within the limits of the county showing mineral. The north-eastern portion, embracing the spurs and foothills of the Superstition and Mazatzal ranges, is known to be rich in gold, silver, and copper, but as yet has been but little explored. That division of the county, south of the Gila, is known to contain rich silver and copper deposits, although the development thus far has been very slight. Maricopa possesses every natural auxiliary for the mining and reduction of ores, besides producing all the supplies necessary for the successful prosecution of the industry.

The Vulture mine is situated in the north-western portion of the county. This great lode has a reputation which has made it famous all over the Pacific coast. No mine ever located in


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the Territory is perhaps so well known beyond its borders. The mine was discovered in 1863, by Henry Wickenburg, and worked almost continuously by an Eastern company until 1873. The high rates of freight and the cost of hauling the ore—$8 per ton—to the mill, sixteen miles distant, caused a suspension of work and an abandonment of the property. The mine was afterwards located by other parties, who erected a ten-stamp mill on the Hassayampa, twelve miles distant, and worked the ores successfully for several years. Three years ago the property passed into the hands of the Central Arizona Mining Company, and since that time the mine has entered on an era of prosperity it never knew before. The new company have brought water in pipes from the Hassayampa, a distance of sixteen miles, and have erected an eighty-stamp mill at the mine. The property has had more work done upon it than any mine in the Territory. A deep excavation on the surface shows the ore body to be nearly 100 feet in width. A depth of 390 feet has been reached, and several levels and cross-cuts run on the vein. The ledge lies between a hanging wall of porphyry and a foot wall of talcose slate. It is situated in a low hill, and at a depth of about 200 feet the vein is almost vertical. With the present arrangements for reduction, the ore is extracted and milled at a total cost of $2 25 per ton. More stamps will soon be added, and the yield of bullion largely increased. The Vulture has produced more money than any mine in the Territory, the total yield being placed at $3,000,000 in gold. With the immense ore bodies in sight, and the appliances for reducing them, we may look to see many millions more taken from this fine property.

Cave Creek.—This district is about thirty miles north from Phœnix, in the southern spurs of the Verde mountains. The country rock is slate and granite; the veins are of good size, with well-defined walls. Water is found in abundance from three to five miles of the camp. The Carbonate Chief shows a vein of carbonate ore nearly 7 feet wide, assaying $50 per ton. It carries gold and silver, and is opened by a shaft 50 feet in depth. The Panther is a large vein, with ore similar to the Chief. It is opened by several shafts and tunnels. Both of these mines are owned by the Panther Mining Company. The Lion is a 4-foot vein of gold quartz. Ore from this mine has worked $40 per ton. It is opened by a shaft 30 feet and a drift 50 feet, and has produced $10,000. The Rackensack is a 2-foot vein, going $40 per ton in gold. It is opened by a shaft and tunnel, the former 50 feet, and the latter 60 feet. It has yielded $8,000. The Golden Star is a fine-looking body of quartz. It has a shaft 60 feet deep, and has produced about $10,000. A ten-stamp mill has been erected on the claim. The Hunter's Rest, Maricopa, Chico, and Catherine are all promising prospects, showing large ore bodies.

Winnifred District.—This district is about fifteen miles north of Phœnix. The ledges are a gold quartz. The country formation is a granite and slate. A five-stamp mill run by water-power,


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has been erected on the Grand canal, four miles from Phœnix and eleven miles from the mines, where the ore is reduced. This is a new camp, but promises to become an important one. The Union is opened by a 75-foot shaft, and shows a vein 3½ feet wide, all of which has worked $15 per ton. This mine is worked steadily, and promises to become a valuable property. The Scarlet has a vein 3 feet wide, assaying $50 per ton. It has a shaft 20 feet deep. The Gila Monster shows 2½ feet of good ore. The claim is opened by a 40-foot shaft. The Red Dog, San Diego, and Mogul are all fine prospects.

Myers District.—This district is about forty miles south of the Gila Bend station on the Southern Pacific railroad. The ledges show strong and well-defined fissures filled with argentiferous galena and carbonate ores, assaying all the way from $50 to $5,000 per ton. Wood and water are not plentiful. The principal mines are the Gunsight, Silver Girt, Morning Star, Crescent, Monumental, and Atlanta. Some rich copper discoveries have been recently made in the mountain range south of Phœnix. The ledges are represented as being from 10 to 30 feet wide, carrying ore which assays from 20 to 53 per cent. But little work has yet been done on these veins, but they give every promise of becoming productive copper properties.

GRAHAM AND APACHE COUNTIES

Although these divisions of the Territory have not heretofore received that attention from mining men which the richness and extent of the mineral fields have deserved, it is well known that gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, coal, and other minerals exist throughout their mountain ranges. Their remoteness from the traveled highways, and the difficulties and cost of procuring supplies and material, are the causes which have retarded the development of the mining interests of these counties. The streams throughout the Sierra Blanco range contain placer gold in large quantities, and have a sufficient supply of water to make mining for the metal, with proper hydraulic machinery, profitable. Although the formation in this portion of the Territory is of an eruptive character, there are stretches of the primitive rock in many places, giving every indication of containing mineral. But little prospecting has been done in Apache county; but the building of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad through its center will no doubt give an impetus to this as to all other branches of industry. With its great coal-fields and salt deposits, of which we shall speak hereafter, no county in the Territory has greater natural facilities for ore reduction, and no portion of Arizona presents a more inviting field for the searcher after the hidden treasures.

Graham is the youngest born of the counties of Arizona, and promises to become one of the richest in its mineral possessions. It can show the most productive copper mines in the Territory, if not in the United States. Gold, in alluvial deposits and in quartz ledges, is found in many of its mountain


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ranges, while silver and coal are likewise among its resources. There is a large portion of Graham, not yet prospected, which gives every indication of being mineral-bearing.

The famous Longfellow copper mines are in Graham county. They are situated on the San Francisco river, a few miles above its junction with the Gila. This region was known to be rich in copper, but it was not until 1874 that mining was carried on to any extent. Before the building of the Southern Pacific railroad, the copper mat was shipped a distance of 700 miles by wagons to the nearest railroad, and from there forwarded to Baltimore. Notwithstanding the enormous cost of this mode of transportation, the ore paid its owners a profit. The deposit appears to be a regular mountain of ore, drifts and tunnels having, so far, failed to find anything like a wall; and in whatever direction the workmen penetrated, they have encountered the ore body. As a consequence, the mine resembles in some respects a quarry, showing metal in every direction. The property is owned by an incorporated company, which appears to be a very close corporation, not disposed to let outsiders know too much about the "good thing" they possess. The ore is copper glance, red oxide, and a carbonate. Extensive reduction works have been erected on the San Francisco river. The yield is about 14,000 pounds daily, which will soon be largely increased by additional reduction facilities. What the total yield from these mines has been has not been ascertained, though it is known to reach up into thousands of tons. The company give employment to a large number of men, and a flourishing camp, known as Clifton, has sprung up near the mines. The Detroit Mining Company, operating three miles from the Longfellow, have opened up a splendid property. They are putting up reduction works, and intend to connect their mines by a branch road to the Southern Pacific. The ore is equally as rich as the Longfellow, and quite as extensive, and will no doubt prove as productive. There are many other copper properties in this region, which give every promise of becoming valuable.

The rich gravel deposits of the San Francisco river are the most extensive in the Territory. A Boston company have recently purchased nearly 1000 acres of this gravel bed, and are making preparations to work it on a large scale. Fifteen miles of piping have already been laid, and hydraulic machinery will be erected at once. These gravel beds have been thoroughly prospected by shafts and tunnels, and show gold in paying quantities in every foot. In the eastern portion of Graham, and lapping over into Pinal, is De Frees district. It is about ten miles south of the Gila, in the Pinaleno mountains, and about sixty miles from the Southern Pacific railroad. The camp has plenty of wood, water, and fine pasturage. The ledges carry silver and copper. The formation is a lime and porphyry. But little work has yet been done, but the showing is most encouraging. The principal mines are the Fairy Queen, a 4-foot vein of carbonates, assaying $40 per ton; the Nez Perces, a 6-foot vein, giving assays of $60 per ton, and opened by a


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forty-foot shaft; the Silver Glance, showing 2 feet of ore that assays $80 per ton. The Charter Oak has a shaft 35 feet, and a 4-foot vein giving $50 per ton. The Calypso, Ulysses, Ironclad, Shotgun, and Iron Cap, are all encouraging prospects.

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