9. Settlements

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9.1. Preamble

As I undertake the writing of this chapter, I cannot see a way to temporize the boredom of my readers unless we change ourselves into spirits and, laying aside the burden of our bodies, survey this province from a suitable height as we did the missions. Otherwise we would have to undertake journeys twice as long with less comfortable lodgings, and a greater scarcity of food and transportation. With this explanation we shall begin our flight …

9.2. Mining Camps and Settlements of Spaniards

Real de la Santísima Trinidad, 28 degrees, 12 minutes latitude, 267 degrees longitude, was founded in 1754 when rich silver deposits were discovered.1 The mine by itself sustained the province of Ostimuri for five whole years. It is capable of producing much more than it has, but disputes, changes of ownership, and mismanagement have hindered it greatly. Indeed, it is operated wholly in opposition to the existing mining laws. Its yield by the firing process was high and by the mercury2 process considerably higher. It is now being worked secretly, and the returns with little effort are said to be good. There are

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two small mines in the vicinity also: the Santa Ana to the southeast and the Guadalupe to the southwest.

The real de Río Chico3 is one of the oldest. It includes the Cobriza mine three leagues away which yields three to six marcos4 per carga5 and even a marco per arroba;6 the La Dura7 mine with a yield of nine marcos per carga; and the Potrero and Proterillo mines, which are five leagues away, render up to three marcos of silver to the arroba. Río Chico, site of the curacy, has thirty or more residents, and to the south-southwest it has the Luceros ranch six leagues away. The Sauce ranch8 is one league away, and the Duarte ranch is five leagues distant. And the ranches at Las Animas, García, Carrizal, and Cerro Colorado are three leagues away and deserted now because of the Seris. The last two are dependent on the Onabas Mission.

Tacupeto9 is a small settlement that offers nothing worth mentioning.

The real of Ostimuri, which gave its name to this province, has been abandoned because its ore veins have run out.

The real of Vatemaneco in the vicinity of Ostimuri was abandoned because of the flooding of its shafts, but the waters have been drawn out of the main shaft, and they have begun to work it again.

The ranches of Carrizal, Milpillas, Vícora, Sapora, and Palmar, all cast of Onabas, and the ranch of Techomoa to the south remain inhabited.

Following on from the ranches, we reach the real of San Antonio de la Huerta10 in the province of Sonora. Here the alcalde mayor

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resides and here is most of the commerce in the province even though the placer gold deposits discovered accidentally in 1759 have dwindled considerably. Placer gold was discovered when a servant spilled some quicksilver in a brook, and when he tried to recover it, he noticed minute grains of gold interspersed among the sand of the brook. Since there are occurrences of this nature in so many places in Sonora, in the hills as well as in the sands of the streams, one cannot help but believe that the whole province must be pregnant with the necessary elements needed for the generation and maturation of this precious metal, particularly where stones called tepustete,11 referred to as the “guide of gold,” are found. The tepustete is a very heavy stone on the order of lead ore, and if one digs where it is found, one is apt to uncover gold, but not in all cases, nor in quantities desired by the seeker, that is, handfuls acquired with little effort. So great is the laziness and love of idleness of most of these people that in spite of the abundance of gold in more than twenty different places, most of the people remain poor. They do not persevere at any one place, and when they hear of another spot, they leave what they have to ride the trail of doubtful hopes. They are much like the mastiff that, letting the piece of meat he carried in his mouth drop, ran after its own image reflected in the water.

Turning back on our mental flight and gazing down on San Antonio de la Huerta, we will see the famous canyon extending from Tónichi to Mátape and containing Las Tortugas ranch,12 the deserted real of San Francisco, the village of Soyopa, and the old mining settlement of Rebeico.13

Glancing toward the south and southwest, we see the abandoned real of San Miguel,14 the oldest real and formerly head of the curacy.

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Now the curacy is at Río Chico. Besides the real of Río Chico, there are the reales of Cosari, Ventana, and Mortero. All of these reales have been abandoned for years for lack of ore.

Then, too, there are the ranches of Sortillones, Aldamas, Santa Barbara, Ciénega, Sauz, Córdova, Canito, Machavavi, and Agua Caliente plus the small real of San Juan Bautista which produces a reasonable yield.

To the west we see the Spanish settlement of Mazatán five leagues west of Mátape. Farther west we see the mining settlements of Quisani, Aigame,15 the Aguaje,16 and just beyond we see Las Animas. All four mining settlements have rich mines that yielded bountifully in 1756 and 1757, but they are abandoned at present because of the Seri menace. Also in that direction we see the village of San Cosme and a ranch formerly owned by [the late] Captain Juan Tomás Velderrain.17 The ranch is now deserted because of the enemy. There are several other ranches where many stray animals that have wandered from flocks and herds have multiplied, but the names of these ranches have escaped my memory.

The San Francisco real has silver-producing mines which are abandoned because its workers were lured by what gold-mining settlements might offer. The workers left, and they who used to support themselves with decency in this locate have returned destitute.

But the sight of a country so unfortunate tires the wings of our fancy, so let us proceed on a short flight of twenty leagues to the north and rest at Cerro Alto, here on the right bank of the Río Grande opposite the real of Todos Santos18 which has a reduction plant and several bone calcination furnaces which refine the lead-containing ores of the Carrizal mine.19 At present the mine is not in operation.

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The Carrizal de Abajo, a league and a half southwest of the Carrizal mine, is also abandoned. Three leagues north of Carrizal de Abajo one finds a ranchería of Pimas, and seven leagues still farther north is the town of La Junta. Both are abandoned.

Looking toward the southeast one finds more deserted places such as Santa Catarina in the neighborhood of Bacanora and the ranches of San Lucas and Sásachi.20 The Palos Blancos placer mine is two leagues farther east. The real of Guainopa and other abandoned mines are still farther east in the vicinity of the Sátechi ranch.

More to the north, two leagues from Bacadéhuachi, is an abandoned real that used to yield one marco of silver to the arroba from its own smelting plant. Various other mines near Guachinera remain untouched because of the Apaches.

Between Guachinera and Bacerac is Tátzida, an old estancia, and the town of Tamichopa21 and its estancia. There is also a ranch belonging to the mission of Bacerac and another ranch belonging to the mission of Nácori.22

What we discover from our view from Todos Santos toward the west and northwest brings us horror, for there are, almost in a chain, so many ranches and estancias destroyed by the Apaches that I shall be content merely to give their names and approximate locations: The Realito23 is between Batuc and Mátape. San Jago24 was a real and later a cattle ranch. Then there is Agua Caliente.25 Farther on, there is Machacubiri,26 a ranch owned by the Salmons. These last two and the ones following were destroyed by the Apaches in 1751 and after: Topisco to the north of Mátape, the Solia,27 the Rodríguez ranch four leagues beyond, Banachari28 which is the citadel of Mátape, Batasagui four leagues beyond, and the ranch of Ojitos still farther.

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We will take another jump, this time northward to the Sierra Alta between Huásabas and Oposura.29 Our flight will pass over the small valley of Tepache about one league long with its Opata settlement of Tepache,30 previously a real31 with the mines of Arroyo, Nacatovori, Lampazos, Las Guijas, Santo Domingo, and Coronilla in its vicinity. All these mines yielded well but are unworked at present. The still visible ruins are proof of their former grandeur.

Promontorios, San José del Alamo, and Salitral mines are in the neighborhood of Huásabas and only a short distance from one another. The San José del Alamo is a placer mine that has yielded gold nuggets of fair size, and with the Salitral mine is being worked anew.

Tonibabi, a Spanish settlement four or five leagues east of Oposura at the foot of Sierra Alta, is inhabited by thirty-two individuals who, excepting three or four, are very poor, and because of the continuous hostilities of the Apaches, they are unable to work the mines inherited from their ancestors. The mines include the San Patricio, five leagues east, which by smelting rendered one marco per arroba; the San Cristóbal, two leagues to the southeast, which, though the rock was hard, yielded half silver intermittently, the silver being in pockets, and another vein, somewhat deeper, yielded one marco per arroba; the Plomosa, a league away, yielding three marcos per carga, is now flooded.

Skirting the side of the mountain, we find on the right of the road to Huásabas several streaks of lead ore that no one has worked, and near Tonibabi we find three lead mines within a radius of half a league: the Cozinera yielding three marcos to the carga, the San José yielding three to five marcos, and the San Antonio yielding six to nine marcos. There are many more mines but all are abandoned because of the

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Apache enemy. The residents sustain themselves with a few cows and small plots of ground left to them which they plant in season.

As for deserted ranches in this vicinity, there are the Moreno's, five leagues to the east almost to the Culebrilla Pass; El Médico, two leagues beyond; and another Moreno ranch in the Capadéhuachi Canyon with good irrigated fields and pasture land suitable for breeding all kinds of livestock.

The old real of San Javier is about five leagues north of Huásabas, west of the Capadéhuachi Canyon, fourteen leagues northeast of Cumpas, and within the mountains. The real of Mololea is three leagues from San Javier and eleven leagues northeast of Cumpas. The San Javier real is five leagues east of Nacozari, and the Mololea real is seven leagues from Nacozari.

Turning our eyes to the southwest, we see the Pivipa settlement six leagues from Tonibabi and one league south of Oposura. The residents of Pivipa support themselves by working their fields and breeding some livestock. To the southwest of Pivipa we see the ranches of Terecomachi, Comaguita, Massocagui, Comatzi, and Navachi. Two leagues farther in the same direction we see the Los Chinos ranch, and beyond that another league we see El Sauce ranch belonging to the Núñez family. All these ranches were abandoned because of the Apache incursions of 1753 and 1754. Going four leagues farther west toward Ures, we see Las Bolas, another Velderrain ranch. And two leagues still farther we find a farm belonging to the Ures Mission. The estancia of Sonibiate, burned down by the Seris in 1755, is seven leagues to the northeast. Las Bolas and the Ures Mission farm were abandoned in 1754 because of the Seri and Apache hostilities.

The small village of Concepción with its Cerro Gordo mines is northeast of Ures four leagues south of Babiácora. And the ruins of the Usabra and Teguatzi ranches lie to the east, four to five leagues west of Pivipa. About one league north of Usabra is the estancia of Pastoría with the Las Lajas ranch to the east. And the settlement of Bacachi with an orchard is two leagues to the northeast. All these places were depopulated in 1753 and 1754.

The real of San Juan Bautista,32 eight leagues northwest of Oposura, had been the site of a curacy and the capital of Sonora but was

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abandoned May 3, 1751. The Santa Barbara ranch, owned by Bachelor Juan José de Grijalva,33 is four leagues cast of San Juan and was deserted in 1753. Another Moreno ranch, Los Alamos, four leagues to the southeast, was abandoned in 1748 or 1749. At the same time the settlements of Basura, Badéhuachi, El Destierro, Paquillo, and González were also forsaken. The Munguía ranch a league north of San Juan was attacked and destroyed by the Apaches in 1744. The ranches of Bachelor Soto and Baroyesa northwest of San Juan Bautista real suffered the same fate as did the Durazno and Salazar ranches six leagues and four leagues west of Cumpas respectively. These last two ranches were attacked and destroyed by Apaches February 19, 1743, and forty-four of their residents were killed. Six years before, the Meco ranch and the one owned by Don Antonio de Mendoza, both west of the mountains, met the same disaster. The ranches of Torreón, Tepuchi, Monte Grande, and Santa Rosa, all near Basochuca,34 were also victims of the enemy.

The small Spanish settlement of Teonadepa is half a league west of Cumpas.35 The depopulated ranches of Grijalva and Argüelles are farther down the river to the southeast but not so far as Jamaica. The Jamaican mines with their reduction works are the property of Don Julián Moreno and are two leagues south of Cumpas.

Jécori, a mediocre settlement of Spaniards, is two leagues south of Jamaica, and to the southeast about two leagues apart are three abandoned estancias: One is owned by Don Gregorio.36 Another is the property of Bachelor Juan José de Grijalva, and a third belongs to the Oposura Mission. A deserted mining settlement is also in the vicinity.

The old real of Nacozari37 is fourteen leagues north of Cumpas. The real had been densely populated and very productive. At present it is inhabited by Don Manuel Vázquez, a few impoverished gente de

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razón and some Opatas. Its mines are being worked badly and in a small scale.

Five leagues north of Nacozari is the real of Chunerobabi, which yielded traces of gold and three to four marcos of silver to the arroba. This real and the real of El Aguaje, attacked by Apaches on March 5, 1742, and again in 1744, remain unworked. The gold and silver reales of de la Peña, Nacozari Viejo, Hacienda Vieja, and El Barrigón are all two to four leagues from Nacozari and have been abandoned because of the enemy menace. Other mining properties such as the Huacal, Pinal, Toaportze, Nori, and San Juan del Río, all somewhat distant, have remained idle for the same reason even though their yields were as high as seventy-five marcos of silver per quintal.38

The Escalante ranch with its reduction works is one league north of Nacozari. The Corella ranch is one league beyond, and the Cárdenas ranch is still two leagues farther. There are two or three other ranches in the immediate vicinity which are also deserted because of the Apache atrocities.

When we consider that we have seen over eighty deserted ranches, estancias and mining settlements, and scarcely ten inhabited places, who will doubt that Sonora is in danger of perishing?

9.3. The Royal Presidios and Intermediate Villages

After having wearied our eyes and saddened our minds with so much desolation, we need to take another imaginative flight to visit the five presidios that his majesty maintains at so great an expense for the defense of this unhappy land. This flight is necessary so that we might see the territory, inhabited or deserted, that lies between the forts.

We shall start with the presidio at Fronteras, also known as Santa Rosa de Corodéhuachi,39 32 degrees, 10 minutes latitude, 265 degrees, 46 minutes longitude. It was the first and only presidio in Sonora from 1690 to 1740. The Jocomes, Sumas, Janos, and Apaches rose in revolt

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in 1686 and attacked Santa Rosa, an Opata village eight leagues north of Cuquiárachi, on May 10, 1688, and Cuquiárachi itself on June 11, 1689, forcing the Opata population to withdraw to Corodéhuachi. The fifteen soldiers from the presidio of Sinaloa who had been stationed at Teuricachi for three years were moved to the beautiful site at Corodéhuachi with its own spring, and when this happened in 1690 or 1691, the Indians were transferred, some to Teuricachi and the rest to Cuquiárachi.

The missions of Cuquiárachi, established in 1660, Santa Rosa and Cuchuta, both established in 1686,40 and the dependent mission of Teras were more and more frequently the victims of the incursions of the four tribes mentioned for nearly ninety years.

To the northeast in the vicinity of the San Bernardino Valley there are vestiges of settlements that existed so long ago that no living soul remembers them. The names Cuchuvérachi,41 Batepito,42 Naideni Bacachi,43 and Chiricagui44 are Opata words and would indicate that this was land of the Opata nation.

The presidio of Terrenate is northwest of Fronteras thirty leagues away through the Magallanes Pass.45 So that we may not omit any point worthy of attention, we will take a look at Basochuca real where a few poor Spaniards are unable to work the several mines in its vicinity. Nacozari is ten leagues east of Basochuca, and four or five leagues north of Basochuca lies Bacoachi with its gold placers.

The abandoned gold real of Santa Rosalia is five or six leagues west of Arizpe, and the deserted mining settlement of Tetoatzi is four leagues south of Arizpe. Two leagues southwest of Tetoatzi is

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Teguatzi, a ranch owned by Don Agustín Vildósola which was attacked by Apaches February 22, 1746. It is depopulated at present.

A short distance north of Arizpe is the real of Bacanuchi, and eight leagues northwest of Bacanuchi is the real of Cananea, entirely deserted this year, 1763. There are a few deserted ranches and estancias between all these places, but I lack the information to distinguish one from another.

Now we arrive at the presidio of Terrenate46 which was built in 1742 to restrain the Apaches and prevent them from entering the Pimería. However, since the establishment of the presidio, the Apache enemy has caused more destruction in the province of Sonora than ever before.

The main mission of Santa María Soamca is five leagues to the west, and two leagues south of Soamca there is a deserted ranch. The ranch of San Lázaro is one league farther south. Two leagues west of San Lázaro is the Divisaderos ranch, and eight leagues south of that is the ranch-hamlet and estancia of Sicurisudac where the Apaches committed grievous killings and barbarous atrocities in 1730.

Cocóspera is a dependent mission of Soamca twelve leagues southwest of Terrenate. Cocóspera was attacked by Apaches on February 16, 1746, and its church burned down.

The Santa Barbara, Buenavista, and San Luis ranches, close to one another five to eight leagues from Soamca, are deserted.

The main mission of Guebavi is less than three leagues northwest of Buenavista, and the Tubac presidio47 is seven leagues beyond Buenavista in the same direction. The presidio of Tubac was established in 1752 and occupies the Pima settlement of that name. The Indians were moved to Tumacacori where they lack the good land of Tubac and can only sow seasonally. In the vicinity of this presidio are the depopulated ranches of Sopori somewhat more than two leagues north, Tucubabi thirteen leagues southwest, and Aribaca seven leagues northwest.48 The village of San Luis Beltrán is thirty leagues to the southwest.

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The Cerro49 is eighteen leagues south of Tubac. Also south of the presidio is the deserted real of Las Bolas, famed for its prodigious masses of virgin silver. The rich real of Agua Caliente is two leagues farther south; it is not being worked at present. The abandoned real of Sombreretillo lies a short distance west of Sáric, and there was a gold and silver mine one league north of Sáric which had been worked.

The Altar presidio50 is forty leagues from the Gulf of California and was established in 1753 or 1754 because of the Pima outbreak of 1751. Twenty men of its garrison originally stationed at Sinaloa were transferred to Buenavista in 1741 because of the Yaqui rebellion of 1740, and in 1751 they were sent to the Pimería to help suppress the Pima revolt of that year. When these soldiers were assigned to Altar under the command of Don Bernardo Urrea,51 the garrison reached its full strength of fifty men, the other thirty troops being newly enlisted men.

Most of what is to be seen in this district has been dealt with in chapter vii, section four, except the following: the depopulated real of Ocuca, a league east of the pueblo of the same name; two abandoned ranches six leagues southeast of the presidio, one belonging to the San Ignacio Mission52 and the other to Doña Sabina; the Arituava and Santa Rosa ranches belonging to the residents of Santa Ana village that had the largest population of Spaniards before the 1751 uprising and is now reduced to only a few; the San Lorenzo settlement four to five leagues northeast of Santa Ana which was abandoned in 1756 when the Seris and Pimas killed thirty-eight persons and burned down the pueblo; a small ranch-hamlet five leagues northwest of San Lorenzo called El Tupo53 of which nothing remains but the name. The same is true of Rancho de la Navidad southwest of Santa Ana. It was destroyed by Apaches in 1730, and fourteen Christians were murdered.

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The pueblo of La Soledad and an adjacent ranch were destroyed in 1757 by an invasion of Apaches and Seris combined. Before that the same doom befell the farms of Sásava and one between San Ignacio and Cucurpe. Eastward there are no more inhabited places except the small town of Dolores and the real of Saracachi. The residents of Saracachi are few, so few that they do not feel they have sufficient numbers to dig up the great riches that, according to some, are contained in their mines. There is another deserted ranch north of Cucurpe and two others between Dolores and Remedios. The small settlement of San Javier, still occupied, lies to the south between Cucurpe and Toape.

We find the reales of Motepore54 and Sonora55 are still inhabited, as is the hacienda56 of the late Bachelor Soto, but with no mines in operation. There is also the small real of San Joseph near Opodepe.

The following ranches are uninhabited because of the Apache and Seri incursions: Meresichi,57 La Casita between Nacameri and Ures, another between Nacameri and Aconchi, and La Huerta north of Antúnez.

And the following reales have been abandoned because of the Seri enemy and his atrocities: Antúnez, Bacoachito, Gavilán, and San Cosme. There was either a farm or an estancia between Gavilán and San Cosme that was also abandoned. And the estancias of Alameda and Cornelio have been vacated as well as the Ybarburo ranch farther west near the Gulf of California. Moreover, the pearl placer of Tepoca to the north has been abandoned.

Nothing more remains inhabited except the settlements near and under the protection of the San Miguel de Horcasitas presidio such as the inoperative real of San José de Gracia, the ranch of Bachelor Don Francisco Javier Noriega, the hacienda of Pitic which was the property of the late governor, Don Agustín de Vildósola, a small community at

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Cerro Pelón, another at Los Angeles, and the quite well populated but extremely poor community of San Miguel, contiguous to the presidio. This last community started calling itself villa at the time the Antúnez bonanza occurred, but I was not aware that it had been granted such a title. Therefore, I doubt it was entitled to that rank.

We have given the data pertaining to the founding of the San Miguel de Horcasitas presidio, 30 degrees latitude by 263 degrees, 30 minutes longitude, in chapter vi, section three. Now we close by stating that it is the residence of the governor58 who is also the commander of the fort.

Out of respect and consideration for the well-being of the province, I prefer to say nothing about the erection of the five presidios.

To summarize briefly, on April 13, 1764,59 there were in the province of Sonora:

Mining sites, Spanish settlements, and five
presidios inhabited
Depopulated mining sites 48
Inhabited estancias and ranches 2
Depopulated estancias and ranches 126
Totals: Depopulated places 174
Inhabited places 24

These figures do not include Santa Barbara, San Luis, Buenavista, or the five depopulated mining sites in the province of Ostimuri.

I beg the benevolent reader to forgive the disarray of the last two sections of this chapter. I confess that I thought they needed little discussion, so the subject was assembled hastily and left to the last. I promise that the section that follows will be better arranged.

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9.4. Curacies: Their Vast Size and Places of Worship

Although the province of Sonora60 is rather large and complex with many reales de minas, towns and ranches peopled by Spaniards and gente de razón, there are only three curacies. The first is San Juan Bautista which was abandoned May 3, 1751, as stated in chapter ix, section one, and while in a physical sense its church still remains, its minister61 resides at San Miguel de Horcasitas where services are conducted in the presidio's chapel. The church edifice at San Miguel de Horcasitas was begun in 1753 by Governor Don Pablo de Arce y Arroyo during the boom days of the Antúnez gold mine. Today the edifice remains roofless and its adobe walls subjected to ruin by the rains. Because of the decadence of the Antúnez real, there is little hope the building will be completed unless a rich mine is discovered in that region soon. Its residents are extremely poor and support themselves solely by working their fertile land. But they have no outlet for their produce. They have plenty of food, but they go almost naked.

Another curacy is located at Nacozari62 with a well equipped church of suitable capacity, but because of the meager population of the real of Nacozari and for security reasons, its father, Curate Don Joaquín Félix Díaz, resides at the presidio of Fronteras where he has better facilities for escort when he visits the ministries under his charge. Services are conducted in the fort's chapel, newly erected in 1763.

The areas of both these curacies are so large that the two priests, having no assistants, find it extremely difficult to attend them. To visit the places of their respective jurisdictions, each priest must travel more than two hundred leagues with imminent risk of being attacked by Apaches or Seris.

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The third curacy, San Francisco de Asís, is no smaller than the others, for it covers not only a part of Ostimuri Province but a good portion of Sonora as well, comprising the area from the right bank of the Yaqui River on the south and east to San Miguel de Horcasitas on the north, excluding Ures, Mátape, and Batuc. The residence of the curate, formerly in San Miguel,63 is now in the real of Río Chico64 in the province of Ostimuri. And because there are only three diocesan priests in Sonora, the Jesuit missionaries, without neglecting their own districts, help them as much as they can by imparting the faith, performing all religious functions and turning over all tithes collected to the curate. Because I am bound to tell the truth, I must say that the Jesuits ministering in this section do it all except in the place and its immediate vicinity where the curate Florencio de Alarcón, Bachelor of Theology, resides.65 He does visit the closer churches occasionally, but as for the more distant parishes, he merely sends someone to gather the dues accrued through the labors of others.

Regardless of the size of these curacies, when the province was booming, not beset by enemies, all its pueblos inhabited and its mines worked with zeal and very productive, even then the province was not a large source of income for the church.

Father Juan José de Grijalva, Bachelor of Theology, informed me that the curacy he had administered for thirty years, the San Juan Bautista, had an estimated annual tithe income of two to three thousand pesos a year beyond his 2,000 pesos yearly salary. Yet he was only netting 1,000 pesos a year. To live with some degree of comfort he had to pledge the tithes to purchase a ranch.66

If the San Juan Bautista Curacy, supposedly the best in Sonora, was in such shape, it seems to me that the reason for its meager income was due to the charity of this venerable curate emeritus who condoned all dues to the poor, took livestock from others in payment,

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and gave nearly all the revenues to his assistants in the parishes they attend. He passed away—morte justorum67—in January, 1763, and was buried in Our Lady of the Rosary Chapel68 in the Oposura church.

The Nacozari Curacy could be as productive as the San Juan Bautista, perhaps even more so by as much as 300 pesos a year, because the Tubac presidio has been added to it. However, because the soldiers are not paid in coin but in goods at prices set by government regulations, this possible source of income is questionable.

These curacies are under the diocese of Durango. When a vacancy occurs, its bishop submits a list of three names of persons the bishop feels are competent to serve as curate in that curacy. The vicar selects one from the list whom he deems best suited for the post. However, since the curate of Nacozari, Don Joaquín Rodríguez Rey, was murdered by Apaches in 175569 despite the military escort that accompanied him, there are few diocesan priests willing to come to these regions. At present Joaquín Félix Díaz, vicar and ecclesiastic arbiter, is serving temporarily as curate. However, the curates of San Miguel de Horcasitas and Río Chico acquire their positions only after surviving competition and receive prebends which go with the post. The first was obtained by minister Miguel de Arenívar and the second by curate Florencio de Alarcón.


1. Almada's Diccionario, p. 797, gives the date of the discovery of silver in that area as 1740.

2. Amalgamation.

3. Previously San Miguel Arcángel was the seat of the curacy. By 1684 it had been transferred to San Francisco de Asís de Río Chico.

4. Marco, or mark, is a unit of weight equal to eight ounces.

5. Carga, or load, is the amount a beast of burden can carry, 100–150 pounds, depending upon distance and roughness of terrain. In mining terminology a carga was 300 pounds. Ward's Mexico in 1827 I, p. 573.

6. Arroba is a unit of weight equal to twenty-five pounds.

7. La Dura, the hard one in Spanish, was so named because of the hardness of the rock in which the ore was imbedded.

8. Sauce means willow in Spanish.

9. Tacupeto is north of Trinidad and Onapa.

10. San Antonio de la Huerta is north of Onavas.

11. Tepustete is a hematite, bloodlike, ferric oxide. Information on tepustete may be found in Bolton's Anza's California Expeditions II, p. 152, and Sobarzo's Vocabulario, pp. 319–20.

12. Tónichi is to the south, and Mátape lies to the northwest.

13. San Francisco de Rebeico, founded in 1673.

14. Although the full name was seldom used, this is San Miguel Arcángel, a mining settlement founded around 1660 and attended by Father Daniel Angelo Marras, S.J., for over seven years; it was in existence until shortly after 1731 and was located between Onavas and Tecoripa.

15. This is Aguame on Nentvig's map.

16. Aguaje means running spring in Spanish.

17. Captain Juan Tomás Velderrain owned three ranches; another is mentioned further on in this section. He was the military commander of Tubac and was married to the daughter of the governor. Velderrain died September 7, 1759.

18. This is Todos S.S. on Nentvig's map.

19. The Carrizal mine is five leagues north of Todos Santos.

20. The ranches are five leagues from Todos Santos.

21. Tamichopa is a league north of Guachinera.

22. This is Nácori Chico.

23. Actually, the Realito is a league north of Batuc.

24. San Jago is seven leagues northwest of Batuc.

25. Agua Caliente is also seven leagues northwest of Batuc.

26. Machacubiri is six leagues west of Batuc.

27. This is Soliz on Nentvig's map.

28. Banachari is five leagues northwest of Batuc.

29. Ca. 31 degrees latitude, 266 degrees longitude.

30. Nuestra Señora de San Joaquín y Santa Ana de Tepache.

31. Mines were discovered and worked by Spaniards in 1660. Being a real, it was attended by a diocesan minister, but because of the great distance the minister had to travel, the curate of San Miguel de Horcasitas requested that its spiritual needs be attended to by the Jesuits of Batuc. The importance of this real is shown by the fact that it had two justices of the peace and was the residence of the lieutenant governor. It was visited on January 8, 1686, by mining inspector D. Gabriel de Isturiz, at which time it had 142 families, 388 people.

32. San Juan on Nentvig's map.

33. Bachelor Juan José de Grijalva was a diocesan priest. Bachelor signifies Bachelor of Theology, a degree held by all diocesan priests and curates.

34. 31 degrees, 40 minutes latitude, 265 degrees, 10 minutes longitude.

35. Nentvig's map shows Teonadepa to the south of Cumpas.

36. This is probably Gregorio Alvarez Tuñón Quirós, alcalde mayor of Sonora and wealthy mine owner, who also served as a captain at Fronteras presidio, Almada's Diccionario, pp. 58–60.

37. Established ca. 1660.

38. As given in the notes on chapter vi, a quintal is a unit of weight equal to 100 pounds.

39. The combined name of Santa Rosa de Corodéhuachi resulted, but the name Fronteras, frontier presidio, sprang up and was in general usage.

40. The dates given refer to when missionaries were stationed at each. Actually, Cuquiárachi was established as a Jesuit mission in 1646 by Gerónimo de la Canal but had remained without a missionary from 1653 until 1660 when Antonio de Heredia, S.J., took charge. Cuchuta was established in 1653.

41. In Opata, Cuchuvérachi means canyon and brook where the matelote fish is found. Matelote is the regional name for róbalo.

42. In Opata, Batepito means where the river makes a turn.

43. In Opata, Naideni-Bacachi means land of the beautiful reeds.

44. This is Chiguicagui on Nentvig's map, 34 degrees, 30 minutes latitude by 265 degrees longitude; cf. chapter iii, section one, footnote 3.

45. 31 degrees, 40 minutes latitude by 265 degrees, 20 minutes longitude.

46. Nentvig has jumped northwest from Fronteras to Terrenate, 32 degrees, 40 minutes latitude by 264 degrees, 12 minutes longitude.

47. 32 degrees, 58 minutes latitude by 263 degrees, 18 minutes longitude.

48. Aribaca was also an estancia and visiting station.

49. This is Cerro de San Antonio de Padua.

50. 31 degrees, 10 minutes latitude by 262 degrees, 4 minutes longitude.

51. A Spaniard born in Culiacán.

52. San Ignacio de Caburica Mission.

53. El Tupo was the site of the murder of ninety-eight Pimas by the soldiers of Lieutenant Antonio de Solís in June, 1695. The soldiers were trying to chastise the killers of Father Francisco Javier Saéta, S.J.

54. Near Banámichi.

55. Between Hüépac and Aconchi.

56. The word hacienda may be applied not only to an agricultural establishment but also to a refining and assaying plant.

57. Between San Joseph and Toape.

58. Col Juan Claudio Pineda was governor of Sonora from 1763 to 1770.

59. The dates given in several places in the text seem inconsistent. As stated in the preface, Father Visitor Ignacio Lizassoian left Sonora on September 23, 1762, and Don José Tienda de Cuervo, governor of Sonora, left there on December 9, 1762. Both carried a copy of this essay. Then dates given after this time must have been the work of a copyist or copyists who updated the work.

60. In a religious sense the region was administered by three diocesan priests or curates, each holding the degree of Bachelor of Theology.

61. In 1754 the Bachelor of Theology Gabriel Arenívar resigned the curacy of San Miguel de Horcasitas and the priest Francisco Javier Noriega filled the vacancy until the arrival of Miguel Arenívar.

62. Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Nacozari.

63. This is San Miguel Arcángel, described in note 14, chapter ix, section one.

64. San Francisco de Asís de Río Chico.

65. Río Chico.

66. He purchased the Santa Barbara ranch.

67. “The death of the just.”

68. He is buried at the foot of the altar.

69. Actually curate Rodríguez Rey was killed April 16, 1754.

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