I am indebted to no end of helpful individuals who aided me in discovering parts of the mosaic of Tucson's colonial past. Outstanding are Paul H. Ezell and his wife Greta S. Ezell, and James E. Officer. The Ezells have collaborated with me in reconstructing the history of the Northern Piman-speaking peoples for many years. Officer has frequently discussed Tucson's history with me, and his critical reading of the manuscript of this book greatly improved it.
The late Victor R. Stoner preserved crucial information about Tucson ecclesiastical affairs for many historians. The late Donald W. Page first advanced several interpretations of scanty data, and I benefited from stimulating discussions of Tucson history with him in the scholarly precincts of the Bancroft Library.
The late Thomas A. Segundo, twice a multiple-term chairman of the Papago Tribal Council during crucial periods of self-government, besides offering me his personal friendship, contributed key interpretations of Northern Piman language and culture.
Charles C. DiPeso, director of the Amerind Foundation at Dragoon, aided me by his long-range program of archeological and archival research on the Northern Piman Indians, and his discussions of historic changes in the Gadsden Purchase Area. Bernard L. Fontana, Arizona State Museum, reminded me of several archival sources.
As citations in this volume make clear, I owe my principal debt for source material to the staff of the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley. Most citations to Bancroft Library holdings are made with the permission of its former director, George P. Hammond. Vivian Fisher, head of the microfilm division, has long, enthusiastically, pleasantly and patiently aided me. Julia McCloud painstakingly helped to make the Pinart collections usable. John Barr Tompkins has many times facilitated my consultation of this library's unmatched resources.
The research library of the Arizona Historical Society has been my second base of operations in reconstructing Tucson history. Hilda Overpeck; the late Edith Kitt, historical secretary emeritus; Eleanor Sloan, former executive secretary of the Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society; and Sidney Brinckerhoff, director of the Arizona Historical Society, as well as Winifred Smiley and Margaret Bret Harte all helped to make this book possible. Brinckerhoff read it in manuscript and suggested numerous improvements.
I copied documents in the archive of the Diocese of Sonora through the courtesy of Juan María Navarette, then bishop of Sonora. Luis Baldonado and Bernard L. Fontana provided helpful and good company.