Bibliography


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Cross-references to numbered bibliographic entries are presented as See references within brackets.

Pages numbers pertaining to the immediately prior citation appear in parentheses.

A Proper Name Index to the bibliography appears at the end.


Works by John C. Van Dyke


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1. The American Desert. The Mentor 12.6 ( July 1924): 1-22. This article should dispel any doubt that Van Dyke was a bamboozler when he wrote about his travels in the desert. While assuring us that he is telling the truth (14), he claims that "no one" knew about the lands he explored (3), that most desert animals shun water (7), and passes on other multiple absurdities. It is a blatant performance.

2. American Painting and Its Tradition. Retrospective Exhibition of Important Works of John Singer Sargent, February 23rd to March 22nd, 1924. New York: (Grand Central Art Galleries,). 1924. 3, 12. Van Dyke's four paragraphs on Sargent in this handsome catalogue (12) are somewhat revised portions from Van Dyke's American Painting and Its Tradition [See 3, p. 245, 248-49, 253-54, and 256-57]. Back to the item at hand, note the curiously astute organization of this non-profit gallery, designed to benefit both artists and admirers (Foreword 3).

3. American Painting and Its Tradition, As Represented by Inness, Wyant, Martin, Homer, La Farge, Whistler, Chase, Alexander, Sargent. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1919. If Van Dyke's views of art can be precise and honed to the classical when it comes to the Old Masters, they can be narrow concerning his own era. Before the arrival of the influence of French Impressionism, he says here, there is no art in the United States worth talking about. And there isn't much worth talking about after its heyday. Sadly, Van Dyke shakes his head: "in these days ... all painting seems going to the dogs" (268). So much for modern art. The youthful rebel had grown into a hidebound orthodoxy.

4. American Painting and Its Tradition, As Represented by Inness, Wyant, Martin, Homer, La Farge, Whistler, Chase, Alexander, Sargent. 1919. Freeport, New York: (Books for Libraries Press,). 1972. This modern reprint contains no new material.

5. Amsterdam, The Hague, Haarlem: Critical Notes on the Rijks Museum, The Hague Museum, Hals Museum. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914. [For an overview of this failed series see the lead volume in 66].

6. Angels In Art. The Mentor 1.40 ( 1913): 1-11, 13-24. An impressive survey of the artistic treatment of angels through the centuries. "Realism rather scorns things spiritual, and besides religious feeling and sentiment in art passed out several centuries before the coming of the modern realists.... [Painters] saw things with the eye of faith" (1).

7. An Appreciation. Timothy Cole: Memorial Exhibition, November Ninth to Twenty-Eighth, Nineteen Thirty-One. Philadelphia: (The Print Club of Philadelphia,). 1931. 3. Van Dyke introduces the catalogue with generous words for the man who did the engravings for Van Dyke's Old Dutch and Flemish Masters and Old English Masters.

8. Art and Congressional Legislation. The American Architect and Building News 23.638 ( March 17, 1888): 128-30. Van Dyke turns his high dudgeon over the thirty-percent import duty on art into a white-hot piece of refined rhetoric. Wary of an ignorant Congress sticking its nose where it doesn't belong, he argues that politicians should "leave American art to follow the even tenor of its way unmolested by legislation of any kind" (130). [For further complexities See 166].

9. Art for Art's Sake: Seven University Lectures on the Technical Beauties of Painting. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1893. Pleasure is art's excuse for being. Anticipates his next step with Nature for Its Own Sake. That's the overall theme. However, to engage the eye, then train it, in this series of lectures delivered both at Columbia and Rutgers, Van Dyke, claiming he is seeing the art of painting as painters do, concentrates on the practical, the techniques, such as color, shading, and perspective, with which artists hope to capture the beautiful.

10. Art in Primitive Greece. Review of History of Art in Primitive Greece: Mycenian Art, by George Perrot and Charles Chipez. The Dial 18.209 ( 1 March 1895): 142-44. Bringing to bear his own wide knowledge of archaeology--an aspect of Van Dyke often overlooked--he shows his generosity in praise (another Van Dyke feature, less often practiced but also often forgotten), clapping his hands that this


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two-volume work marks "the most complete and thorough history of ancient art ever written" (142).

11. The Art Students' League of New York. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 83.497 ( October 1891): 688-700. Established in 1875, when the National Academy of Design temporarily closed its doors, the League has since developed a curriculum that trains the hand without stultifying creativity. The piece reflects Van Dyke's impressive intimacy with the florescence of the New York art world of his day. In the broader picture, the League was but one of many such organizations born from America's new fascination with art. Van Dyke's The Increase in the Appreciation of Serious Art in America and Lathrop's The Progress of Art in New York are companion pieces giving the larger context of the art phenomenon [See 53 and 359].

12. Artistic Nature. The Studio 2.46 ( 17 November 1883): 219-21. An early statement that art is nature idealized; it will become a major theme in Van Dyke's writing. Charmingly written, sensitively illustrated, The Studio presents an important view into the happy ferment and openness of the fluorescing art movement during Van Dyke's youth. According to "Van Dyke, John C[harles]" in The Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature, Van Dyke (ed.) edited The Studio 1883- 1884. I suspect otherwise.
However, precisely identifying Van Dyke's involvement with the magazine presents something of a challenge. The first The Studio piece definitely associated with him is the one above (signed, but his name misspelled). The second, published a week later (this time with his name correctly spelled), is Wanted--The Data of Criticism. Then on 22 December 1883, ‘‘J. C. Van Dyke, Editor’’ appears on the masthead, as it does the week after. It may be, as Van Dyke claims in his Autobiography, that he wrote many of the magazine's articles during this short period (56), but if he did, they went unsigned. As far as can be demonstrated, that ends Van Dyke's brief connection with The Studio. Thereafter, the best I can tell--a calculation supported by the somewhat unclear entry in the Union List of Serials-- The Studio foundered, temporarily ceasing publication. Seven months later, according to the opening pages of the 2 August 1884 issue, it was revived under new ownership and a new editor. In his Autobiography, from the perspective of old age Van Dyke modestly chided his blind enthusiasm as he plunged youthfully into editing art magazines (56-58). Sources for The Studio may be found in the Archival section, under the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, the New York Public Library, and the University of Arizona.

13. The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke: A Personal Narrative of American Life, 1861- 1931. Introduction by Peter Wild, (ed.) editor. Foreword by Philip L. Strong. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1993. Helpful, indeed, in piecing together the details of Van Dyke's activities and friends but more than usually fanciful for an autobiographical work. A gallery of photographs follows 127. [See 83].

14. The Beauty of Paint. The Art Review 3.1 ( July- August 1888): 25-30. All this is a long way from celebrating nature as the highest art, but here it is. The echt connoisseur goes to galleries to gasp over the true artist's handling of paint. Gives a brief history of brushwork; Titian was the pivot, and Rubens' use of the brush points to a new element, the artist expressing "the individuality of the painter" (27). Like a cautious lover, soon to fall head over heels, Van Dyke is still hesitant about the "extravagance" of Impressionism and its "meaningless splashes of light" (30). However, something is unresolved here, for seven months earlier in the same magazine he was telling us "A painting should appeal to no other sense than sight" [See 136, p. 67]. Nevertheless, reviewing this issue of The Art Review in his column Current Literature, Kingsley has special praise for Van Dyke's The Beauty of Paint.

15. Berlin, Dresden: Critical Notes on the Kaiser Friedrich Museum and the Royal Gallery, Dresden. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

16. Books and How to Use Them: Some Hints to Readers and Students. New York: (Fords, Howard, and Hulbert,). 1883. Van Dyke's first full-length volume. Its first sentence shows the sentimentalism he later disguised: "The true philosopher's stone, that by its magical touch converts existence into golden success, is Knowledge" (7).

17. Brussels, Antwerp: Critical Notes on the Royal Museums of Brussels and Antwerp. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

18. Catalogue: Exhibition of the Works of Elihu Vedder at the American Academy of Arts and Letters. New York: (American Academy of Arts and Letters,). 1937. This exhibition catalogue, published five years after Van Dyke's death, presents some problems, none of them, however, of great moment. The first section, Elihu Vedder (9-17), carries Van Dyke's byline, and, with some revisions, reprints his Commemorative Tribute to Elihu Vedder. There follows a second section, also titled Elihu Vedder


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(19-26). It bears no author. The remainder of this little book is the catalogue proper.

19. A Catalogue of a Memorial Exhibition of the Works of Joseph Pennell (Kindly Lent by Mr. John F. Braun of Philadelphia) at the American Academy of Arts and Letters. New York: (American Academy of Arts and Letters,). 1927. Introducing the catalogue (5-21), Van Dyke gives a rundown of Pennell's career, hailing the artist who illustrated Van Dyke's The New New York for the conservative values he shared with Whistler and lamenting, in contrast, that "the rush and greed of modern life [has] spoiled everything" (6). [See 74].

20. The Century's American Artist Series. The Century Magazine 51.6 ( April 1896): 802, 954-55. Purist Van Dyke here generously states, "In all good portraiture the expressive and the decorative are both present, and because they are happily united in Mr. Brush's Mother and Child is sufficient reason for declaring it good portraiture" (954).

21. Change Poem. Poems of New Jersey, edited by Eugene R. Musgrove. (ed.) New York: (Gregg,). 1923. 45-46. For a further sampling of Van Dyke's poems, his Guinea Hens, The Piazetta, and Return of the Victorious Pharaoh to Thebes are listed below. Also, see Archival Sources, Rutgers University. Van Dyke was something of a closet poet, some of whose results were admirable enough, others abysmal. Nonetheless, the poetic ink was not to be staunched; my Van Dyke's Little Trick analyzes such efforts and gives sources for still further poems [See 624]. Nevertheless, Van Dyke published relatively little verse under his own name; given his waywardness, I suspect, but cannot prove, that he might have published further poetry under a pseudonym.

22. Commemorative Tribute to Elihu Vedder. New York: (American Academy of Arts and Letters,). 1924. Van Dyke knows how to make a sermon over a grave resound and in the course of things expresses his own romantic sentiments. Despite their popular, narrative content, he praises the works of Vedder, an artist who reveled in rhythmical lines used in the service of telling a story. Van Dyke considers Vedder's drawings for Omar KhayyÁm's RubÁiyÁt the painter's masterpiece. Putting a more complex edge to judgment, Vedder biographer Edward Dewey calls the illustrations "ponderously beautiful" (245).

23. The Court of Last Resort: A Department of Authoritative Answers to Questions. Ladies' Home Journal. During the early years of the twentieth century, The Ladies' Home Journal ran this question-and-answer page, with Van Dyke, who was also writing articles on painters for the Journal, fielding the issues on art. He does so admirably, responding to queries about Impressionism and the pronunciation of artists' names directly and authoritatively and without the tinge of condescension found in his books. See, for example, 21.3 ( February 1904): 17; 21.5 ( April 1904): 20; and 21.6 ( May 1904): 19.

24. Desert Animals. Pathway to Western Literature, edited by Nettie S. Gaines. (ed.) Stockton, California: (Nettie S. Gaines,). 1910. A teacher in the Stockton school system, hoping her students not only will "gain power in reading" but also achieve a love for California and its "local color" (vii), reprints an excerpt (235-37) from Van Dyke's The Desert (151-55). The anthologist had a good eye to the future, for many of the selections--from Jack London, Bret Harte, Helen Hunt Jackson, and Van Dyke's brother Theodore--are by writers today securely in the region's literary canon.

25. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1901. Second volume of his Natural Appearances Series. In Van Dyke's most famous book, one sees "the most decorative landscape in the world ... a dream landscape" (56). The many reprints during Van Dyke's lifetime bear only slight revisions. Those changes likely were due to the sting of a complaint letter from a professor of agriculture with a good deal of knowledge about the desert. [See 524, p. 6-7 and Van Dyke's squid-like reply p. 59-61]. [For more on the complex publishing history of The Desert, see 524, p. 42 and p.42-43 note 8; and 30, p. lvi-lviii note 15]. The following editions of The Desert are the most worthy of note.

26. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. 1901. Photographs by J. Smeaton Chase. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1918. Although the inclusion of photographs violated Van Dyke's aesthetic principles holding realism in contempt, the author applauded the addition of photographs as likely increasing sales. [For this and what appears to have been the rather bad usage of the penurious photographer, see 524, p. 11-12, 14, 43-53].

27. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. 1901. Photographs by J. Smeaton Chase. Notes by Dix Van Dyke. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1930. In his notes in the back matter (235-57), Dix, a rancher who knew the desert well, skirts challenging the many errors in natural history made by his imperious uncle. (See Dix's handwritten comments on his own printed notes in his personal copy of this edition, in the private collection


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of Mr. John C. Van Dyke, of La Jolla, listed in the Archival Sources.) Revenge would come later [See 539, p. 106, 135]. More telling is Dix's hilarious manuscript The Cynic in the San Bernardino Public Library's Norman F. Feldheym branch (Folder U-281).

28. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. 1901. Introduction by Lawrence Clark Powell. Tucson: (The Arizona Historical Society,). 1976. The Introduction applauds Van Dyke's book as "a love poem ... distinguished by precise observation and profound knowledge" (no pagination).

29. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. 1901. Introduction by Richard Shelton. Salt Lake City: (Peregrine Smith,). 1980. As to Van Dyke as a traveler through the desert, the Introduction takes its cue from Powell's admiration, stating that Van Dyke: "was in love, and the book is a by-product of that love affair" (Introduction xxvii).

30. The Desert: Further Studies in Natural Appearances. 1901. Introduction by Peter Wild. Baltimore: (The Johns Hopkins University Press,). 1999. "Neither the man nor his much-praised book are what people popularly have imagined through a century of reading" (Introduction xxviii). Note that the pagination in Van Dyke's Preface-Dedication differs from that of the original imprint. This edition contains the first index ever printed to The Desert.

31. Desert Sky and Clouds. Broadside. Flagstaff, Arizona: (Northland Press,). 1979. Quotes four paragraphs from The Desert (102-04). According to Van Dyke, desert clouds form "Great bands of orange, green, and blue that all the melted and fused gems in the world could not match for translucent beauty" (104). A note below the quotation on the broadside, to bottom right, reads: "This passage from The Desert, 1901, was chosen by Lawrence Clark Powell and designed by Ward Ritchie as Northland Press Occasional Broadside Number 1, Flagstaff, Arizona, 1979."
Travelers through the Southwest will wonder that the skies there often fall far short of Van Dyke's moving fantasia in prose. In any case, this broadside is extremely rare. I located it in only two holdings. See Archival Sources, Indiana University and Yale University.

32. The Development of the History of Art. Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St. Louis, edited by Howard J. Rogers. (ed.) Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1906. 3: 577-88. Wielding his two-handed broadax, Van Dyke charges forth, bloodying art historians from Furtwä#x00E4;ngler to Berenson who make the facts fit their theories. There is a noble place for the imagination in art history, but it "has by continuous abuse become little short of a vice."
The hope lies in people, such as himself, who practice ‘‘impartial investigation’’ (586) and thus can tell the ignorant public ‘‘what is good and what is bad, what is to be admired, and what is to be shunned’’ (587). But Van Dyke is a complex man. Counterbalancing this noble goal was Van Dyke's rascality, for Professor Furtwä#x00E4;ngler was in the audience, a delicious moment for Van Dyke [See 13, p. 85, 130].

33. Dutch Masterpieces. The Mentor 1.17 ( 9 June 1913): 1-10, 12-24. Analyzes works by Rembrandt, Hals, and others. "The pictures are valuable to the present generation because of their style, their spirit, their truth to a point of view, and most of all for their superb workmanship" (3).

34. Editor's Note. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1920. vii-viii. Van Dyke says that he did "little more than arrange" Carnegie's notes (vii). This is doubtful, witness Van Dyke's retelling in his own words of the McLuckie story (236-39). [See also 13, p. 96-97]. My The Homestead Strike and the Mexican Connection contradicts the above stories, follows McLuckie's activist career after the strike, and states the case why neither Carnegie nor Van Dyke are to be trusted on this vicious case of vengeance. Always worried about maintaining a positive public image, after this bloodiest of American strikes Carnegie was at pains to wash the stains of it from his hands for the rest of his life.

35. The Education of Teachers: Memoranda Prepared for the State Board. Trenton: (State Board of Education,). 1913. "The New Jersey State Schools for the training of teachers need enlargement, coordination and systematizing" (1). This rare little monograph, buried in Van Dyke's own library, shows the other side of the romantic writer, the earnest public servant who spent many unpaid years laboring to improve education for the masses. Backing himself with ample statistics, Van Dyke sounds downright progressive in lobbying to expand the school system and provide special courses for farmers and handicapped children. It's hard to believe that the same man also could write with hot, damaging bile elsewhere, as in The Money God.

36. An Exponent of Pre-Raphaelites. Review of Tuscan Songs. Translation and Illustrations by Francesca Alexander. The Dial 24.282 ( 16 March 1898): 177-78. Reviewing this collection of peasant


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songs, Van Dyke concentrates on the illustrations and turns his review into an attack on the Pre-Raphaelites and their "prophet," Ruskin. The movement has its charms, but they are small ones because adherents misunderstood the early Italian painters, imitating their faults rather than their virtues. So, too, with these illustrations, done by one of Ruskin's "disciples" (177). With their fixation on detail, they catch "the leaves upon the tree" but miss the "significance of the forest" (178). That is, basically, Van Dyke's complaint with Ruskin; fidelity to Nature's truths by an overweening recording of realistic details can turn into a hodge-podge missing Nature's greater, and far more satisfying, unities.

37. Florence: Critical Notes on the Galleries of the Uffizi, the Pitti, and the Academy. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1927. An effort to complete the series even after the bulk of it, published in 1914, had foundered.

38. Genre Painting in Literature. The Critic ( 4 October 1884): 157-58. In the modern day, both painting and literature have abandoned ideas in favor of technique. Van Dyke argues for a fusion of the two. Here is delicious sarcasm involving frogs and cans of sardines. Yet it seems a spate, Van Dyke's pen running away from him with the glory of its words, for he is countering his own bold advocacy elsewhere of beauty for its own sake and his often rough put-downs of realism, as in his Principles of Art (176).

39. George Inness. Outlook 73 ( 7 March 1903): 534-44. "He was very fond of moisture-laden air, rain effects, clouds clearing after rain." (539). A sympathetic appreciation of the landscapist's task and a keen evaluation of how he accomplished it.

40. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado. The Southwest in Literature: An Anthology for High Schools. eds. Mabel Major (ed.) and Rebecca W. Smith. (ed.) New York: (Macmillan,). 1929. 321-26. This anthology reflecting the growth of regional pride reprints the first chapter of The Grand Canyon of the Colorado (1-10). Van Dyke's good company includes Mary Austin, John A. Lomax, and Charles F. Lummis.

41. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado: Recurrent Studies in Impressions and Appearances. Fifth volume in his Natural Appearances Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1920. Likely with an eye to the recent establishment of the national park and the increased tourism in the American West during World War I, Van Dyke arrives pen in hand. The resulting book is something of an outlier in the series for combining rosy aesthetic passages with practical suggestions for viewing the Canyon. Modern aficionados praise Van Dyke for objecting to the alien names imposed upon canyon features (13-17) [See 179; 244; 263].

42. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado: Recurrent Studies in Impressions and Appearances. 1920. Foreword by Peter Wild. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1992. "[O]ne of Van Dyke's fortes was the ability to adjust his prose to fit the subject" (xviii). The Foreword goes on to discuss Van Dyke's peculiar personification of nature as a Great Goddess (xxii) and urges a comparison of Van Dyke's 18-21 with Dutton's 140-56 (xxvi) for their curious similarity.

43. Great Galleries of the World: The Louvre. The Mentor 3.14. ( 1915): 1-11, 13-24. Surveying The Louvre, Van Dyke shows delicate discrimination by placing this treasure in the context of Europe's other great collections.

44. Great Galleries of the World: The National Gallery, London. The Mentor 4.4 ( 1916): 1-24. From this exploration of a great gallery one senses Van Dyke's excitement at viewing genius.

45. Grimm's 'Michael Angelo'. Review of The Life of Michael Angelo, by Herman Grimm. The Book Buyer 13.11 ( December 1896): 737-39. This obscure book review shows Van Dyke capable of bright and generous intelligence, with fetching yet revelatory turns of phrase thrown into the bargain. The fine holiday edition confirms the excellence of a study published thirty years earlier: "It gives the period and the civilization that made Michael Angelo a possibility; it shows his intellectual atmosphere and his artistic elbow-room" (739).

46. Guinea Hens Poem. The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1993. 215 note 3. One of Van Dyke's less successful poetic efforts:

The guinea hens would run each day
Into the field of clover,
Pattering, chattering on their way

47. The High Alps. Scribner's Magazine 43.6 ( June 1908): 669-89. In this miniature of The Mountain, Van Dyke is at his sure ease in analyzing aesthetic seeing. The wonder we perceive in mountains springs from physics but exists independently of it, an arbitrary wholeness of pleasure divorced from its origins. So, once again, the "appearances" theme. Declares the alpenglow of morning the "perfect" picture (686). This fits with the influence of Turner.


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One can only wonder what daemon there at Scribner's impishly delighted in following this flight reveling in beauty with a short story by Van Dyke's archenemy Edith Wharton. The Verdict opens with an artist who has married a rich widow and ‘‘established himself in a villa on the Riviera (Though I rather thought it would have been Rome or Florence)’’ (689).

48. The Holiday Art Books. The Book Buyer 10.10 ( November 1893): 493-95. When he chose, Van Dyke overrode his stout dictum against the human element in art. In this exquisite piece on books for Christmas, he shows himself bibliophile, linguist, and art critic with nice tastes all at once. Emphasizing books whose illustrations illuminate the text, he doesn't ignore the text itself, commenting on the fluidity of translations from Hugo and Daudet, yet recommending (alas!) with good heart several volumes of his fellow poets, forgotten with great justification today.

49. How to Judge of a Picture: Familiar Talks in the Gallery with Uncritical Lovers of Art. New York: (Chautauqua,). 1888. Van Dyke holds forth with considerable technical detail on "the difference between pictures good and bad" (3). [For a note on some confusion surrounding the date of publication, see 13, p. 64, 224-25 note 3].

50. In Egypt: Studies and Sketches Along the Nile. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1931. Van Dyke ends his tour of Egypt by cooking up, almost surely out of his imagination, a preposterous but engaging drama. Threatening gunplay, he compels his Arab guides to take him off the tourist track and into the wilds of the Egyptian desert (187-90). There, the seventy-five-year-old writer has a vision; a prepubescent peasant girl becomes a lute-strumming beauty (197-202). This second desert book makes an interesting comparison with his first [See 611].

51. In Java: And the Neighboring Islands of the Dutch East Indies. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1929. Approves of Dutch colonialism, the lush tropical scenery, and the beautiful native women.

52. In the West Indies: Sketches and Studies in Tropic Seas and Islands. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1932. His last book. Contrasting with In Java, Van Dyke criticizes exploitation of the natives (39-41, 90-92). Although his Autobiography growls about Winslow Homer's tropical palette (183), here Van Dyke nonetheless uses a Homer, The Coconut Palm, for his frontispiece.

53. The Increase in the Appreciation of Serious Art in America: A Paper Read before the Rembrandt Club. Brooklyn: (The Club,). 1889. In this printed speech, here he is, the gently witty and informative lecturer on his mission to uplift people through art, making a sharp distinction between art as clever entertainment and art that moves by speaking from the very soul of the artistic genius. However, be careful not to misunderstand Van Dyke here. He is not praising, as might first appear, realism or representational art per se but the artistic profundity expressed by a painting. In this, Van Dyke makes a good case, as reflected in his later American Painting and Its Tradition, that there was no true art in America before the European influence of his own day (15) caused an "awakening" (23) of the "present art-spirit" (25). Interestingly, Van Dyke takes a shot at Wilde and Whistler (15). [See 387 to compare with F. D. Millet's What Are Americans Doing in Art? published two years later. See 182 for Baldwin's happy notice of this presentation.]

54. Introduction. A Grammar of the Arts, by Sir Charles Holmes. New York: (Macmillan,). 1932. vii-xi. Introducing a glossary of artistic terms, Van Dyke takes the opportunity to huff about the traditional values of craftsmanship: "The old masters! They were not great because they were old but because they were masters" (ix). And now that he has his tie loosened, he gives us a special treat. Now he lets us know what he really thinks of modern art, as seen in the works of Modigliani and Picasso--names so horrid he rarely allows himself to utter them (x).

55. Introduction. Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini. Translation by John Addington Symonds. New York: (D. Appleton,). 1899. iii-xi. The spirit of this swashbuckling Renaissance sculptor was "more fiery than Hotspur's, and he was always dropping tools and taking to horse to escape the consequences of some fatal fight" (v). Yet, as the bodies piled up, Cellini was proud of his deeds, never once thinking himself "a common rascal or sneak." In fact, "He told the truth as he knew it" (vii)--and there's virtue in that (and perhaps some of Van Dyke's rationalization of himself as well?).

56. Italian Painting. Boston: (A. W. Elson,). 1902. "This short monograph was written to accompany a series of fifty-nine large carbon photographs illustrating the progress of Italian painting, and is intended to be used as an introduction to the study of the pictures" (Publisher's Note, unpaged). The pictures appeared two years later in the gallery Renaissance Painting in Italy.


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57. The Jaws of the Desert. Unpublished manuscript. In yet another Van Dyke mystery, his Autobiography claims that The Jaws tells the "truth" about his desert travels and that he put the manuscript "in a table drawer" (139). No amount of opening table drawers in New Brunswick, however, has led to the manuscript; one wonders if Van Dyke was fabricating its existence.

58. John Ruskin. Library of the World's Best Literature, edited by Charles Dudley Warner. (ed.) New York: (International Society,). 1897. 32: 12509-16. Although Van Dyke went beyond Ruskin's fidelity to nature, he writes an even-tempered and informed appreciation of Ruskin, praising his "stimulus and hopeful inspiration in many fields" (12516).

59. Joseph Pennell. Commemorative Tributes of the American Academy of Arts and Letters: 1905- 1941. New York: (American Academy of Arts and Letters,). 1942. 200-07. Illustrator and Van Dyke's long-time friend, Pennell advocated "a bettering of that which had been received from the past" (200).

60. The Last Will and Testament of John C. Van Dyke. Dated 8 April 1932. Proved 12 December 1932. (Surrogate Court of Middlesex County,). New Brunswick, New Jersey. Although the powerful Van Dyke family is assumed to have been well-off, he must have garnered a good income from his vigorous book sales, and the course of Van Dyke's life certainly indicates little concern for finances, his will does not enumerate his wealth. Van Dyke bequeaths $1,000 to his housekeeper and the same sum to each of his five nephews and nieces. Beyond that, the rest of his estate, "real and personal," goes to "god-child" (daughter) Clare Van Dyke Parr. This important hint, however, has not panned out in tracing the whereabouts of the bulk of Van Dyke's personal papers. Some years ago, an elderly Van Dyke relative, now deceased, told me that after Van Dyke died Clare arrived with a truck and hauled off his possessions, supposedly to Yonkers, New York, where she lived. [See 414 and 415 for more of this trail, leading to at least one fruitful discovery, in the wills of Clare Van Dyke Parr and of her husband, Harry L. Parr.]

61. Letter. Bulletin of the College Art Association of America 4 ( September 1918): 75-83. Not without his own humor, Van Dyke thunders back to iconoclast Dana: "There are plenty of principles of art. Didn't I write a whole book full of them" (76)?

62. Letter. New York Times ( 30 January 1924): 18. In response to Van Dyke's Who Painted This Old Woman?, Bryson Burroughs claims in the Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that the Old Woman Cutting Her Nails was not repainted by an unknown restorer as Van Dyke asserts. Not to let a target slip him by, Van Dyke shoots back by enclosing a letter from Maximilian Toch, a specialist in the chemistry of painting, supporting Van Dyke's case.

63. The Life and Times of Correggio. Review of Antonio Allegri da Correggio: His Life, His Friends, and His Times, by Corrado Ricci. The Dial 20.230 ( 16 January 1896): 41-43. Although no brilliant breakthrough, Dr. Ricci's work sums up past scholarship, producing "the best [book] yet published" about the Renaissance painter (41). The review's sympathy for the subject's fascination with "form and color" and his tendency toward sentimentality perhaps correspond with the reviewer's own bent? (43). Note on this page the echo of the "lover" theme from Van Dyke's The Desert (xi).

64. Life of the Sea. The Mentor 9 ( August 1921): 24-28. Two poles of Van Dyke's thought, science and aestheticism, are seen here as not necessarily in conflict. In at least implying that he believes life sprung from "an opalescent mucus" in the sea (24), Van Dyke signals his acceptance of evolution (24, 26); yet this does not diminish the mystery with which he regards the oceans (26).

65. Lincoln's Reading and Modesty. Century Magazine 81.4 ( February 1911): 597-98. Contrary to the myth of the book-starved young Lincoln, Van Dyke asserts "there were plenty of books in Illinois in Lincoln's day" (597). Although perhaps he would object to the word "plenty," Western historian Wallace Stegner generally seconds Van Dyke. In any case, both agree that Lincoln was a relatively well-read young man.
The piece also reflects Van Dyke's pride in his family's association with Lincoln. [See 13, p. ix, x, 11-15, 31-32, 40, 213 note 3]. Here, Van Dyke notes Lincoln memorabilia owned by the family and that rancher brother Theodore owned a Lincoln letter (13). It likely went up in one of the several fires that plagued the isolated ranch. [For a tour of the ranch with Theodore's grandson and a discussion of these issues, see 602, Addendum of 1996, p. 96-118].

66. London: Critical Notes on the National Gallery and the Wallace Collection, with a General Introduction and Bibliography for the Series. New


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Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914. This is the flagship volume in a series of handy, pocket-sized guidebooks to some of Europe's most famous art museums. In this series, Van Dyke scrutinizes "every picture from Madrid to St. Petersburg" [See 13, p. 155]. The guides' concise and powerful comments direct American tourists, their numbers increasing but their eyes unschooled, toward the special features of each painting. As fate would have it, Scribner's published the bulk of the series in 1914, just as World War I began, thus creating Van Dyke's worst publishing failure. The pain of it was too great even for Van Dyke to hide (155-56).

67. The Lotto Portrait of Columbus. Century Magazine 44 ( October 1892): 802, 818-22. Van Dyke rushed manfully and gleefully into public disputes over art. Here, while being "shot at," he argues for the authenticity of a portrait of Columbus, by Italian Renaissance painter Lorenzo Lotto. For some reason, Van Dyke had gotten it into his head to push the portrait to be the emblem of the upcoming Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Years later, Van Dyke gloated at his success. At his urging the image was put "on all the tickets, diplomas, medals, and coins of the Fair" [See 13, p. 83]. Regarding such triumphs, Van Dyke both disdained the crowd and gloried in its applause. As he put it, he liked "the shout of the man in the street" (181). [As to the Lotto tempest, see 13, p. 82-83. See also 192; 232; 233; 295; 391; 428; 525; and 639. The listing in the Archival Sources for the James W. Ellsworth Papers at the Chicago Public Library provides further background. Together, they reflect the uncertainty surrounding the adamancy of Van Dyke's stance].

68. The Madonna in Art. The Mentor 5.4 ( 1917): 1-11, 13-24. Assesses the various artistic treatments of the Madonna down through history.

69. The Madonna in Italian Art. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.1 ( December 1903): 32-33. Six months after "The Story of ..." series he wrote for this popular magazine ends, Van Dyke appears again, this time with a big splash--a two-page spread of ten Italian Madonnas by Italian masters, captioned and illustrated with wreaths of holly for the Christmas season.

70. Madrid: Critical Notes on the Prado. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

71. The Making of Library Catalogs. The Library Journal 10.6 ( June 1885): 126-27. Mounting the pedestal of the enlightened iconoclast, Van Dyke storms against catalogs using ramifying classifications. Instead, he promotes an encyclopedic system arranged alphabetically by author, title, and subject. This way the holdings of a library, he assures us, will be accessible even to "the veriest dunce" (127).

72. The Meadows: Familiar Studies of the Commonplace. Sixth and final volume in his Natural Appearances Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1926. Pleasant strolls with the aging professor over the fields and hilly woodlands surrounding the spires of Van Dyke's beloved college town. A book of winning modesty and aesthetic grace. [For modern changes visited upon Van Dyke's idyllic landscape, see 598].

73. The Meaning of Pictures: Six Lectures Given for Columbia University at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1903. "The 'real' is nature itself, and 'truth' is merely the report of nature made by man" (4).

74. Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the Late Joseph Pennell: Held Under the Auspices of the Philadelphia Print Club and The Pennsylvania Museum, in Memorial Hall, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, from October 1st to October 31st, 1926. 15-20. Van Dyke praises Pennell for his precocious admiration of Martin Rico, a fascination setting the young artist on the right course (16-17). Of Pennell's prodigious output, Van Dyke tips his hat as one who knows: "Almost anyone can do one thing fairly well if he hammers at it long enough, but to do a thousand things and do them well,--that is quite another story" (19).

75. Modern Art and Isms. The Mentor 9 ( October 1921): 32-33. A brief but important article because it shows that Van Dyke, despite his ignoring them almost completely elsewhere in his writings, studied such new movements as Cubism and Futurism and at least partially understood their techniques while not grasping the impulses behind them. "Attempts to follow the recent movements in painting lead nowhere, because the movers themselves do not quite know where they are moving. There is Babel and discord" (32).

76. Modern Art Criticism. Review of Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture, by Adolf Furtwängler. The Dial 19.219 ( 1 August 1895): 70-74. As would a wrathy parent, Van Dyke praises one moment, damns the next. Professor Furtwä#x00E4;ngler's revisionist study changing the attributions of some Greek sculptures is pretty good, but it should be better. The problem is that in using the "scientific method" to identify artists, critics swell up until they're blinded by their


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own "vast superfluidity of arrogance" n="41"/> own "vast superfluidity of arrogance" (71). Commanding far more virtue, Van Dyke will show us how to do it right, avoiding such personal failings when he applies the same method in his Rembrandt studies.

77. The Money God: Chapters of Heresy and Dissent Concerning Business Methods and Mercenary Ideals in American Life. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1908. If The Meadows is one pole of Van Dyke, this is the other. In his embarrassing tantrum, Van Dyke rends his garments over people's stupidity and greed and in the process manages to damn just about every race, class, and occupation--all except Andrew Carnegie, presented as a model of tolerance and generosity. The magnate gives his full-blown ideas about the purpose of money in The Gospel of Wealth.

78. The Mountain: Renewed Studies in Impressions and Appearances. The fourth volume in his Natural Appearances Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1916. A treatise on the aesthetics of mountains around the world. Stretching the bounds of the book's scope, the first chapter is a fictional, if colorful and convincing, account--actually, the best I've ever read--of hunting buffalo across the great plains with a band of Sioux Indians (1-19). [For a Van Dyke article offering The Mountain in miniature, see 47].

79. The Mountain: Renewed Studies in Impressions and Appearances. 1916 Foreword by Peter Wild. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1992. The Foreword explores how Van Dyke "manages to write whole books about the aesthetic pleasures of viewing oceans or mountains without boring his reader" (xii).

80. Mr. Sargent's Most Popular Picture. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.6 ( May 1908): 25. Want to know which painting Van Dyke thought was "the very last word in skill, style and learning"? It's Sargent's Carnation Lily, Lily Rose. The execution perfectly fits the subject, two little girls lighting Japanese lanterns at dusk in a garden of flowers. More abstractly, the canvas is "a tale of light and color". Rightly so, Van Dyke's exuberation knows no bounds. And don't miss the rare reference in Van Dyke to music, here to the Götterdä#x00E4;mmerung(Is this telling?).

81. Munich, Frankfort, Cassel: Critical Notes on the Old Pinacothek, the Staedel Institute, the Cassel Royal Gallery. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

82. My Experiences on the Desert: Extracts from an Unpublished Autobiography. Progressive Arizona 11.11 ( October 1931): 3-5, 18, 19. Excerpt from the manuscript of My Golden Age, appearing long after Van Dyke's death as his Autobiography (118-23) but first published here, somewhat curiously, in a rather obscure magazine. One wonders if for some reason Van Dyke was having difficulty finding a publisher for My Golden Age. On the other hand, about this time Scribner's continued to issue his travel books, such as In Egypt ( 1931) and In the West Indies ( 1932), certainly a risk as the Great Depression lengthened and few people could afford to travel. In any case, this magazine publication follows the handwritten revisions on the original, holograph manuscript of My Golden Age.

83. My Golden Age: A Personal Narrative of American Life from 1861 to 1931. Manuscript published in 1993 as The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke: A Personal Narrative of American Life, 1861 to 1931. The manuscript exists in various forms and may be found in several places. The original, holograph manuscript is at the New Brunswick Theological Seminary's Gardner A. Sage Library. The original typescript is owned by a Van Dyke relative. Photocopies of the typescript are at the New Jersey Historical Society and at the Western Theological Seminary. A photocopy of the original holograph manuscript and a partial transcription in typescript made from it are in the holdings of the University of Arizona. See also Archival Sources. [For the history and editing of the manuscript see the editor's Introduction in 13, p. xxiv-xxvii. See also 615].

84. Nature for Its Own Sake: First Studies in Natural Appearances. The first volume in Van Dyke's Natural Appearances Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1898. Echoing his Art for Art's Sake, yet going beyond it, Van Dyke celebrates nature's beauty as the highest good. By stating that "The forms and colors of this earth need no association with mankind to make them beautiful" (x), Van Dyke establishes a fruitful contradiction running throughout his life. On the one hand, the beauty of nature is sufficient to itself; on the other, art consists of the artist's modifications of what he sees. Given Van Dyke's later track record, one does wonder, at least in passing, if by this stage of his life the author had, indeed, visited all the exotic places around the world whose beauty he hails in these pages.

85. The New New York: A Commentary on the Place and the People. Illustrated by Joseph Pennell. New York: (Macmillan,). 1909. From New Brunswick Van


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Dyke had a convenient commute by train to New York City, where he spent considerable time socializing and politicking in the arts. Somewhat startlingly, from this volume one would think traditionalist Van Dyke had become a neoteric. While including some frank discussions of the city's urban problems, the lovely book compares the picturesqueness of skyscraper New York City with the glories of Constantinople--quite a leap, but Van Dyke is convincing nonetheless in his aesthetic achievement. I have often suspected, but cannot prove, that this book was a lovely sop thrown to those, many of them living in New York City, upset by the savagery of The Money God, published the year before.

86. Notes on the Sage Library of the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick. Reformed Church Seminary Publication, No. 1. New Brunswick: (The Reformed Church in America,). 1888. Two years after he was appointed director of the august Gardner A. Sage Library, young Van Dyke shows that he has hit the deck running by issuing this pamphlet celebrating the collection and asking for donations. At the time, the library's holdings were remarkable, ranging from hermeneutics through the fine arts, from the Egyptian Book of the Dead on papyrus to a copy of the double-elephant folio of Audubon's The Birds of America. And don't miss Van Dyke's inimitable humor (25). An activist librarian and the greatest fundraiser the Seminary has ever seen, Van Dyke would turn the Sage into a wonder of light, installing stained-glass windows and completing the original architectural plan of the Library by adding its transept [See also 112 for his later The Sage Library]. But not everyone, including Rev. Daniel Meeter, has been pleased with Van Dyke's aesthetic drive and secular emphasis. Much more on Van Dyke and his surprising relationship with the Reformed Church is in the first and second installments of my Interviews and Notes Regarding John C. Van Dyke [See 602].

87. Of Truths and Beauties. The Critic 10 ( 28 July 1888): 37. Taking the issue quite seriously, a young Van Dyke argues that artistic truth is not the singular possession either of the realists or the idealists but particular to each individual artist. Each should act upon "the truth of his own impressions and convictions." This slippery stance illustrates at once the appeal and the sogginess of Art for Art's Sake. It also shows why Van Dyke shrugs in The Desert that all he can do is give his "impression" of what he sees (xi)--an impression which, contradicting all this, he came to believe was finer than anyone else's. Some animals are more equal than others.

88. Old Dutch and Flemish Masters, Engraved by Timothy Cole. New York: (Century,). 1895. The artists discussed range from Frans Hals to David Teniers, the Younger. Van Dyke knew about grace. As with the following, this volume is a delight to hold and leaf through.

89. Old English Masters, Engraved by Timothy Cole. New York: (Century,). 1902. Successfully applies the approach of the earlier Old Dutch and Flemish Masters. Artists discussed range from Hogarth to Landseer. In this achievement of comprehensive art criticism, Van Dyke treats most of his subjects with Apollonian equanimity. However, the nearly dithyrambic chapter on Turner (173-87), of anything anywhere else, best reveals Van Dyke's excited way of seeing when writing The Desert [See 601].

90. Old Masters that Are Not Old Masters (Part 3 of the series, Plain Talks about the Old Masters). The Ladies' Home Journal 23.12 ( November 1906): 23. For the bewildered ladies of the Journal, now all is as shifting sand. They can't trust the labels in museums, many of them harboring works falsely attributed to the Greats, at times deceptions purposefully continued to maintain the institutions' prestige. For an alexipharmic, Van Dyke in particular recommends Bernard Berenson's guides. All this foreshadowing the upset years later of Rembrandt and His School [See 106].

91. The Opal Sea: Continued Studies in Impressions and Appearances. Third volume in his Natural Appearances Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1906. The beauties of the world's seas described with a painterly eye.

92. The Open Spaces: Incidents of Nights and Days Under the Blue Sky. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1922. Showing how he got the drop on bandits and rode wildly over the plains with the toughest of cowboys, Van Dyke would lead his readers to believe that he was a stalwart frontiersman. He likely was embroidering stories told him by brother Theodore, a true outdoorsman, and offering them as his own in print. Consult the Archival Sources for copies of correspondence between the two in the Mojave Desert Heritage and Cultural Association.

93. The Open Spaces: Incidents of Nights and Days Under the Blue Sky. 1922. Foreword by Peter Wild. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1991. "The achievement of Van Dyke's books is not so much that they inform us as that they change us, teaching us to see and hear more and in ways that ever after enrich our own experiences in nature" (Foreword xiii).


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94. Painting at the Fair. Century Magazine 48.26 ( July 1894): 439-47. In this remarkably enlightened and balanced essay, Van Dyke surveys the art at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. His conclusion: If we only can get past the impulse for decadence, a bright future lies ahead for American art.

95. Paris: Critical Notes on the Louvre. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

96. Philadelphia Art Exhibition. New York Evening Post ( 6 January 1896): 7. Van Dyke's even-tempered and mostly favorable review of the exhibit especially praises Winslow Homer for his Northeaster, a marine. Van Dyke also likes a canvas by a Mr. Deming, of Indians on horseback, for "the feeling of night and danger in it."

97. The Piazetta Poem. The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1993. 153-54. In this piece of moving nostalgia in the Ubi sunt? mode, the aging poet wanders the streets of Venice remembering old friends and more gracious days:

I walk alone, I am the last.
I know not this new ebb and flow,
But--was that wrinkled hag that passed
The flower girl of long ago?

[See 313; 314; 322; 420; 535; and 587 for more on Van Dyke's infatuation with Venice and Italy].

98. Plain Talks about the Old Masters (Part 1). The Ladies' Home Journal 23.10 ( September 1906): 6. Galleries often are responsible for our false viewing of pictures. The Old Masters created canvases to be hung in specific places and under specific conditions in churches and palaces. Now gathered in museums, the paintings exist in a great jumble, at war with one another, often under the wrong lighting, and not seen from a sufficient distance. On this affliction to art, some progress is being made, as at the Louvre.

99. Plain Talks about the Old Masters (Part 2). The Ladies' Home Journal 23.11 ( October 1906): 23. "Many of the noblest and the best of pictures have been almost destroyed by time and bad restoration. The Mona Lisa... is only a pale ghost of its former self. All the carnations of the face have flown and given place to leaden hues... almost scrubbed out of existence by cleaners' hands and a whatnot of chemicals." There follows a short course on the dangers and benefits of restoration.

100. Principles of Art. New York: (Fords, Howard, and Hulbert,). 1887. In this discourse on art history and theory, Van Dyke thumps that realism is "the lowest and most contemptible form of art" (176).

101. Raphael. The Mentor 4.14 ( 1916): 1-11, 12, 13-24. Raphael "appeared in the noontide of the Renaissance, drew all eyes by his radiant genius, and then, before twilight had set in, passed out in splendor as a star in the blue" (1). Van Dyke explains the why of all this.

102. The Raritan: Notes on a River and a Family. New Brunswick: privately printed, 1915. A family history rich with moving sentiments about how generations of Van Dykes lived close to the land. Essayist, poet, and Van Dyke cousin, Henry van Dyke, however, politely questioned its accuracy [See 524, p. 58-59]. In any case, don't miss the surprisingly frank self-portrait. Although "Nature has proved the most lasting love of all" (86), Van Dyke and his brothers inherited "a nervous morbidity," "a bleak pessimism," and a sense of failure (87). Interestingly for a family history, the dedication is "To C. V. D. P., With Much Love," that is, to Clare Van Dyke Parr, Van Dyke's daughter out of wedlock.

103. Recent American Sculpture. The Century Magazine 52.1 ( May 1896): 89, 158-59. Considering all his storms against representational art, it's a little unsettling to behold Van Dyke here praising the execution of a monument presenting the figures of Poetry and Patriotism flanking the dour form of Mother Ireland. What to make of it? Recall his own clichéd poetry? Or perhaps, as in Old English Masters, he bent his theories when convenient to accommodate popular taste [See 20 for his more sophisticated analysis, emphasizing the abstract beauties, in The Century's American Artist Series].

104. Rembrandt. The Mentor 4.20 ( 1916): 1-11, 13-24. In this appreciation of the Master, Van Dyke gives inklings of his stormy Rembrandt book to come: "Northern art has not had a critical search-light turned upon it. . . . When it does, the present catalogue of Rembrandt's will crumble" (11).

105. Rembrandt Again. Review of Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, His Time, by Emile Michel. The Dial 16.185 ( 1 March 1894): 139-41. The biography reminds Van Dyke of Agassiz, who reconstructed a rare fish on the evidence of a single bone. "Unfortunately, M. Michel's historic method is not so satisfying" (139). Nonetheless, Van Dyke separates the metal from the dross, pointing out the book's areas


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of usefulness. Again, a reflection of Van Dyke? He honors Rembrandt for his wayward individualism and his beauty-creating distortions (140).

106. Rembrandt and His School: A Critical Study of the Master and His Pupils with a New Assignment of Their Pictures. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1923. The book caused the greatest public furor of Van Dyke's writing career by greatly reducing the number of works by Rembrandt, thus not only wounding critics' pride but collectors' pocketbooks. Van Dyke took the heat well, all but rejoicing in the stir he'd created [See 13, p. 174-79]. Van Dyke may have been wrong in a number of the particulars but right in his main thrust. The debate over Rembrandt's oeuvre continues [See 160, 181].

107. The Rembrandt Drawings and Etchings, with Critical Reassignments to Pupils and Followers. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1927. A companion volume to the above. "It was received with hostility like its predecessor," but "I had...set people thinking" [See 13, p. 178].

108. Renaissance Painting in Italy: A Catalogue of Carbon Photographs with Descriptions by John C. Van Dyke, L.H.D. New York: (A. W. Elson,). 1904. This gallery of illustrations is intended to be introduced by Van Dyke's monograph Italian Painting. Here, the famous paintings of the Italian Renaissance printed one to a page, each with Van Dyke's one-page comment opposite. These would be handy for the courses in art history then appearing in college curricula. Consequently, the publisher offers the photographs for sale enlarged in "A and B sizes, at $10 and $5 respectively" (xi). The idea is to "raise the public appreciation of the best in art" (v), although, despite this high aim, Van Dyke had a sharp eye out for schemes to turn a few extra shekels now and then to supplement his two regular incomes. For example, see The Frick Art and Historical Center, in the Archival Sources.
Van Dyke held no earned academic degree. The L.H.D. (Doctor of the Humanities) attached to Van Dyke's name here is the honorary degree conferred on him by Rutgers.

109. Return of the Victorious Pharaoh to Thebes Poem. The Critic 23 ( August 1884): 91. A valiant poetic effort:

In a cloud of dust, in a brazen flame,
The conquering monarch of Egypt came!

Yet to be fair, although the poem fails to explore any new intellectual or aesthetic territory, once it warms to its subject the piece begins rumbling, gaining power, stretching the reader's vision out to see--almost in anticipation of a Cecil B. DeMille film--a vast panorama of soldiers advancing until "the earth and the sky seemed one helmeted rim."


110. The Romance of Rembrandt's Life. The Ladies' Home Journal 23.8 ( July 1906): 20. With a powerful opening paragraph, Van Dyke shows that romance is an illusion, although a sustaining one, even when imposed on past figures. Thus, our humanity deepened, we follow the trajectory of Rembrandt's life, from the whirl of his great love, Saskia, and through her early death to the painter's sad and bankrupt closing years. A moving piece revealing a glimpse of human comprehension not often seen in Van Dyke's writing.

111. Rome: Critical Notes on the Borghese Gallery, the Vatican Gallery, the Stanze and Loggie, the Borgia Apartments. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1924. Another attempt to revive the failed series.

112. The Sage Library: Its Books, Manuscripts and Portraits. Special issue of New Brunswick Seminary Bulletin 6.1 ( April 1931). A history of the library from the beginning of the Seminary of the Reformed Church in America in 1784 through Van Dyke's tenure. He took the Gardner A. Sage Library, originally a rather dour affair, and converted it into a cathedral of airy light, its statuary and fine paintings bathed in the colored glow streaming down from high, stained-glass windows. And so it remains today.

113. Sargent the Portrait Painter. Outlook 74 ( 2 May 1903): 31-39. "Mr. Sargent's whole style is more Parisian than anything else .... He has never been led away by new movements, nor has he sympathized with mere fads" (39).

114. The Silent River That Runs Through the American Wonderland. Los Angeles Times ( 1 January 1905): 10. Reprints Van Dyke's powerful The Silent River chapter from The Desert (63-76). Whoever wrote the brief introduction to the piece expresses a popular attitude of the day by having it both ways. The Colorado River is a noble giant, and although we may shed a tear for its passing, this exemplum of wild nature must give way to something better, the "throb and hum ... that accompany civilization and progress."

115. St. Petersburg: Critical Notes on the Hermitage. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.


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116. Still Waters. The Living Age ( 13 August 1898): 492-94. This excerpt of a few pages from Nature for Its Own Sake (188-96) shows the richness of Van Dyke's prose, how bravely it can stand up on its own. Includes a discriminating comparison of the canals of Holland and Venice.

117. The Story of Corot and the Orpheus. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.3 ( February 1904): 19. Picking up on his piece in the issue from the month before, Van Dyke compares the dour, earth-stained Millet with the airy Corot, who painted "a dreamland of Olympian groves." However, Van Dyke might thump his critical dicta elsewhere, he now impresses with his generosity in wide taste and the depth of his background knowledge.

118. The Story of Correggio's Holy Night. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.7 ( January 1903): 19. Besides the usual aesthetic analysis, Van Dyke gives us the tang of intrigue. The picture was so envied that the reigning family in the area tried to get its clutches on the altarpiece, but the clergy resisted. Finally, a conniving duke had it stolen and spirited off to Modena. The previous month's issue announced this article as the last of the series.

119. The Story of Leonardo's Mona Lisa. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.3 ( February 1903): 4. Contrary to the legend, Leonardo was not the dreamy, dilatory artist of painting lore who took four years to complete this picture. Rather, he "saw much of the fair lady and .. .painted her in those four years not once but many times." Explains the wonder of the Mona Lisa's hands and why she has lost her lovely coloring.

120. The Story of Millet's Gleaners. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.2 ( January 1904): 18. America's housewives aspiring to "culture" receive instruction on the fine points of art. Surrounded by ads for radiators and Amour's Extract of Beef, Van Dyke shows that he will do so without condescension. Using a famous painting as his subject, in this first lesson he makes careful distinctions between everyday and artistic truths and trains unschooled eyes how to perceive the niceties of color and composition.

121. The Story of Rembrandt's Night Watch. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.6 ( May 1903): 17. Van Dyke straightens us out on a number of points concerning this well-known work. The painting neither takes place at night nor is it of a watch but of "a group of portraits of the Civic Guard of Amsterdam," for which Rembrandt received sixteen hundred florins. Even at that fee, however, he botched the job. As "the slave of his own method," he could not make his usual handling of light, successful in single portraits, work in this larger canvas of many figures. For all that, his brilliant textures and sense of dashing men would in themselves "make the reputation of a dozen artists."

122. The Story of Rubens's Descent from the Cross. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.4 ( March 1903): 19. American tourists in Europe's museums walk past "miles and miles of canvases" without understanding them. Van Dyke will be our corrective. First, viewers need to appreciate the religious impulse of the time. Paintings were meant to inspire holy awe in illiterate peasants. Second, the technical aspects affecting this: "Rubens planned the long diagonal line in this group that you might feel the fall of the body."

123. The Story of the Pine. New York: (Authors Club,). 1893. As is true of many a cynic, the later Van Dyke hid, but did not overcome, a thick swatch of sentiment in his heart. This brief early tale is about a love affair between a pine tree and a birch tree. Note the dripping sentiment of his childhood memory in the Autobiography [See 13, p. 26]. For how he curbed, but never conquered, this streak in his writing [See 13, p. 225-26 note 5].

124. The Story of the Sistine Madonna. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.2 ( January 1903): 6. Not "one person in a hundred fully understands" this eminent oil by Raphael. Therefore, Van Dyke instructs us, telling how (so it is said) Raphael saw the painting in a dream; how it was designed to fit its place as an altarpiece, the Child held high by the Madonna so that the congregation could see Him; why Santa Barbara is there and why she is kneeling, etc. A clear and thorough exegesis.

125. The Story of Titian's Entombment. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.5 ( April 1903): 4. The cover for this Easter issue features a huge rabbit looking out with a magisterial eye, but Van Dyke has serious business at hand. The Entombment seems dull, offering little of story interest. But "Look at the figures merely as figures, and have you ever seen, aside from Greek sculpture, grander, fuller, more imposing forms than these? Note the strong heads and necks and shoulders, the firm hands and arms and feet."

126. The Story of Watt's Love and Death. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.12 ( November 1904): 26.


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Sawing back and forth on the issue of realism versus pure asethetics, Van Dyke contradicts his candescent statements elsewhere by asking Why not have both? The he does a second radical thing. For the first time in the series, he offers negative words for the subject before the article, in this case a work of clumsy skills--as clunky as a poem by Walt Whitman!

127. Studies in Pictures: An Introduction to the Famous Galleries. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1907. A guide for unschooled tourists to European galleries, educating them to see the paintings "truly," "adequately," and "justly" (v).

128. Suggestiveness in Art. The New Englander 14.1 ( January 1889): 29-42. Science is fine enough in its own realm, but its successes have led "the masses" to honor factualness in art, too. Arguing to the contrary, Van Dyke points to broken fragments of Greek statuary that lead the mind on beyond the actual. His reminder: "the expressive arts have to do with the realm of the imagination, and their province is to please by stimulating the imagination of the beholder" (29).

129. Syllabus of Lectures on Old Italian and Modern French Painting, Historically and Critically Considered, Delivered during the Second Session, 1891- 1892. New York: (Columbia College,). 1892. A study in contrasts, Van Dyke created tensions both in his life and work by opposing a hyperactive romanticism with a compulsion for order. The latter clearly is evident in the details of this twenty-three-page syllabus for a course in art history. Many tables of contents in his books exhibit the same drive. Interestingly, from the outline of the last lecture it seems that Van Dyke saw much of art as a back-and-forth battle between romanticism and classicism.

130. A Text-Book of the History of Painting. College Histories of Art Series. New York: (Longmanns, Green,). 1894. A textbook discussing hundreds of painters throughout the centuries of Western art. In addition to writing this volume on painting for the series, Van Dyke served as editor for two related studies, one on architecture by Hamlin, another about sculpture by Marquand and Frothingham. In his Autobiography Van Dyke rejoices over the success of the three books and tells how it inspired the idea for putting together Modern French Masters [See 13, p. 108-10].

131. The Times Home Study Circle. The World's Great Artists. Rubens. Los Angeles Times ( 19 April 1899): 7. The Times invited authorities in the field to contribute articles in a series on famous artists. In this two-part discussion Van Dyke shows his keen way with words and thought. By Rubens' time pietism was out, exuberance in: "There was no more of painting soul well by painting body ill."

132. The Times Home Study Circle. The World's Great Artists. Rubens. Los Angeles Times ( 26 April 1899): 7. Van Dyke concludes the Rubens lecture with a drum roll. Rubens' colors are "radiant with light and will make the hues of any other master look washed out."

133. The Times Home Study Circle. The World's Great Artists. Rembrandt. Los Angeles Times ( 3 May 1899): 7. In this second two-parter, Van Dyke explores how culture and economics shaped Rembrandt's work. For instance, because of their Protestant misgivings the Dutch did not decorate their churches with paintings. Without that income enjoyed by many of his Italian brethren, Rembrandt turned to the business of portraiture and income from taking on students.

134. The Times Home Study Circle. The World's Great Artists. Rembrandt. Los Angeles Times ( 10 May 1899): 7. Concluding his comments on the Great Master, Van Dyke shows himself the romantic by arguing that Rembrandt's paintings reflect the emotional changes of his life. "[A]s he advanced in years he kept growing more profound in his thoughts, his emotions, his art."

135. Titian's Flora. Century Magazine 51.2 ( December 1895): 318-19. A splendid example of Van Dyke's scalpel-knife seeing.

136. Two Private Collections in Paris. The Art Review. 2.4 ( December 1887): 61-73. This is, bar none, the best art criticism by Van Dyke, showing his keenness of vision, primitive strength, and catholic comprehension. And all this at the age of thirty-one!
He may say that ‘‘A painting should appeal to no other sense than sight’’ (67), but his emphasis points to a profundity beyond mere optical excitements. A painting may be realistic, but its sentimental story or technique aside, what really counts is that a canvas reverberate with the essence of the subject and/or with the passion of an artist's soul worthy of being revealed. (Such was his approach in The Desert.) With this liberality he praises what matters in painters as different as Millet, Delacroix, and Constable. Van Dyke's sweet generosity here almost has us forgiving his slipperiness elsewhere.


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137. Venice, Milan: Critical Notes on the Venice Academy, the Brera Gallery, the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1924.

138. Vienna, Budapest: Critical Notes on the Imperial Gallery and Budapest Museum. New Guides to Old Masters Series. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1914.

139. Wanted--The Data of Criticism. The Studio 2.47 ( 24 November 1883): 232-35. Even as a youth, Van Dyke could be a volcano blowing its top. Critics, "knights of the order of the grey goose quill," sling their unfounded opinions about at will, while the public is "quite willing to have the critics suggest what it should think" (232). There is a humorous aspect to this blustering, since Van Dyke staunchly saw himself--not as a volcano--but as a fount whose truths should be accepted simply on the authority of their source.

140. What a Burne-Jones Picture Means. The Ladies' Home Journal 21.5 ( April 1904): 23. Usually on hair trigger for the Pre-Raphaelites, Van Dyke here eases up a bit for a painter of medieval romance whose sentimentalism likely struck a chord with Van Dyke's own maudlin streak. Then, too, Burne-Jones took reality as a departure point for the imagination, a reminder of words from The Desert: "The reality is one thing, the appearance quite another" (109).

141. What Do These Old Pictures Mean? (Part 4 of the series, Plain Talks About the Old Masters). The Ladies Home Journal 24.2 ( January 1907: 21. The frequent question, "What does this picture mean?", often may be the wrong one. We may well not share the religious significance a canvas had for its time, or, indeed, the significance may be entirely lost. What counts is our pleasure at its artistry. And there's another benefit. The Old Masters painted the scenes and people they knew and loved. The glowing angel's face may be that of the artist's mistress. Hence, we have not only an historical record of dress and furnishings but vibrant, human portraits. Also knocks the Pre-Raphaelites: "The grasp at the little things of fact is a gain in trifles." Yet in the next month's piece, The Workmanship of the Great Artists, he praises crafted detail as "art in its very best sense."

142. What Is All This Talk About Whistler? The Ladies Home Journal 21.4 ( March 1904): 10. Only when "goaded by ignorant criticism ... as by Ruskin" did Whistler turn from a "sensitive man" into a "waspish character." So says Van Dyke. The public also has misunderstood Whistler's paintings, ingeniously contrived to transform a realistic subject into the different reality of "a harmonious scheme of color."

143. What Is Art? Studies in the Technique and Criticism of Painting. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1910. In his defense of Art for Art's Sake, Van Dyke scowls on "anything that is of popular interest" (87) and seems to be responding to Tolstoy's book of the same title.

144. Who Painted This Old Woman? New York Times ( 16 December 1923), Section 4: 3. The Rembrandt painting most familiar to New Yorkers in Van Dyke's time was the Old Woman Cutting Her Nails, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Coolly, steadily, point by point, in this large spread with photographs illustrating the details, Van Dyke explains why the attribution is wrong. In fact, the painting is clumsy, showing defects of Nicolaes Maes totally uncharacteristic of Rembrandt. Furthermore, the picture was repainted about a hundred years ago, and the duped public has been agog at the brushstrokes of an unknown restorer. A seminal piece illustrating Van Dyke's logic and aplomb under fire.

145. Winter Birds. Familiar Essays of To-Day, edited by Benjamin A. Heydrick. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1930. 245-61. Reprints a lovely chapter from The Meadows (21-43). In the biographical note, Van Dyke comments on his method of writing:

If one has something to say, he need not worry about the manner of saying it. It will say itself. Learning to write something about nothing is the cause of so many dreary stupid books being put out each year. Whatever I have had to say I have tried to say it in the fewest and the simplest words--words that a child may understand. That is my notion of good style.(246)
This is pure literary posing. In an intimate and forthright letter to editor Brownell, Van Dyke pleads for help: "I wish you would read the galley proofs and give me the benefit of your suggestions. I haven't lost any idiocies since I have been out here, and I surely must have picked up a lot of mannerisms. I'm relying on you to keep me from making too big an ass of myself" [See 524, p. 40]. The Autobiography often complains about the onerous lot of the writer [See 13, p. 61-66, 108-11, 128-31]. And,


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of course, over the years the intricacies of Van Dyke's layered prose have eluded many critics, let alone children.

146. The Workmanship of the Great Artists. The Ladies' Home Journal 24.3 ( February 1907): 38. "The pictures [of the Old Masters] may mean little to us, but they look superb things. For the Old Masters were excellent craftsmen." Their handling of decorative details "is art in its very best sense."

147. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1920. Carnegie admirer Van Dyke was reworking the notes of a man who already had put a pleasant gloss on his life. [See also 221, "Editor's Note"]. Glaringly suspect is the account of the McLuckie affair (235-39), a bizarre cluster of events explored in my The Homestead Strike and the Mexican Connection [See 600].

148. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. 1920. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1924. A reprint at a popular price.

149. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. 1920. Foreword Cecelia Tichi. Boston: (Northeastern University Press,). 1986. Tichi states that Carnegie's autobiography "attempts to show that the capitalist-industrialist was the man of meritorious character, an agent of the progress of civilization and the man on whom the public could rely to be its benefactor. In this sense the Carnegie persona repudiates contemporary critical voices" (xvi). The Foreword makes no mention of Van Dyke.

150. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., The History of American Music, by Louis Charles Elson. History of American Art Series. New York: (Macmillan,). 1904. In his Autobiography Van Dyke explains his enthusiasm for this series, how it would cover "all the arts in America." For various frustrating reasons Van Dyke enumerates, the project went no further than this book and the two immediately following. However, "Isham had written the first comprehensive history of American painting and Taft had done the same for American sculpture," and in this Van Dyke took great satisfaction. It's worth noting in this passage that Van Dyke says Joseph Pennell was to do the volume on illustration and engraving but that "he died before his volume was finished" (111). Given the dates for the three published books in this series, the statement about Pennell ( 1857- 1926) seems a little strange. (In the Archival section, note the letter of 1903 at the University of Pennsylvania.) However, the confusion is but one more example of how woefully off Van Dyke can be in the dates, and even in the general time frames, he offers in his Autobiography. When writing the Autobiography, could Van Dyke have forgotten that his friend didn't die until 1926? Yes. Teague and Wild comment on the possible effects of the doses of silver nitrate Van Dyke was taking [See 524, p. 10, 98 note 68].

151. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., The History of American Painting, by Samuel Isham. History of American Art Series. New York: (Macmillan,). 1905.

152. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., The History of American Sculpture, by Lorado Taft. History of American Art Series. New York: (Macmillan,). 1903.

153. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., Modern French Masters: A Series of Biographical and Critical Reviews by American Artists. New York: (Century,). 1896. Van Dyke asks his artist friends--the list, including Kenyon Cox, Will H. Low, and Julian Alden Weir, is, in itself, revealing--to write about the French masters they most regard. The trials, tribulations, and great hopes for what Van Dyke saw as a breakthrough work he sets forth in his Autobiography (108-10). He is man enough to admit his disappointment that "the book was not taken more seriously" (110) but shows his spunk by moving right along into the History of American Art Series (110-11).

154. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., Modern FrenchMasters: A Series of Biographical and Critical Reviews by American Artists. 1896. Introduction by H. Barbara Weinberg. New York: (Garland,). 1976. Weinberg's introduction establishes the context. The great wealth created by industrialization after the Civil War saw not only the florescence of art but books about the new artistic awakening. Weinberg surveys these books, analyzes them, and sees this Van Dyke work as a "unique collection of essays" arising from the artistic excitement (5). This reprint of Modern French Masters is one of the twenty-six other reissues, "invaluable resources for students of American art history" (13).

155. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., A Text-Book of the History of Architecture. College Histories of Art Series, by Alfred Dwight Foster Hamlin. New York: (Longmans, Green,). 1896.

156. John C. Van Dyke, (ed.) ed., A Text-Book of the History of Sculpture. College Histories of Art Series, by Allan Marquand and Arthur L. Frothingham. New York: (Longmans, Green,). 1896.


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157. John C. Van Dyke, et al. Ramblings Among Art Centres. Philadelphia: (The Booklovers Library,). 1901. Describing itself as The Booklovers Reading Club Hand-Book to Accompany the Reading Course Entitled, Ramblings Among Art Centres (7), the little volume, handsomely printed, reflects the interest in art history among Philadelphia's genteel. Various contributors help further with this measure: Russell Sturgis, Kenyon Cox, and John La Farge. Van Dyke's role not clearly defined. Regardless, this rare book, revealing the niceties, should be a boon to specialists.

158. John C. Van Dyke, et al. Rembrandt: Selected Studies. Philadelphia: (The Louvre and Luxembourg Company,). no date. This intelligent, thirty-two page introduction to the Master gives readers their money's worth: "Rembrandt was a mind as well as an eye. Few painters had a keener grasp on actualities; few saw the world without so positively and so clearly. Yet the artist's view is always tinctured by an individuality; and everything in nature, to Rembrandt, was 'seen through the prism of an emotion'" (21).





Works About John C. Van Dyke


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159. Abbey, Edward. Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness. New York: (McGraw-Hill,). 1968. 239. One of today's famous desert writers hints at a major encouragement to his own feistiness by including Van Dyke's The Desert on his short list of recommended desert reading.

160. Adams, Henry. Rembrandt or Not Rembrandt? Smithsonian 26.9 ( December 1995): 82-93. A popular overview of the difficulties through the years in determining Rembrandt's oeuvre. [See 181].

161. Aestheticism. The Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism, edited by Joseph Childers (ed.) and Gary Hentzi. (ed.) New York: (Columbia University Press,). 1995. 4-5. This is about the meatiest discussion of the subject you're likely to find in one paragraph, packing in a lucid definition and references to the thinkers leading to it.

162. Aestheticism. The New Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: (Encyclopedia Britannica,). 1994. 1: 123. With roots in Immanuel Kant, the movement gained strength during the nineteenth century while reacting to industrial ugliness, then reached a high point when Whistler took up the cause. The term often is used interchangeably with Art for Art's Sake.

163. Aestheticism. The Oxford Dictionary of Art, edited by Ian Chilvers (ed.) and Harold Osborneed. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1988. 6. Both Ruskin and Tolstoy opposed art freed of moral issues. However, "that aesthetic standards are autonomous, and that the creation and appreciation of beautiful art are self-rewarding activities, has become an integral part of 20th-cent[ury] aesthetic outlook."

164. Aitken, William Benford. Distinguished Families in America Descended from Wilhelmus Beekman and Jan Thomasse Van Dyke. New York: (P. G. Putnam's Sons,). 1912. Genealogy of the paternal side of Van Dyke's family. [For the maternal side, see 264.] Much lore about family heroics. Van Dyke and brothers listed (216-17). Contrary to the information in Aitken, Van Dyke's father did not die in New Brunswick (216) but in Wabasha, Minnesota. [See 320; 13, p. 42].

165. An Amateur In Economics. Review of The Money God, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 23 May 1908): 287. Van Dyke's tirade summed up well. While Van Dyke has described a human race of Yahoos, he offers no remedy. The book remains a tirade. Furthermore: "Mr. Vandyke [sic] has won so much credit by his writings on art and nature that it seems a pity that he should wander into the field of economics without special equipment or call to speak authoritatively." True, but the book is a comment ranging far beyond economics, a Van Dyke's Dantean prospect on the nearly hopeless corruption of humanity.

166. An American Achievement in Art. The Century Magazine 43.1 ( November 1891): 153. Woes of art in the nitty-gritty. For years The Century has run Mr. Cole's reproductions of Europe's artistic masterpieces, printed from woodblocks. Now the editorial praises Americans' "genuine growth in taste" for art generally and Cole's artistry in the particular. The problem is that when Mr. Cole brings his blocks back from Europe, rather than allow them in duty-free as art, the customs officials charge him a heavy tax for importing "manufactures of wood." The Century hopes that "some way will be found" to enlighten officialdom.

167. Anderson, Eric Gary. Review of The Secret Life of John C. Van Dyke: Selected Letters, edited by David W. Teague (ed.) and Peter Wilded. (ed.) Isle ( 1998): 167-68. "It is abundantly clear from these letters that Van Dyke was many different men--by turns kind, charming, insulated, worldly, and cranky--to many different people. The very range of his correspondence reinforces this emerging understanding of a Van Dyke who, if not exactly mercurial, is clearly a man of many personae: he receives letters from Andrew Carnegie and Booker T. Washington" (168).

168. Andrew Carnegie's Biography [sic] in a Popular Edition. Review of The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) New York Times Book Review ( 13 April 1924): 7. "One may have decided convictions about some of the contributing causes that enabled Mr. Carnegie to pile up his appalling fortune, but neither those nor any disapproval one may entertain as to some of his


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personal characteristics lessens the very great dramatic and psychologic interest and the human values of the narrative." [See 396].

169. Archibald, Raymond Clarke. Strong, Theodore. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Scribner's,). 1936. 9: 152. Biography of Van Dyke's maternal grandfather, a mathematician and graduate of Yale who eventually became a vice-president of Rutgers.

170. Armstrong, Hamilton Fish. Those Days. New York: (Harper and Row,). 1963. Most of Van Dyke's books are handsomely done; the ornate yet restrained grace of several the works of best-selling author and book designer Margaret Armstrong. Through this reminiscence full of sentiment but not sentimental, we see the family life of Margaret Armstrong and get to know the cultural milieu of New York City of Van Dyke's day. The writer, her brother, gives especially good glimpses of Margaret (134-43). Her artist father was in Van Dyke's orbit, sharing friendships with John La Farge, Mark Twain, and Elihu Vedder. [More on this sidelight of Van Dyke's career, see 171; 172; 300; 347; and 388].

171. Armstrong, Margaret Neilson. Twentieth Century Authors: A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Stanley J. Kunitz (ed.) and Howard Haycroft. (ed.) New York: (H. W. Wilson,). 1942. 40-41. The biographical rundown catches little of the verve of this talented woman.

172. Armstrong, Margaret (Neilson). Who's Who in America. Chicago: (A. N. Marquis,). 1944. 23: 57. Armstrong's books ranged from a field guide to Western flowers to murder mysteries.

173. Aronson, Marc Henry. William Crary Brownell, Literary Culture, and the Marketplace. Dissertation. (New York University,). 1995. "Brownell's editorial practices are explored through an examination of a large body of his letters, his reader's reports, and his marginal notes on manuscripts. This analysis shows how Brownell's commercial and activist yet deferential editorial style fostered both gentility and popularity. His public role as a critic is investigated by reviewing his numerous critical essays and nine books." From the abstract.

174. Art. Review of What Is Art?, by John C. Van Dyke. The Nation ( 15 December 1910): 590. Commends Van Dyke for the "pungent good sense" to condemn literalism by suggesting that true art is a matter of execution, not theme. Van Dyke may not have defined the "true seeing" lying behind technique, but he intimates it. Lastly, this "prophet of the beautiful" might well be ignored in the aesthetic desert presently prevailing across the land.

175. Art for Art's Sake. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Art, edited by Bernard S. Myers. (ed.) New York: (McGraw-Hill,). 1969. 1:170. Followers "worshipped beauty as a supreme and absolute value and set out to defend art's purity."

176. The Artist's View of Painting. Review of Art for Art's Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. The Book Buyer 10.2 ( March 1893): 67-69. Van Dyke has broken new ground in writing about art, offering a book on painting from the painter's point of view and, gearing his book for laymen, succeeding in his explanations of the technical delicacies in the creation of art (67).

177. Austin, Mary. Earth Horizon. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1932. Austin's autobiography never mentions Van Dyke, and Van Dyke's never mentions Austin. Yet Austin knew Lummis, Lummis knew Van Dyke, etc.--at times, it seems everyone loving the desert knew everyone else. That does not mean they spoke to one another. Whatever their differences in politics and class, Austin and Van Dyke shared the same self-promoting bombast, and my guess is that over the decades the two glared at one another in stony, loathing silence. This bears further investigation. Note that we already have the parallel example, quite documentable, of Van Dyke and Edith Wharton.

178. Austin, Mary. The Land of Little Rain. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1903. The second book to praise America's arid lands, published two years after Van Dyke's The Desert. It is often assumed, as does Powell, that the first book inspired the second [See 440, p. 315]. However, the two volumes were written independently and to quite different romantic ends. [See 211; 248; 328; 356; 618 p. 60-74, 75-77, 78, 81-82; and 621, p. 136-39].

179. Babbitt, Bruce, (ed.) ed., Grand Canyon: An Anthology. Flagstaff, Arizona: (Northland Press,). 1978. 58-60. This handsomely printed collection credits Van Dyke with objecting to the nomenclature of Oriental deities Dutton romantically imposed upon the Canyon's features (58). Also, in contrast to flowery writing about the Canyon, "More than anyone, John C. Van Dyke was responsible for bringing canyon writing back to reality, to style and imagination built upon the bedrock of good observation" (59). Governor Babbitt, however, passes on bad information in his biographical comments about Van Dyke. Excerpt from Van Dyke's The Grand Canyon (77-81).


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180. Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space. 1958. Translation by Maria Jolas. Boston: (Beacon Press,). 1969. Although it does not deal directly with deserts, this creates an extremely useful context for understanding Van Dyke's The Desert and our relationships with the world based on distances, both far and intimate. Tuan makes a good companion [See 531].

181. Bailey, Anthony. The Art World: A Young Man on Horseback. New Yorker ( 5 March 1990): 45-48, 50-53, 56-77. In summarizing the long controversy over establishing the body of Rembrandt's work, the article gives Van Dyke credit for renewing the investigative impulse in the twentieth century (48, 56, 58).

182. Baldwin, Simeon E. Current Literature. The New Englander 50.230 ( May 1889): 370-72. Baldwin welcomes Van Dyke's talk before the Rembrandt Club (after the appearance of this article, the talk was printed as The Increase in the Appreciation of Serious Art in America). The paper Van Dyke read acclaimed the enormous growth in the sophistication of Americans' tastes in art over the last two decades. This somewhat unusual review of Van Dyke's presentation in itself signals the shift from the trifling to the devoted position art was taking in the culture.

183. Banham, Peter Reyner. Scenes in America Deserta. Salt Lake City: (Gibbs M. Smith,). 1982. 152-69, 222-23. The peppery English art critic chides Van Dyke for being a "desert maniac" (158), but, whatever his reservations, Banham appreciates Van Dyke's "pure aestheticism" (222). [For the take-off of Banham's title, see 252].

184. Banker, Catherine Mary Courser. A Structural History of the Old Stone Hotel in Daggett, Utilizing Archaeological and Documentary Evidence. Thesis. (California State University,). San Bernardino, 1994. When aesthetician Van Dyke got off the train in Daggett to visit his brother, he stepped into a raw town of saloons and miners, a place not yet entirely emerged from the frontier. In studying the history of Daggett's oldest building, the writer creates a portrait of the town itself. Good selection of maps and a useful bibliography.

185. Barrier, Robert Gene. A Critical History of Scribner's Magazine, 1887- 1914. Dissertation. (University of Georgia,). 1980. Studies the changing editorial directions of Scribner's (title changed to Century Magazine) during the period when Brownell held sway at Scribner's and Van Dyke was writing for the magazine.

186. Barrus, Clara. The Life and Letters of John Burroughs. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1925. 123. Early on, Van Dyke became quite a fad with the arts and croissants crowd, as he remains to this day. In 1909 while visiting Southern California's fashionable Mission Inn, John Burroughs' mistress was delighted that:
The chief clerk was a botanist, the headwaiter a poet, and even the women who shampooed one's hair discussed the works of Burroughs and Muir, and gave a digest of van Dyke's [sic] book on the desert. The menus, exemplifying that man cannot live by bread alone, had daily quotations, during our ten days' stay, from Burroughs and Muir.

187. Bates, Ernest Sutherland. Brownell, William Crary. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1946. 3: 172-74. Brownell, Van Dyke's editor at Scribner's, was leery of "excessive individualism" but also appreciated "the value of the individual creative energy released by the romantic ideal" (173). [For the restraining influence of this mild-mannered aesthete on Van Dyke's erumpent romanticism, see 13, p. 225-26 note 5; 524, p. 18, 39-42, 53-56].

188. Baur, John E. The Health Seekers of Southern California, 1870- 1900. San Marino, California: (Huntington Library,). 1959. One of Southern California's great attractions was its climate. People who were, or at least thought they were, cured by it understandably became boosters--even of such places with bad reputations as the desert. Van Dyke's relief from respiratory problems while in the region, combined with his fears that the humidity of irrigation would ruin the climate, led him to declare, "The deserts should never be reclaimed. They are the breathing-spaces of the west" [See 25, p. 59].

189. Baylor, Byrd. One of Tucson's Hottest. Tucson Weekly ( 25 September- 1 October 1991): 78. This Southwestern writer lauds The Desert as "the most observant of all desert books."

190. Beatty, Laura. Lillie Langtry: Manners, Masks, and Morals. London: (Chatto and Windus,). 1999. This most recent biography of Langtry, although well documented, has nothing to say about the Namouna painting and the circumstances of its creation. [See 314; 358].

191. Bell, Millicent Lang. Edith Wharton: Studies in a Writer's Development. Dissertation. (Brown


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University,). 1955. Studies Wharton's development in relation to her friendship with Henry James and their mutual editor at Scribner's, William C. Brownell. No mention of Van Dyke, who also shared Brownell with Wharton and James, who didn't like James, and whose feuding with Wharton has recently come to light and thus may be a missing part of this story.

192. Berenson, Bernard. Lorenzo Lotto: Complete Edition, with 400 Illustrations. London: (Phaidon Press,). 1956. 30, Plate #78. Although admitting he once had his doubts, the ubiquitous art authority now asserts that the Lotto Christopher Columbus "is certainly by Lotto." Aptly describes Columbus's aspect in the Lotto portrait, his "intellectual, rather supercilious face, showing great determination."

193. Berger, Bruce. The Telling Distance: Conversations with the American Desert. Portland, Oregon: (Breitenbush Books,). 1990. A modern reincarnation of Van Dyke thinning off into the inevitable consequences? "My thought spread out for a moment, freed from its source; then I caught myself being aware of my own absence, identity flooded back, and ... my brain was back in my skull" (201). [See 200, Bowden's review blaming Van Dyke for such a dangerous state among today's desert rhapsodists.]

194. Bermingham, Peter. American Art in the Barbizon Mood. Washington, D.C.: (Smithsonian Institution Press). 1975. "For a growing number of French painters during the second quarter of the past [nineteenth] century ... theirs was not primarily a concern for perception and technique. The artists were looking to nature for a way of life, for a new evaluation of existence in which progress, competition, or personal aggrandizement played no part" (9). Describes a good number of American artists under this influence admired by Van Dyke. The bibliography misspells Van Dyke's name (179).

195. Bishop, William H. Young Artists' Life in New York. Scribner's Monthly 19.3 ( January 1880): 355-68. A picture of the keen artistic fervor into which youthful Van Dyke plunged. Even "grocer's clerks" from "the distant interior" (366) and young women of little means have taken up the brush with a froth of genuine bourgeois excitement. For what happens if they want to see Paris, go on to Van Winkle [See 576].

196. Blake, William P. Geological Report. Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Washington, D. C.: (United States Congress,). 1856. 5 (Part 2): 1-310. In a rare tipping of the hat, Van Dyke thanks Blake, a professor of geology at the University of Arizona, for geological information [See 25, p. 32 note]. How much influence the above report by Blake and those of other early explorers had on Van Dyke's prose is an area needing thorough investigation. We already have the rather blatant example in The Grand Canyon of Van Dyke's use of Captain Dutton.

197. Blaugrund, Annette, et al. Paris 1889: American Artists at the Universal Exposition. New York: (Abrams,). 1989. "I would rather go to Europe than go to Heaven," confessed Van Dyke's friend painter William Merritt Chase (7). The large number of paintings entered by the United States in the Exposition of 1889 showed the eagerness and sophistication of Americans. Van Dyke has somewhat reserved comments on his visit to the affair [See 13, p. 80-82]. Blaugrund offers many fine reproductions along with the Exposition's catalogue.

198. Bolshevism in Art Criticism. Review of Rembrandt and His School, by John C. Van Dyke. New Republic ( 24 October 1923): 218-19. Van Dyke's attack on the common wisdom concerning Rembrandt has hit aficionados in their pocketbooks. Otherwise, the reviewer's own estimate of Van Dyke's argument remains cloudy.

199. Boston Museum Unworried. New York Times ( 6 October 1923): 17. At the first flare of the Rembrandt controversy, officials of the Boston Art Museum rush in to say that they remain unruffled and are not concerned about Van Dyke's claim that their Rembrandts are spurious.

200. Bowden, Charles. A Citizen of Emptiness. Review of The Telling Distance: Conversations with the American Desert, by Bruce Berger. Los Angeles Times ( 29 July 1990): Book Review section, 2. "Life becomes a process of contemplation; the conversations of the subtitle are actually more of a monologue, since to date the desert has yet to talk to anybody. Most decisions are about beauty, the very point where modern American desert books began with art professor John Van Dyke's The Desert, published in the 1890s [sic]."

201. Boyer, Mary G. Arizona in Literature: A Collection of the Best Writings of Arizona Authors from Early Spanish Days to the Present Time. Glendale, California: (The Arthur H. Clark Company,). 1934. The anthology includes a long passage from Van Dyke's The Grand Canyon of the Colorado (171-80) recording the shifting lighting effects around Desert


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View through a day's cycle. The selection makes clear that few writers can challenge Van Dyke's sustained drama: "The red moon is coming up over the pines back of you.... Before dawn the morning star will look so large that, like the Arabian sun, you can fancy seventy thousand angels necessary to start it each morning on its way" (179-80).

202. Boyle, Richard J. American Impressionism. Boston: (New York Graphic Society,). 1974. One especially helpful feature of this oversized treatment of American Impressionism is the pages discussing the contributions of technical innovations (25-31). Disagreeing with Van Dyke in his American Painting and Its Tradition, Boyle also is careful to point out that Impressionism was not wholly a French gift imposed on doltish American painters but a movement with some native precedents and one developing its own American characteristics (43-50).

203. Boyle, Richard J. John Twachtman. New York: (Watson-Guptill,). 1979. With many of the landscapes of Van Dyke's friend John Twachtman you don't have to squint at all to see Van Dyke. For instance, Plate 13 (46-47). The Autobiography shows Van Dyke's sympathy when he catches Twachtman at a vulnerable moment [See 13, p. 104-05]. Going the other way, Van Dyke's The Meadows shows unusually high praise for the delicacy of Twachtman's handling of shadows on snow, thus reflecting, too, the author's own highly developed appreciation [See 72, p. 32-33].

204. Bridge, Arthur H. Letter. New York Times ( 21 October 1923), Section 9: 8. Concerning Rembrandt and His School, the writer wonders because "Dr. Van Dyke has stated his contentions explicitly in his book and in the press, but I have not heard or read of a single person who has come forward to offer any positive proof to show that Dr. Van Dyke is in error."

205. Britton, James. Letter. New York Times ( 21 October 1923), Section 9: 8. Cautions Van Dyke both for his brashness and his timidity: "This Rembrandt is not a safe man to pick on. He has broken the authority of many a subtle 'expert.' If the doctor had said that Rembrandt's 'Anatomy Lecture' pales before the 'Gross Clinic' of the American Thomas Eakins, his iconoclasm would have some real crash to it."

206. Brownell, William Crary. The Art Schools of New York. Scribner's Monthly 16.6 ( October 1878): 761-81. An overview of the nation's incipient art movements centered in New York City about the time of young Van Dyke's involvement.

207. Brownell, William Crary. Modern French Masters. Review of Modern French Masters, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Book Buyer 13.11 ( December 1896): 721-24. Is this cricket? Van Dyke's editor at Scribner's reviews one of his writer's books (albeit from another publisher). In any case, the sensitive Francophile leads us into quite a belletristic high-wire act. Such books as this are risky because artists often are dolts (not Brownell's word) as critics. But we come down bouncing lightly on our toes. Van Dyke has avoided the common slips, and we are instructed by his collection of "authoritative gossip of a high order" (723).

208. Brownell, William Crary. William Crary Brownell: An Anthology of His Writings, Together with Biographical Notes and Impressions of the Later Years by Gertrude Hall Brownell. New York: (Scribner's,). 1933. If personality is related to editorial acumen, by far the most important part of this book as regards Van Dyke is the extensive notes by Brownell's wife (321-83). She tells us that sensitive Brownell lamented "that women are not sufficiently interested in the back-view of themselves. In the minutest matters of taste he had express tastes, love of symmetry--one can see his hand going out to straighten anything he saw in his own house that had gone askew" (347). Not the kind of intellectual fussbudget to be shipwrecked with on a desert island but it seems, somehow, just the ticket for Van Dyke.

209. Brownell, William Crary. The Younger Painters in America, III. Scribner's Monthly 22.3 ( July 1881): 321-34. In surveying America's young painters, Brownell recognizes Mary Cassatt's genius, excellent because it was refined through an earnest apprenticeship. Brownell thus reveals the generous conservativism he employed in attempting to guide Van Dyke's wild romanticism.

210. Broyles, Bill. Review of The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) The Journal of Arizona History 36.3 (Autumn 1995): 304-05. "It's hard to dismiss a person who as a child waved to President Lincoln campaigning from the back of a train and as a man palled with the likes of Teddy Roosevelt, Mark Twain, and Andrew Carnegie" (304).

211. Buck, Wendy, and Peter Wild. Viewing America's Deserts, Part 5. Two Desert Radicals: Mary Austin and Her 'Mentor'. Puerto Del Sol 31.2 (Summer 1996): 258-76. Despite surface similarities between the two, Mary Austin developed independently of Van Dyke into a writer whose works he would not have approved.


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212. Buggeln, John D. Van Dyke, Henry. American National Biography, edited by John A. Garraty (ed.) and Mark C. Carnes. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1999. 22: 208-09. For all his appearances in The Ladies' Home Journal, Van Dyke was not as famous as cousin Henry, whose inspirational words hung on many a schoolroom wall. Poet, diplomat, and expert fly fisherman, Henry was a national light, what boy sybarite Clarence King might have been.

213. Burg, David F. Chicago's White City of 1893. Lexington: (The University Press of Kentucky,). 1976. 195. This story of the Chicago World's Fair quotes from Van Dyke's "Painting at the Fair" and agrees that he was right in urging that the superiority of French art in his day should not distract Americans from forging ahead toward their own artistic visions.

214. Burke, Doreen Bolger, et al. In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement. New York: (Metropolitan Museum of Art,). 1986. Shows how after the Civil War the pursuit of beauty grew from a pastime into part of the American character with an enthusiasm sometimes desperately clung to.

215. Burroughs, Bryson. Rembrandt's Old Woman Cutting Her Nails. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 19.1 ( January 1924): 16-17. A technical response by the curator of paintings at the Metropolitan countering Van Dyke's Who Painted This Old Woman? [See 529 for Van Dyke's letter of rebuttal and the enclosure of Toch's letter.] If you want a headache, follow these arguments and hot replies closely, for at times they self-righteously respond to imaginary issues, those not raised by the opposition.

216. Cable, Mary. Top Drawer: American High Society from the Gilded Age to the Roaring Twenties. New York: (Atheneum,). 1984. Catches the free-wheeling antics of Van Dyke's time, played out behind the polite exterior of wealthy society. As one actress chuckled, "You can do anything you like as long as you don't do it in the streets and frighten the horses" (198).

217. Calls 'Rembrandts' Work of His Pupils. New York Times ( 11 October 1927): 17. As with Rembrandt's paintings, so with his drawings and etchings--only a very few of them are genuine. According to Van Dyke's The Rembrandt Drawings and Etchings, they may bear the master's name, but that only indicates they originated in his studio. There, dozens of lesser artists created work to be sold under Rembrandt's famous rubric.

218. Campbell, SueEllen. Feasting in the Wilderness: The Language of Food in American Wilderness Narratives. American Literary History 6.1 (Spring 1994): 1-23. Perhaps someone else will do better than I in grasping the point of this article, both in its general thesis and in its comment on Van Dyke. The writer maintains that in The Desert Van Dyke's reversion to "savage" food expresses the rhetoric of wilderness (5, 7). Here, Van Dyke is being put to strange usage, for I can recall little, if any, mention of daily fare in the book. His Autobiography (available to Campbell in manuscript but not consulted by her) does mention carrying a ".30-.30 rifle for large game and a Chicopee .22 caliber pistol for small game" while on his desert trek, but this seems hardly reversion to the "savage." In addition, the Autobiography enumerates the rather civilized supplies of corn, beans, coffee, and chocolate he packed along to sustain him while he was away from civilization [See 13, p. 118].

219. Cannom, Robert C. Van Dyke and the Mythical City Hollywood. Culver City, California: (Murray and Gee,). 1948. This breezy biography of famed movie director W. S. "Woody" Van Dyke misidentifies his uncle as John C. Van Dyke, of Rutledge College (30). Early in his career, while making several Westerns at Uncle Theodore's ranch near Daggett, California, jocular Woody enlisted people at the ranch as actors. The tantalizing possibility exists that John C. Van Dyke appeared in one of these; however, few of those early films are extant. [See 235; 395; 564; 577].

220. Carnegie, Andrew. The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays. 1900. Edited by Edward C. Kirkland. (ed.) Cambridge: (Harvard University Press,). 1962. There was nothing especially new about Carnegie's philosophy--make a lot of money, then benefit mankind by giving it away--but that it would be actually practiced by one of the richest and most famous men on the planet inspired many translations and caused a worldwide tither.

221. Carnegie, Louise Whitfield. Preface. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1920. v-vi. The story of the writing of Carnegie's Autobiography and Van Dyke's editing of it as told by Carnegie's widow. See Van Dyke's "Editor's Note" to the volume.

222. Char, Leon. Aestheticism: The Religion of Art in Post-Romantic Literature. New York: (Columbia University Press,). 1990. "[I]n a sense all of Aestheticism might be said to emerge out of the twilight of a waning religious faith in the later nineteenth century" (ix). This certainly would seem to


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be true of Van Dyke. Worries through Baudelaire, Gautier, Pater, Ruskin, and all the other essentials.

223. Chase, J. Smeaton. California Desert Trails. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1919. A man who indeed rode a horse over much of the territory where Van Dyke only said he rode, Chase is one of the most balanced, forthright, and instructive of desert wanderers. Much of the time, he thought the desert a pretty hideous place, but, a dedicated recorder, he rode across it anyway, often grinding his teeth but pulled on by curiosity. The result is a convincing contradiction, a book of objective emotionalism. Yet he admired Van Dyke. The year after Van Dyke used Chase's hard-won photographs to illustrate The Desert, Chase wrote, "Professor John C. Van Dyke, who has made that fine study of the desert which takes the rank of a classic, gives to a companion volume on the ocean the title of The Opal Sea. A better term than 'opal' could scarcely be found for describing in a word the color of the desert itself" (4-5). Therein lie several sweet ironies.

224. Cheek, Lawrence W., (ed.) ed., Voices in the Desert: Writings and Photographs. Photographs by Jeff Garton. San Diego: (Harcourt Brace,). 1995. 21-24. The anthology's dramatic prose selections and photographs with blasting colors will please desert visitors looking for quick thrills. Quotes from The Desert (25-35). The anthologist's brief introduction rightly sums up Van Dyke's contribution: "[H]e applied his exceptionally perceptive eyes to the exotic phenomena of the desert and wrote about them as art.... No one who scribbles his thoughts about these deserts today can escape a debt to Van Dyke" (21). With modification, the exaggeration would contain considerable truth.

225. Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, and Margaret Ward Cole. Timothy Cole: Wood-Engraver. New York: (The Pioneer Associates,). 1935. 110. A warmly appreciative view of Cole. Don't miss the humorous incident involving Van Dyke and a baronet.

226. Cole, Timothy. Considerations on Engraving. New York: (William Edwin Rudge,). 1921. An apology for the art of engraving on wood and a discussion of the aesthetic controversies surrounding it.

227. The Columbus Features. Chicago Tribune ( 25 September 1892): 4: 28. "Although certainty is admittedly impossible," aspects of the Lotto canvas, such as the accessories and Indian symbols, tend to confirm that the portrait is of Columbus. Numismatists take note. The editorial goes on to report joyfully that the Lotto image will appear on five million souvenir half dollars, to be distributed nationwide; thus, Lotto's version "will become the popular conception of the appearance of the man and will remain so to the end of time."

228. Cook, Richard Wilson. Van Dycks. South Orange, New Jersey: (R.W. Cook,). 1954. Rare as it is, this remains the essential authority on Van Dyke family research (in all the various spellings of the name).

229. Cortissoz, Royal. The Art Critic as Iconoclast. Personalities in Art. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1925. 17-43. Van Dyke's argument in Rembrandt and His School is "shrewd, ingenious, and ardent" (36), but because Van Dyke is an enthusiast, "I do not believe his canon of Rembrandt can be taken seriously" (35).

230. Craven, Wayne. Impressionism in America. American Art History and Culture. Madison, Wisconsin: (Brown and Benchmark,). 1994. 349-53. Craven's approach to the subject involves the discussion of several practitioners--mainly William M. Chase, Julian Alden Weir, Childe Hassam, and Cecilia Beaux. This is fine as far as it goes but shows a surprising lack of scope.

231. Crumbley, Paul. Review of The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) Western Historical Quarterly 25.3 (Autumn 1994): 404-05. "In thirty-six short chapters, Van Dyke describes his travels to virtually all corners of the world, his participation in Gilded Age high society, his nature writing, and his work as an art historian and critic" (404).

232. Curtis, William Eleroy. The Columbus Portraits. Part 1. The Cosmopolitan 12.3 ( January 1892): 259-67. No doubt playing off the public interest in the Lotto dispute, Curtis observes that the same uncertainties surrounding the life of Christopher Columbus surround the many portraits which "pretend to represent his features." The truth is that "there is no tangible evidence to prove that the face of Columbus was ever painted" (259). Curtis runs through the various claimants, from Cogoleto to the di Orchi portrait, but, after this buildup, saves his argument on the Lotto matter for Part 2.

233. Curtis, William Eleroy. The Columbus Portraits. Part 2. The Cosmopolitan 12.4 ( February 1892): 409-20. Continuing his survey of Columbus portraits, Curtis makes an unexplained turnaround. Part 1 assured us that likely no portrait was ever done of Columbus from life. Now Curtis claims of the Lorenzo Lotto portrait of Chicago World's Fair fame that "there is circumstantial evidence amounting almost to a probability that it was painted from life" (418). Something is fishy here. See Archival


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Sources, Chicago Public Library, Van Dyke to Ellsworth #8 ( 2 May, no year.) and #20 ( 1 December 1891).

234. Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn. History of Wabasha County Minnesota. Winona, Minnesota: (H. C. Cooper, Jr.,). 1920. After the putdown of an Indian uprising in 1862, "Wabasha County thus passed entirely from the hands of the Indians, and since that date but few have been seen in the county" (20). From the history of Wabasha County given in detail (197-215) it comes clear that the Van Dyke family arrived in a thoroughly civilized place, with a high school, library, churches, and a prosperous middle class. John Vandyke [sic] a member of the state house of representatives in 1872, T. S. Vandyke [sic] a member in 1873 [See also 317; 318].

235. Daggett. Barstow Print [California] 22 June 1917: 1. "Daggett has had the time of its young life the last few days.... W. S. Van Dyke, director for the Essanay Co., and family have been visiting his uncle, T. S. Van Dyke, while here.... All the kids are richer by one dollar as a result of their acting in the movies." [See 395; 564].

236. Dana, John Cotton. The Value of the Study of Art in Our Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin of the College Art Association of America 4 ( September 1918): 69-75. Librarian Dana tweaks the hidebound by declaring, "all talk about Art is quite futile," that "There are no principles of art" because art cannot be defined, etc. (70). See Van Dyke's sprightly letter to the Bulletin in response.

237. Darlington, David. The Mojave: A Portrait of the Definitive American Desert. New York: (Henry Holt,). 1996. Aftermath. The nation didn't heed Van Dyke. A sensitive journalist type travels through Van Dyke country. Describing desert beauty corrupted by the vast developments of artillery ranges, overgrazed land, and mammoth trash dumps, Darlington reflects the modern desert lover's typical Weltschmerz.

238. Death Certificate of John [C.] Van Dyke. December 5, 1932. # 25918. Date of birth not given. Date of death December 5, 1932. Issued by the Department of Health of the City of New York. Death due to cancer, following an operation. Burial in Elmwood Cemetery, New Brunswick, New Jersey. The certificate is in the New York City Department of Records and Information Services, Municipal Archives.

239. Death of a Great Art Critic. Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 51.2 ( April 1933): 210-11. The title of this one-paragraph obituary on Van Dyke seems a bit inflated, but the piece does reflect his renown in his own day.

240. deBuys, William. Salt Dreams: Land and Water in Low Down California. Albuquerque: (University of New Mexico Press,). 1999. The unhappy story of the Salton Sea area in Southern California. Modern writers often project Van Dyke, if vaguely, beyond the heroics even he peddled. Here, "Undoubtedly, [Van Dyke] encountered danger in many locations, though he rarely mentioned it in his writing" (86). Other mentions of Van Dyke (85-87, 95, 126, 196, 257).

241. Declares Van Dyke Almost a Layman. New York Times ( 8 October 1923): 11. Van Dyke is taking a drubbing on the Rembrandt issue. Art authority G. Frank Muller calls Van Dyke "almost a layman" and his arguments "absurd." Then the expert mocks: "Why does not Professor Van Dyke allot the remaining thirty-five paintings among the better known of Rembrandt's forty-odd pupils, and treat the master as a myth?"

242. De Jong, Gerald F. The Dutch in America: 1609- 1609. Boston: (Twayne,). 1975. Studies the Dutch and their special contributions from early settlement into modern times.

243. de Kay, Charles. Whistler: The Head of the Impressionists. The Art Review 1.1 ( November 1886): 1-3. A delightful portrait: "The nervous way in which he fixes his glass in one eye, his dark hair with one white lock, the ... bird-like expression" (1). But sees, too, through Whistler's flippancy to his deeper accomplishments. The writer also gives a somewhat unconventional but persuasive definition of Impressionism (2), one later echoed by Van Dyke [See 136, p. 71].

244. Dellenbaugh, Frederick S. Our National Parks. Review of The Grand Canyon of the Colorado, by John C. Van Dyke. The Nation ( 5 June 1920): 771. Discussing the volume in tandem with Robert Sterling Yard's The Book of National Parks, old Canyon hand Dellenbaugh places Van Dyke's work in the incipient genre of writing books about our national parks. Agrees with Babbitt that Van Dyke "rightly condemns" the Oriental names Dutton imposed on the Canyon's dramatic features.

245. Demarest, William Henry Steele. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: (James T. White,). 1930. 15: 35-36. The son of a minister, and himself a pastor, Demarest, unmarried, served as president of Rutgers, then as president of the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, during much of Van Dyke's tenure at both institutions.


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Demarest's career gives some idea of the staid atmosphere surrounding Van Dyke. Although he apparently throve in such a climate, it does raise one's wonder about how the wily writer survived both psychically and professionally. This is modified somewhat by the entry under Swierenga [See 516].

246. Dewey, Edward H. Vedder, Elihu. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1936. 10: 244-45. Synopsis of the painter's life and appeal. "Vedder gave thrilling hints of an unknown world" 245) [See 22].

247. Dickie, George. Art for Art's Sake. The Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Connecticut: (Grolier,). 1977. 2: 390. "Many contemporary artists and writers proclaimed that art should not serve any purpose, including representation, and opposed all theories that viewed art as didactic or as an instrument of reform. They were inspired by the romantic ideal of the artist as an especially sensitive, superior person alienated from society."

248. Dickson, Carol Edith. Nature and Nation: Mary Austin and Cultural Negotiations of the American West, 1900- 1914. Dissertation. (The University of Wisconsin,). Madison, 1996. "Austin opens a new cultural space in which marginalized Western voices might be included in narratives of regional and national identity." From the abstract. Compares Austin's Land of Little Rain with Van Dyke's The Desert. The writer of this dissertation doesn't understand that Austin, like Van Dyke, was a talented fabulist; her condescension when writing about supposedly "romantic" ethnic groups won her popularity with the general public at the expense of demeaning her subjects [See 621, p. 136-39].

249. Dinnerstein, Lois. Opulence and Ocular Delight, Splendor and Squalor: Critical Writings in Art and Architecture by Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer. Dissertation. (City University of New York,). 1979. In the larger sense, the study of Mrs. Van Rensselaer is the exploration of the American Renaissance following the Civil War and culminating in the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. "'The real' and 'the ideal' as underlying concepts in the art criticism of Mrs. Van Rensselaer are discussed, wherein idealism does not denote the antithesis of realism, but rather, as [sic] essential component of it." From the abstract [See 352].

250. Dixon, Frank Haigh. Thomson, Frank. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Scribner's,). 1936. 9 (Part 1): 483-84. Never does such pain break through Van Dyke's chill exterior as when he remembers Frank Thomson: "I shall never look upon his like again, either as man or fisherman" ( The Open Spaces 198). President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with a mansion on Philadelphia's Main Line, Thomson was an early collector of Impressionist art, with connections to American Impressionist Mary Cassatt. Van Dyke dedicated Nature for Its Own Sake to him. So far, I have been unable to find much more beyond the standard biographical rundowns. Good places for the avid researcher to start would be Van Dyke's Autobiography [See 13, p. 73-76, 104-05, 117] and Lindsay [See 363, p. 15-16]. Then the Lower Merion Historical Society, in Ardmore, Pennsylvania, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where one can behold Thomson's fine Degas, Monets, and Gauguins.

251. Donaldson, Elizabeth. Picturesque Scenes, Sentimental Creations: The Rhetoric and Politics of American Nature Writing, 1890- 1920. Dissertation. (State University of New York). at Stony Brook, 1997. "As a close reading of the travel literature and nature essays of John Charles Van Dyke, John Muir, and Frederick Law Olmsted illustrates, the scenic appreciation of nature, far from being a force of opposition to wilderness development, shared the ethic of material expansionism and social progress characteristic of this era." From the abstract. Sounds Procrustean.

252. Doughty, Charles M. Travels in Arabia Deserta. 1888. New preface by the author and introduction by T. E. Lawrence. New York: (Boni and Liverright,). 1923. Surely Van Dyke, an avid reader, read Doughty, who, often in disguise and at risk of his life, writes a dramatic account of travel in Arab-speaking lands.

253. Dowling, Linda. Aestheticism. Encyclopedia of Esthetics, edited by Michael Kelly. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. 1: 32-37. Like Plastic Man in the old comic books, Aestheticism could be almost anything. It began with the appeal of social reform, with the hope that beauty would engender morality, and ended in the scorn of the artist for the populace. But the public was too obtuse to see this, vulgarizing what was intended to save it. Splitting another way, the concept led to Van Dyke's friend Whistler--and, yes, to Oscar Wilde, the two of them going at it hammer and tongs. Good bibliography.

254. Downes, William Howe. The Great Rembrandt Question. Review of Rembrandt and His School, by John C. Van Dyke. The American Magazine of Art 14.12 ( December 1923): 661-66. The


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reviewer waffles in his opinion of the book. Well, yes, Van Dyke certainly is a most estimable man who here has employed admirable methods and brought to bear unusual thoroughness in arriving at the conclusions of his book; and, yes, the nineteenth-century scholars Van Dyke calls to task certainly should be brought up short for their overly zealous Rembrandt attributions; still, Van Dyke can be too skeptical, and this leads him into "an orgie [sic] of new attributions" (666).
One wonders if perhaps this artfully written but logically mushy review isn't a good example of critics who, unlike Van Dyke, feared the consequences of taking a stand on the controversial Rembrandt issue.

255. Dr. F. W. Van Dyke Passes Suddenly. Rogue River Courier ( 11 August 1911): 1. Van Dyke periodically visited his brother Frederick in Grants Pass, Oregon, in the heart of the wild Klamath Mountains. A physician, racer of horses, and twice mayor of his town, Frederick followed in the successful Van Dyke vein. See Josephine County Historical Society in the Archival section.

256. Dr. John C. Van Dyke, Rutgers Art Critic, Dies after Operation. Daily Home News [New Brunswick, New Jersey] ( 6 December 1932): 1, 3. Emphasizes Van Dyke's role in the Rembrandt controversy and his work on the New Jersey State Board of Education (3).

257. Dr. Van Dyke Dead. Art Digest 7.6 ( 15 December 1932): 4. Mostly, Van Dyke and the Rembrandt storm.

258. Dr. Van Dyke's Attack on the Rembrandt Tradition. Review of Rembrandt and His School, by John C. Van Dyke. Current Opinion 75 ( December 1923): 689-91. Cites and sides with the major critics marshaled against Van Dyke's stance.

259. Dr. Van Dyke's Case In the Rembrandt Dispute. New York Times ( 14 October 1923): 9: 3, 12. Never has Van Dyke enjoyed such fame! Splashed across the top, this headline introduces a full-page spread and more to the Rembrandt storm, here delivered by framing words and by a condensation of his book's vital chapters.

260. Dullard, John P. John Charles Van Dyke. Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, One Hundred and Forty-Eighth Session. Trenton: (Josephine A. Fitzgerald,). 1924. 378-79. Besides giving a standard biographical rundown, with a listing of Van Dyke's books, the entry notes that Van Dyke was vice president of the New Jersey State Board of Education, the only mention of his vice presidency I've encountered.

261. Dunton, Edith Kellogg. The Old New York and the New. Review of The New New York, by John C. Van Dyke. The Dial 47.563 ( 1 December 1909): 453-54. Dunton puts her finger exactly on the book's cause for celebration. New York City's commercial busyness, vast scale, and vitality all have come together at once to create by mammoth accident a grand magic show. One hardly can overemphasize how antithetical this is to Van Dyke's aesthetic position dominating his other books.

262. Dutch Art Critic Ridicules Van Dyke. New York Times ( 20 October 1923): 10. A typical emotional response to Van Dyke's Rembrandt book. According to Professor Martin, a curator at The Hague: "From the point of view of all earnest students of art and art history, van [sic] Dyke's opinions are negligible. He is not a man who ever before gave any proof of being a real connoisseur, and his book proves that he is unable to distinguish one master from another."

263. Dutton, Clarence E. The Tertiary History of the Grand Cañon District. 1882. Santa Barbara: (Peregrine Smith,). 1977. Compare 140-56 to Van Dyke's passage in The Grand Canyon for arresting similarities [See 42, p. 18-21]. It was Captain Dutton, by the way, who despite his grace of seeing and sometimes powerfully rolling prose, began the misfortune of naming the Canyon's features after Oriental deities, and it was Van Dyke who, in his Grand Canyon book, first strenuously objected to this violation [See 179; 244].

264. Dwight, Benjamin Woodbridge. The History of the Descendants of Elder John Strong of Northampton, Mass. 2 vols. Albany: (Munsell,). 1871. Genealogy of the maternal side of Van Dyke's family.

265. Edwards, E. I. The Enduring Desert: A Descriptive Bibliography. Los Angeles: (Ward Ritchie,). 1969. 241. A well-known desert bibliographer, Edwards judges The Desert a "beautifully written" classic.

266. Edwards, E. I. Lost Oases Along the Carrizo. Los Angeles: (Westernlore Press,). 1961. 102. More from the desert's bibliographer. The lengthy list of sources making up the bulk of this history of the Colorado Desert assesses The Desert: "This is perhaps the most beautifully-descriptive book account of our desert lands that has ever been written. Very fittingly it has been referred to as 'a poem in prose.'"

267. Egan, Rose Frances. The Genesis of the Theory of 'Art for Art's Sake' in Germany and England. Part 1. Smith College Studies in Modern Languages 2.4 ( July 1921): 1-61. In this and the


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following piece, Egan argues for German and English, rather than French, origins for the Art for Art's Sake impulse, then traces its development. This finely ground scholarship is more intellectually satisfying than Guérard's dervish attempt at definition, but we need to remember that this is a critic extracting theory from impassioned individual artists--the old story of the scientist killing the butterfly in order to dissect it. Van Dyke and Mrs. Van Rensselaer would not have approved.

268. Egan, Rose Frances. The Genesis of the Theory of 'Art for Art's Sake' in Germany and England, Part 2. Smith College Studies in Modern Languages 5.2 ( April 1924): 1-33.

269. 8 Elected to Institute. New York Times ( 7 December 1923): 3. Summarizes the annual dinner and meeting of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. Van Dyke among those elected vice president. The American Academy, a smaller, more exclusive body within the National Institute, selects Van Dyke for membership [See 332].

270. Eulogizes the Life of Dr. J. C. Van Dyke. New York Times ( 9 December 1932): 21. Summary of the funeral eulogy to Van Dyke given by the Rev. Dr. William H. S. Demarest, head of the Theological Seminary. The service was held in the Kirkpatrick Chapel at Rutgers University. The article gives a partial list of those attending, a mixture of prominent politicians and people from the arts, education, and letters.

271. Fabend, Firth Haring. Zion on the Hudson: Dutch New York and New Jersey in the Age of Revivals. New Brunswick: (Rutgers University Press,). 2000. A study of Van Dyke's cultural, ethnic, and religious background might well begin here. Although their numbers were small, the Dutch had a large impact on America. Fabend recounts how, largely through religious faith, the Dutch remained a forceful, cohesive group, despite two hundred years of surrounding change. By Van Dyke's time, the Old Dutch ways had become the stuff of nostalgia, a dreamy reality Van Dyke draws on throughout his family history, The Raritan. A man who railed against sentimentalism, he was in large part a sentimentalist at heart, as shown by his vision of a pretty Dutch maid when, out on a stroll in the countryside, he stumbles upon a ruined farm [See 72, p. 118-20].

272. Falkner, Leonard. George Washington's Unknown Spy. Reader's Digest 71. 427 ( November 1957): 187-88, 190, 192-93. A condensed version of the next item.

273. Falkner, Leonard. A Spy for Washington. American Heritage 8.5 ( August 1957): 58-64. Falkner recounts the exploits of John Honeyman, Van Dyke's great-grandfather and a double agent for George Washington during the Revolutionary War. The crafty spy made George Washington's Christmas crossing of the Delaware and the capture of Trenton possible. The tale was once bright in the mind of every American schoolboy--a matter of great pride to Van Dyke [See 543; 13, p. 19-22; 102, p. 52, 65-69; and 509].
Given the avid imaginations of descendants, one learns to treat stories of heroic deeds by ancestors, handed down through generations and confirmed by few primary documents, with a certain caution. However, I also note that the modern works by Polmar and Allen and by the Mahoneys accept the John Honeyman account as it has come down to us.

274. Farquhar, Francis P. The Books of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon: A Selective Bibliography. 1953. Austin, Texas: (W. M. Morrison Books,). 1991. 25. An eminent student of the West, Farquhar says of Van Dyke's The Grand Canyon of the Colorado: "Although 'dated' to some extent, both objectively and subjectively, by changes in the physical conditions of man's contacts as well as by changes in man's mental approach, these studies will always be valued by those who visit the Grand Canyon with an eye for its aesthetic qualities and a mind for its significance."
Note as a matter of curiosity that the following item recommends a book of poems, The Grand Canyon, by cousin Henry van Dyke.

275. Ferguson, Frances. The Sublime from Burke to the Present. Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. 4: 326-31. Traces the concept of The Sublime from Longinus, through Burke, Kant, Hegel, etc. To bring it down to Van Dyke, the desert is sublime because it is at once beautiful and scary. The two elements combine to give us our finest adrenaline rush. That's, at least, the chords Van Dyke was playing to thrill his Eastern urban audiences. Note, for example, the bleak, fearsome prospect serving as the frontispiece for The Desert. Its caption reads: Silence and Desolation, a theme variously repeated throughout the book, as in "the grandeur of the desolate" (19), etc.

276. The Fine Arts. Review of How to Judge of a Picture, by John C. Van Dyke. The Critic 10 ( 21 July 1888): 32-33. "The chapter on tone is well written, but that on composition is weak and the reverse of modern in the canons it upholds" (33).


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277. Fink, Lois Marie. American Art at the Nineteenth-Century Paris Salons. Washington, D.C.: (National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institution,). 1990. Fine photographs of the Parisian world in which Van Dyke moved and of the pictures he likely saw.

278. Flannery, Maura C. Ramblings in the Desert of the Mind. The American Biology Teacher 59.2 ( February 1997): 118-22. For the sake of good form, I told myself to tone down this entry but finally felt it best to state the case directly as it is. One all but reels back thunderstruck at the fuzzy-wuzzy gullibility and easy assumptions of this writer, adoring a heroic Van Dyke staggering "on foot" for much of "three years" across the burning sands (118). Where in the world did she get such information? The case is not helped much by the fact that the author is a professor of biology writing in an educational journal. We're glad for her joy but not for the glibness of her desert appreciation.

279. Fleck, Richard F., (ed.) ed., A Colorado River Reader. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 2000. xi, 42-47. Van Dyke has been called a "famed naturalist" and a "desert lover". Now, once again reflecting how easily his fans make him into what they want him to be, Fleck dubs Van Dyke an "explorer" (42) when introducing a reprint of The Silent River chapter from The Desert (63-76).

280. Fleming, G. H. James Abbott McNeill Whistler: A Life. Gloucestershire [U.K.]: (The Windrush Press,). 1991. The author stays close to Whistler throughout his life, richly documenting it. No mention of Van Dyke but much on Whistler through the eyes of the Pennells, especially those of Elizabeth, who during the later years of Whistler "knew him better than anyone else" (113-14).

281. Fletcher, Frank. The Critical Values of William Crary Brownell. Dissertation. University of Michigan, 1951. "His criteria of 'culture' and 'reason' in his criticism of non-fiction writers reduce to the 'sweet reasonableness' of Arnold. In each case the actual values remain the subjective, indefinable aesthetic-moral ones in the cultivated sensibilities of the conservative Victorian." From the abstract.

282. Flexner, James Thomas. Nineteenth-Century American Painting. New York: (G. P. Putnam's Sons,). 1970. Takes in the great art changes sweeping through the century, placing American Impressionism in its context; unlike Van Dyke, Flexner believes that American art before the arrival of that movement had its own validity.

283. For Nature's Own Sake. Review of Nature for Its Own Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 16 July 1898): 468. Van Dyke reveals the "wonders" of nature, taking us "to the summit of Mont Blanc," for example, "where we view the stars at midday shining upon the blue-violet light." Well and good, but the reviewer misses Van Dyke's deeper intent: Such should be not mere wonders entertaining us but the very essence of the aesthetic life profoundly lived.

284. Fradkin, Philip L. A River No More: The Colorado River and The West. New York: (Alfred A. Knopf,). 1981. The main title of this overview of the Colorado is plucked from The Desert's powerful and poetic chapter on the Colorado, The Silent River (63-76). Used in quite a different sense by Van Dyke (75), the words take on ironically sad dimensions in Fradkin's volume on the Colorado's emasculation in modern times.

285. Funeral for Dr. Van Dyke. New York Times ( 7 December 1932): 21. I understand from a conversation with a minister on the Seminary campus that the funeral arrangements described here raise questions about Van Dyke's relationship with the church. Although conducted, as already mentioned, by the head of Van Dyke's seminary, the service took place in the nonsectarian Kirkpatrick Chapel on the Rutgers campus. However, it is not known who made the arrangements.
In any case, the president of Rutgers was saddened that ‘‘we shall not see again his tall, dignified figure walking through the campus paths, back to his home in the late afternoon.’’

286. Gaillard, E. Davis. Onteora: Hills of the Sky, 1887- 1987. [ Tannersville, New York: (Onteora Club). ], 1987. A history of the exclusive summer resort in the Catskills, where Van Dyke often shared his "cottage" with his daughter, Clare Van Dyke Parr, and her husband, Harry L. Parr, a professor of engineering at Columbia University. Onteora was (and still is) a decidedly tony place, with august mansions pleasantly spaced among the hilly woods and fields. As chance would have it, Hamlin Garland was Van Dyke's summering neighbor. Photos of Van Dyke's "cottage" (17, 22); location map (21). The Autobiography mentions Onteora [See 13, p. 107, 183, 232-33 note 5; photographs of Van Dyke at Onteora appear in the gallery following p. 127, as does a photograph of Clare as a young woman].

287. Gale, Robert L. Van Dyke, John Charles. The Gay Nineties in America: A Cultural Dictionary. Westport, Connecticut: (Greenwood Press,). 1992.


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379-80. Van Dyke "was an observant, determined, and personally gracious man" (380). More recent evidence seriously challenges the last estimate.

288. The Gardner A. Sage Library. Brochure. New Brunswick: (New Brunswick Theological Seminary,). no date. Celebrates the library, from its airy balcony, the colored light streaming down from the clerestory onto its floor of intricately patterned Italian tiles, to its old manuscripts attracting scholars from around the world.

289. Garland, Hamlin. Afternoon Neighbors: Further Excerpts from a Literary Log. New York: (Mcmillan,). 1934. 117-18. The aging novelist visits Van Dyke in his campus home overlooking the Raritan River and finds his host "almost as handsome as Nathaniel Hawthorne" (117). Then Garland applauds him as a "scholar, poet and critic" (118).

290. Garland, Hamlin. Hamlin Garland's Diaries, edited by Donald Pizer. (ed.) San Marino: (Huntington Library,). 1968. 62, 227-28. A vignette of Van Dyke limping in old age (62) and the conservative values of Garland and Van Dyke in discussing nominations for the American Academy (227-28).

291. Garland, Hamlin. Impressionism. Crumbling Idols: Twelve Essays on Art and Literature. 1894. Introduction by Robert E. Spiller. Gainsville, Florida: (Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints,). 1952. 119-41. The entire treatise needs to be read to grasp Garland's comprehension, but for now it may seem a strange meeting-ground, this concept of Impressionism on which social firebrand Garland and stiff-necked conservative Van Dyke met. But, then, Van Dyke imagined himself quite a rebel when it came to art, whether visual or in prose, and both men shared the concept that art should deliver truth rather than merely recording facts.

292. Garland, Hamlin. John Charles Van Dyke. Commemorative Tributes. New York: (American Academy of Arts and Letters,). 1936. 71-75. A memoir of Van Dyke highly colored by praise and illustrating Van Dyke's success in impressing admirers with his exploits in his younger years as a rough-and-ready frontiersman. Describes Van Dyke in his later years as "a gray old eagle" perched in his aerie "two thousand feet above the Raritan" (75)--an absurd inflation of the height of Van Dyke's campus home above the nearby river.

293. Garland, Hamlin. Selected Letters of Hamlin Garland, edited by Keith Newlin (ed.) and Joseph B. McCullough. (ed.) Lincoln: (University of Nebraska Press,). 1998. In his advanced years, the once radical Son of the Middle Border comes across as something of a literary busybody, chatting away about fellow writers and fussing about the affairs of the hide-bound American Academy. Still, there's much here for the literary historian to mine and piece together, including Garland's mentions of Van Dyke (305, 324-25, 331). With Van Dyke, Garland opposed the admission of women to the Academy (332), yet he dances like an adoring pup when he writes of his first meeting with Edith Wharton (313-15).

294. Gerdts, William H. American Impressionism. Seattle: (The Henry Art Gallery,). (University of Washington,). 1980. More limited than Weinberg, Gerdts nonetheless has a tight, informing focus on the subject. He acknowledges Van Dyke's role in the movement (31, 74).

295. Gilbert, Creighton. Lotto, Lorenzo. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Art, edited by Bernard S. Myers. (ed.) New York: (McGraw-Hill,). 1969. 3: 472-74. There may be a good reason for Van Dyke's cathecting to the Lotto portrait. Lotto was a brilliant outlier of the High Renaissance. Creighton muses on "the haunted movement" of the early work and wonders that Lotto's "agitated figures sometimes seem attacked by the air" (474). For all that, he was an incandescent precisionist.

296. Golden, Steve. Analysis of The Desert. Manuscript. Dix Van Dyke Papers, San Bernardino Public Library, Norman F. Feldheym branch, California Room (Folder F-107). This undated, single-page typescript by a Van Dyke grandnephew passes on a synopsis of what apparently was the family's view of Van Dyke as a heroic desert traveler. His "impressions ... can be verified by any dweller of this desert region." Describes Van Dyke as "a large, graceful man with an erect carriage" who was "looked 'up to'" by all.

297. Grand Canyon. Review of The Grand Canyon of the Colorado, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 30 May 1920): 284-85. This piece, declaring The Grand Canyon "easy reading" (284) and clapping that "Mr. Van Dyke does not philosophize or preach" (285) [not true], is of the kind confirming authors in their hagridden suspicions that reviewers don't read the books they discuss.

298. Griffin, Larry D. Review of The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) Redneck Review of Literature 29 ( 1995): 81-82. Besides the coup of his desert book, "Attention to a few of Van Dyke's contributions to Western Civilization here--specifically the Chicago World's Fair's Columbus Portrait, The Jumping Frog source, and his crucial


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role in the reduction of Rembrandt attributions--shows the variety of experiences Van Dyke relates in his engaging autobiography" (81-82).

299. Guérard, Albert. Art for Art's Sake. Boston: (Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard,). 1936. Art for Art's Sake was far more an attitude, a rosy fog in which people drifted individually, than a firm set of ideas. Enthusiast Guérard spends hundreds of pages trying to define the amorphous movement but can't because there was little concrete to define. The best he can do: " Art for Art's Sake ... is the thrill of wonder, the gaze from a peak in Darien, the road to Xanadu" (338). Revealing.

300. Gullans, Charles, and John Espey. Margaret Armstrong and American Trade Bindings, with a Checklist of Her Designed Bindings and Covers. Los Angeles: (Department of Special Collections, University of California,). 1991. The book lover will fairly reel at the full-color reproductions of Armstrong's covers, then enjoy instruction as the authors survey the designer's art and Armstrong's life. Items #292-296 list Armstrong's designs for Van Dyke books: Art for Art's Sake, Nature for Its Own Sake; The Desert; The Opal Sea, and Studies in Pictures (128).
Note also on the same page that, reflecting the tight cultural circle of the day, Armstrong designed books for Henry van Dyke and for Mrs. Van Rensselaer.

301. Hamlin, Talbot Faulkner. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1936. 10: 207-08. Overview of one of Van Dyke's early mentors, a highly refined art critic specializing in architecture. "[F]rom Mrs. Van Rensselaer ... I got my first real fancy for art" [See 13, p. 51]. Although the influence of the older woman on Van Dyke cannot be proven in its specifics, a comparison of her writing with his hints that this likely was one of Van Dyke's few understatements. Zalesch offers an updated and more lustrous portrait of Mrs. Van Rensselaer.

302. Harry L. Parr, 84, Engineer and Ex-Columbia Professor. New York Times ( 8 June 1964): 29. The obituary of Van Dyke's son-in-law somewhat curiously does not mention his marriage [See 417].

303. Hart, James D. Van Dyke, John C[harles]. A Companion to California. Berkeley: (University of California Press,). 1987. 539. Brief biographical sketch. Van Dyke saw the desert "with eyes that had already appreciated Monet and the Impressionists."

304. Hart, James D. Van Dyke, Theodore S[trong]. A Companion to California. Berkeley: (University of California Press,). 1987. 539. Summarizes the life and career of Van Dyke's brother as a health-seeker in the West, an outdoorsman, and writer.

305. Hartman, William K. Desert Heart: Chronicles of the Sonoran Desert. Tucson: (Fisher Books,). 1989. This book by a lifelong desert lover draws frequently from The Desert for use as chapter epigraphs, photograph captions, and quotations in the text (1, 16, 23, 36, 58, 68, 203, 204). Reflecting many Southwesterners' devotion to Van Dyke as a regional icon, the author lauds him as a heroic desert traveler and romantic desert lover (96, 98).

306. Haslam, Gerald. Literary California: 'The Ultimate Frontier of the Western World.' California History 68.4 (Winter 1989- 90): 188-95. A richly informative piece describing how the California Dream kept evolving and how, within it, Van Dyke's The Desert became "the first in a series of books that changed the way those ostensible wastelands were viewed" (194).

307. He Found the Desert Fierce--Yet Charming. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. Desert Magazine 3.7 ( May 1940): 34. "What was forbidding and colorless, repulsive and inexplicable, becomes under the spell of Van Dyke's words a land ... of strange delights." A good distinction between literary fantasy and everyday reality.

308. Hellman, Geoffrey T. Some Splendid and Admirable People. New Yorker ( 23 February 1976): 43-48, 52-54, 56-57, 60-64, 68-81. Hardly admiring, the author depicts an old-school-tie atmosphere prevailing at the intertwined American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts and Letters. Van Dyke was elected to the latter in 1908 and served as its president 1924- 1925; his entry was granted to the smaller and more prestigious American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1923.

309. Henderson, Randall. Just Between You and Me. Desert Magazine 9.3 ( January 1946): 46. The magazine's editor quotes from The Desert (26), hailing the book "as close as man will ever come to expressing in words this strange paradox which is the desert." Repeated in 18.5 ( May 1955): 42.

310. Henderson, Randall. Sun, Sand, and Solitude: Vignettes from the Notebook of a Veteran Desert Reporter. Los Angeles: (Westernlore Press,). 1968. 2-3. Opening his book on a plea for preserving the beauty of the wild arid lands, the founder of Desert Magazine backs up his case with moving words (3) from Van Dyke's The Desert (26).


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311. Henderson, Randall, and J. Wilson McKenney. There Are Two Deserts. Desert Magazine 1.1 ( November 1937): 5. The editorial of this famed publication from the heart of the arid lands launches its first issue by leaning heavily on the old concept of Sublimity, tempting readers, much as did Van Dyke, with a desert at once "grim, desolate," but also "fascinating, mysterious."

312. Herbert, James D. Impressionism. Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. 2: 473-77. The article emphasizes the theoretical, rather than the aesthetic, aspects of Impressionism. Herbert suggests that the continuing success of the movement derives "from precisely its incapacity to resolve the uncertainty over the proper location of the impression, its failure to settle these ambiguities of signification and meaning" (474).

313. Hewlett, Maurice. The Road In Tuscany. 1904. London: (Macmillan,). 1906. Joseph Pennell was in consonance with Van Dyke on many things, including their shared love of Italy, as Pennell's illustrations for this tour guide demonstrate here.

314. Hiesinger, Ulrich W. Julius LeBlanc Stewart: American Painter of the Belle Époque. New York: (Vance Jordan Fine Art,). 1998. 17, 48-52, 68 note 91. If Van Dyke never met famed beauty Lillie Langtry, he nevertheless read to her--in On the Yacht Namouna, Venice, 1890, one of his era's highly praised paintings by Stewart. At least that's a strong possibility from the story in Van Dyke's Autobiography about summering in Venice and being drafted to sit for the canvas [See 13, p. 150, 243-44 note 2; painting reproduced in the book's photograph gallery following 127]. Although, given the figure's turn away from the viewer, I still harbor pale doubts about identification, Hiesinger doesn't: "there can be little question" that the "figure at the right is, indeed, a recognizable characterization of Van Dyke" (68 note 91). The original hangs in the Wadsworth Athenaeum, in the Archival Sources. In their separate pieces, art historians Elizabeth McClintock, Richard O'Connor, and D. Dodge Thompson, as well as yacht enthusiast John Rousmaniere, further discuss this lush canvas of pleasant sexual tensions among the young people of the day's fast and wealthy set. They have fascinated viewers and art sleuths down through the decades [See also 190; 358; 476].
Otherwise, in discussing the yacht and the elegant folks who sailed on her (48-53), Hiesinger quotes (51) from the above passage from Van Dyke's Autobiography, and earlier draws on the same book for a description of a visit to Stewart's tony Parisian digs (17). All in all, this study is a memorable portrait of the high life of wealthy Americans of the time residing in Paris.

315. Hills and Mountains. Review of The Mountain, by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Nation 103.2662 ( 16 July 1916): 15. The book's "point of view is Ruskinian," but the pages contain too much scientific talk. The result is "emotional inadequacy." This is being a bit overly hard on Van Dyke.

316. A History of Painting. Review of A Text-Book of the History of Painting, by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Saturday Review ( 5 January 1895): 19. The reviewer sets his claws and hag rides Van Dyke's back. According to this piece, wiser men would have avoided the book's plan; to give the entire sweep of Western art leads the writer into disposing of great figures with a rushed sentence or two. Worse, some of the estimates are glibly wrong-headed. The upshot: "We commend this book in being admirably adapted to mislead young persons." The reviewer needs to put more sugar on his grapefruit in the mornings.

317. History of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Nursing Home and Health Care Center. Undated flyer. In 1891, "The Van Dyke property, better known as the home of Dr. F. H. Milligan, was purchased for $4,500 ... The property included a home and two other buildings." A photograph of the old home appears in John C. Van Dyke's Autobiography in the gallery following page 127 [See 13, p. 127].

318. History of Wabasha County, Together with Biographical Matter, Statistics, Etc. Chicago: (H. H. Hill,). 1884. Clearly from this history, by the time the Van Dykes arrived in 1868 Minnesota was not the land of "wild" Indians Van Dyke crowed about [See 92, p. 143-44]. As the unnamed writer summarizes, since admission of Minnesota as a state in 1858, "the blankets and painted faces of the red man have entirely disappeared" (632).
Dr. F. H. Milligan, a prominent physician, now lives on a hill overlooking Wabasha, residing ‘‘in what is here known as the old Judge Van Dyke homestead’’ (941).

319. Hogue, Lawrence. All the Wild and Lonely Places: Journeys in a Desert Landscape. Washington, D.C.: (Island Press,). 2000. 130-31, 133, 141, 142, 149-51, 154, 157, 249-50 note for 151. Although Hogue harbors doubts about Van Dyke's purported "rugged journeys across the Southwest" (151), the writer honors Van Dyke for his descriptive powers: "Van Dyke's chapter [in The Desert]


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titled The Bottom of the Bowl provides the best picture we have of the floor of the Salton Trough before it was inundated. His descriptions of the way desert light played on the sand dunes or created the water mirages are wonders of detail and clarity" (149).

320. Hon. John Van Dyke. New York Times ( 26 December 1878): 5. Obituary of Van Dyke's father. No mention of impeachment but notes that, after appointment to the New Jersey supreme court in 1860, he "retired" in 1867, then moved to Minnesota the following year.

321. Hornaday, William T. Camp-Fires on Desert and Lava. 1908. (University of Arizona Press,). 1983. In this desert classic, Hornaday leads a scientific expedition from Tucson into the terra incognita of Mexico's Pinacate Desert. The trip occurred about the time when Van Dyke supposedly was making his trip, but Hornaday's account demonstrates that getting the facts straight need not rule out the excitements of travel.

322. Howells, William Dean. Venetian Life. 1866. Marlboro, Vermont: (The Marlboro Press,). 1989. No wonder Van Dyke couldn't resist Venice. His friend writer Howells describes a procession of gondolas at night, "shedding mellow lights of blue and red and purple, over uniforms and silken robes. The soldiers of the bands breathe from their instruments music.... [S]oft crimson flushes play upon the old, weather-darkened palaces" (95).

323. Hubert, P. G., Jr. Travels Far and Wide. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) Book Buyer 24.1 ( February 1902): 39-41. By catching both the charm and the terror of the desert, Van Dyke's "text cannot fail to find an appreciative audience" (41).

324. Hunt, Leigh. Letter. New York Times ( 28 October 1923), Section 9: 8. Noting Van Dyke's "calmly reserved, logical statements" in contrast to the "slurs, sweeping denials and angry retorts" heaped upon Van Dyke, a college professor rushes to Van Dyke's defense in the Rembrandt dispute. Based on intelligence, knowledge, and the subtleties of Rembrandt studies, this long letter is perhaps the strongest support Van Dyke received during the Rembrandt furor. It leaves one wondering, however, why few art scholars, some of them Van Dyke's friends, stepped forward to speak in his favor.

325. Huntington, David C. The Quest for Unity: American Art Between World's Fairs, 1876- 1893. Detroit: (Detroit Institute of Arts,). 1983. Between the Philadelphia World's Fair of 1876 and the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, American art underwent its first major growth spurt. This is precisely the period of coming of age both for Van Dyke and for Mrs. Van Rensselaer. The exhibition catalogue illustrates the beautiful turmoil in which they and other aestheticians struggled to find unifying principles.

326. Impressionism. The Oxford Dictionary of Art, edited by Ian Chilvers (ed.) and Harold Osborne. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. 249-51. The piece largely limits its discussion to the story of French Impressionism, a highly individualistic movement with the common goal "to capture the immediate visual impression" of subjects (250). To the horror of the academicians, against which the Impressionists were revolting, this led to violet trees and skies the color of fresh butter.

327. In the Western Wastes. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. Dial 32 ( 1 January 1902): 22-23. Because with this heroic author "we have at last a pathfinder through these wastes" (22-23), his book "should be in the travelling-bag of every transcontinental tourist by Central and Southwestern routes" (23). Van Dyke must have snorted at that.

328. Ingham, Zita. Reading and Writing a Landscape: A Rhetoric of Southwest Desert Literature. Dissertation. (University of Arizona,). 1991. Employs "a transactional mode of reading and writing" to discuss the rhetorical aspects of Southwestern desert writing. Ingham gives Van Dyke's The Desert special attention. Other works considered are by Charles F. Lummis, Mary Austin, Joseph Wood Krutch, Edward Abbey, Barry Lopez, and Joy Harjo and Stephen Strom (6).

329. Ingham, Zita. Review of The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) Nineteenth-Century Prose 22.1 (Spring 1995): 120-22. "The interplay between fact and fiction in Van Dyke's work echoes the interplay of his private and public lives" (121).

330. Ingham, Zita, and Peter Wild. The Preface as Illumination: The Curious (If Not Tricky) Case of John C. Van Dyke's The Desert. Rhetoric Review 9.2 (Spring 1991): 328-39. Discovers that the dedicatee of the book, "A. M. C.," is Andrew Carnegie. Following this, a close reading of the Preface shows that wily Van Dyke was writing for two audiences at once: the gullible public and a small coterie of elitist art collectors and aestheticians.

331. Ingham, Zita, and Peter Wild. Viewing America's Deserts, Part 2: Creating the Creator. Puerto Del Sol 27.1 ( 1992): 303-21. Explores the influences on Van Dyke's writing, including those of


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French Decadent novelist Pierre Loti; Van Dyke's elder brother Theodore; John Muir; and of his own aristocratic culture, education, and the Calvinism of his birth.

332. J. C. Van Dyke Dead; Critic of Rembrandt Art. New York Herald Tribune ( 6 December 1932): 19. The news article on Van Dyke's death of the day before concentrates on the Rembrandt controversy he ignited. The piece implies that Van Dyke's election to the American Academy of Arts and Letters demonstrated that his "critical status remained unimpaired" after the Rembrandt brouhaha. On this, the writer of the article passes on a mistaken assumption. In Van Dyke's own words, "The election had virtually taken place before the book was issued" [See 13, p. 180]. Some of the other details in this generally good rundown are unreliable. The accompanying photograph of Van Dyke seems odd and not especially representative.

333. J. C. Van Dyke Quits Jersey Board. New York Times ( 17 December 1924): 35. Brief notice of Van Dyke's resignation from New Jersey's State Board of Education due to poor health. He had served since 1911. Despite Van Dyke's wiliness in some literary areas, he took the public trust seriously, diligently working to improve education and graciously turning aside favors requested by his friends [See 13, p. xxxiii, 155, 160-61; 524, p. 115-23].

334. Jaeger, Edmund C. The North American Deserts. Stanford, California: (Stanford University Press,). 1957. One of the first authoritative overviews of the subject. For its illustrations, maps, and reliable, straightforward prose, this remains a durable joy, one of the best first steps the newcomer can take into the nation's deserts.

335. James, George Wharton. Arizona: The Wonderland. Boston: (Page,). 1917. 5. Gazing out over the Painted Desert of Arizona, desert booster James notes in passing: "John C. Van Dyke used my photograph of this region as a frontispiece to his marvelously eloquent prose-poem The Desert." That seems an innocent enough observation tinged with name-dropping. But was temperamental James bragging or complaining? See the next entry.

336. James, George Wharton. The Wonders of the Colorado Desert. 2 vols. Boston: (Little, Brown,). 1906. 1: xxix. Following fast on the heels of Van Dyke's The Desert ( 1901) and Mary Austin's The Land of Little Rain ( 1903), and showing the nation's sudden alertness for the romance of the Southwest, this is the third book to celebrate the cactus sweeps. Searching the record and finding nothing pertinent, one assumes that Van Dyke and rival desert impresario James never met, but then draws back in astonishment when James boldly accuses Van Dyke of stealing the frontispiece for The Desert from him (1: xxix). Such are the little surprises that keep popping up before the scholar following along Van Dyke's trail.

337. Jeffers, LeRoy. Colorful Impressions of the Grand Canyon. Review of The Grand Canyon of the Colorado, by John C. Van Dyke. The Bookman 51.3 ( May 1920): 360-61. The reviewer's exhibiting his knowledge of the Grand Canyon takes up most of the space. However, when the writer gets around to addressing the book at hand, he's impressed by Van Dyke's passages depicting the Canyon's "marvelous display of color" (361), before returning to his subject and trying his hand at it himself.

338. Jenkins, Iredell. Art for Art's Sake. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas, edited by Philip P. Wiener. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1980. 1: 108-11. "The idea of art for art's sake is thus to be seen as partly a declaration of artistic independence and partly an expression of the alienation of the artist from society. It is at once a claim and a complaint. Insofar as artists are men, their rejection by society causes them to suffer psychically as well as economically; insofar as they are artists, they glory in it as a proof of their uniqueness" (109). Echoes what Van Dyke often liked to think of himself.

339. John C. Van Dyke. Editorial. New York Herald Tribune ( 6 December 1932): 20. Based on the lack of "acceptance of the cognoscenti," the writer opines on the day after Van Dyke's death that with the Rembrandt book Van Dyke "had ridden a hobby too far." However, "a writer like Van Dyke may indulge a hobby without imperiling the status of the bulk of his work."

340. John C. Van Dyke. Editorial. New York Times ( 7 December 1932): 20. Acknowledges Van Dyke's place in Rembrandt studies but, contrary to "Prof. J. C. Van Dyke, Art Authority, Dies," the obituary of the day before, the Times editorial rejoices for Van Dyke's nature books. "Best of all were the meadows that stretched away from his windows in the Raritan Valley." "So the art critic was lost in the lover of Nature."

341. John C. Van Dyke Funeral Will Be Held Tomorrow. New York Herald Tribune ( 7 December 1932): 19. Identifies Van Dyke as an "art critic,


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noted for his studies and research on Rembrandt and painters of the Flemish school." The piece continues: "many art critics and connoisseurs will be honorary pallbearers."

342. John Charles Van Dyke. New Brunswick Seminary Bulletin 8.1 ( March 1933): 1-11. Following Van Dyke's death in 1932, this memorial issue devoted all its pages to testimonies and reminiscences of Van Dyke. How seriously to take such things? Certainly, Van Dyke was a large figure, a large feature, on the campus, yet it is difficult to separate fact from the sentiment of the moment.

343. John Charles Van Dyke. Publishers Weekly ( 17 December 1932): 2253. Obituary noting the "deluge of criticism" following Van Dyke's stance on Rembrandt. Van Dyke was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, but, contrary to the statement here, he never served as its president.

344. Jones, Billy M. Health-Seekers in the Southwest: 1817- 1900. Norman: (University of Oklahoma Press,). 1967. Often overlooked but a powerful factor in settling the arid lands were the many sufferers of respiratory problems who, facing a hacking death in the days before modern medicines, found life in the deserts and thus became their boosters--as did Van Dyke and his brother Theodore. The treatment here is similar to Baur's but broader in time and place covered.

345. Justices of the Supreme Court: Time of Appointment, Date of Commission, Expiration of Term. Handwritten ledger in the New Jersey State Archives documenting the terms of state supreme court justices in the 1850s and 1860s. John Van Dyke was appointed 28 February 1859; his term expired 28 February 1866.

346. Kaempffert, Waldemar. Science in the News: Streamlining for Speed. New York Times ( 24 December 1939), Part 2: 7. With better streamlining of airplanes and automobiles in mind, Professor Harry L. Parr of Columbia University has invented a device improving the methods of measuring airflow around objects. Includes the only photograph I've seen of Clare's husband.

347. Kamm, Keith A. The Book Arts of Margaret Armstrong: A Handlist to the Exhibition Held at the Athenaeum of Philadelphia, May 1 - June 22, 1979. Philadelphia: (The Athenaeum of Philadelphia,). 1979. This handbill to an Armstrong exhibition includes an essay, a partial list of Armstrong's works, and a brief bibliography. "The works in this exhibit come chiefly from The Athenaeum's holdings of more than seventy-five books designed by Margaret Armstrong, and from the collection of Keith A. Kamm."

348. Keeling, Patricia Jernigan, (ed.) ed., Once Upon a Desert: A Bicentennial Project. 1976. Revised edition. Barstow: (Mojave River Valley Museum Association,). 1994. Van Dyke often visited his brother Theodore on his Mojave Desert ranch, near Daggett, California. This book provides excellent background on the region, with many photographs from the area and abundant references to the Van Dyke family. Part of the Van Dyke Ranch, here called the Coolwater Ranch, appears in the lower left-hand corner of the striking aerial photograph 39. John C. Van Dyke mentioned 41.

349. Kingsley, William L. Current Literature. Review of The Art Review. The New Englander 221 ( August 1888): 138-41. The reproductions found in art magazines became vital at a time when interest in art was growing apace but few Americans could afford to visit Europe. Kingsley praises the reproductions in the July- August issue of The Art Review as better "than anything before attempted in this country" (139). He then devotes most of the rest of the piece to Van Dyke's article, The Beauty of Paint, for it's sure to encourage finesse in Americans' art appreciation.

350. Kingsley, William L. Current Literature. Review of How to Judge of a Picture, by John C. Van Dyke. The New Englander 221 ( August 1888): 132-35. A public bewildered by the many conflicting books telling them how to view art will find succor in this one. It clearly sets forth the important first step, how to appreciate the techniques of form, color, composition, etc. Then it urges readers to perceive the powerful concepts lying behind the mere representative level of great art.

351. Kingsley, William L. Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer ( 1851- 1934): America's First Professional Woman Art Critic. Women as Interpreters of the Visual Arts, 1820- 1979. Edited by Claire Richter Sherman, (ed.) with Adele M. Halcomb. (ed.) Westport, Connecticut: (Greenwood Press,). 1981. 181-205. Mrs. Van Rensselaer was independent, assertive, and influential. Many parallels evident with Van Dyke--shared background, attitudes about education, ideas about Ruskin. This, the most important single article on Van Rensselaer, offers admirable notes and an enticing bibliography.

352. Kinnard, Cynthia D. The Life and Works of Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer. Dissertation. The (Johns Hopkins University,). 1977. Tracing the


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career of Mrs. Van Rensselaer, Kinnard helps us appreciate one of the nation's first female aestheticians of public note. Her course swung from essays on architecture to biography to poetry. "[S]he is important as America's first professional female art critic, the author of the first monograph on an American architect, and a writer whose work was an expression of the highest taste and culture in the Gilded Age." From the abstract.

353. Krutch, Joseph Wood. The Voice of the Desert. New York: (William Sloane,). 1962. God gave us a special gift with Joseph Wood Krutch. An English professor from Columbia University who retired to Tucson, Krutch writes about the quiet surprises he finds in the desert. "Those who have never known it are to be pitied, like a man who has never read Hamlet or heard the Jupiter Symphony" (223). Without strain, Krutch convinces us that this is true. I can't recall that Krutch, a careful littérateur, ever mentions Van Dyke in any of his many books; it seems a strange omission. If I had to guess: Krutch was too much of a gentleman to carp at a fellow desert writer whom he thought was a bit kooky.

354. La Farge, John. Great Masters. New York: (McClure, Phillips,). 1903. See Brown University, in Archival Sources.

355. Laird, David. Desert Stories: A Reader's Guide to the Sonoran Borderlands. Tucson: (Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum,). 1998. In this chosen list of "essential" books about the region, the bibliographer annotates Van Dyke's famous work: "A landmark book published in 1901 that viewed the Sonoran Desert not as a wasteland to be endured on the route to California, but as a region of singular beauty with plants and animals as wonders of adaptability to the arid environment. The clean and eloquent prose is as readable today as when it was written." All true, but the entry would have been much more informative had it considered the book's larger complexities.

356. Langlois, Karen S. A Fresh Voice from the West: Mary Austin, California, and American Literary Magazines, 1892- 1910. California History 69.1 (Spring 1990): 22-35, 80-81. Establishes Austin and other authors in Southern California as independently appreciating the wonders of the desert long before Van Dyke arrived, took up the banner, and became famous for the first book devoted to praising the nation's arid region.

357. Langlois, Karen S. Mary Austin and Houghton Mifflin Company: A Case Study in the Marketing of a Western Writer. Western American Literature 23.1 (Spring 1988): 31-42. Langlois investigates a practical but rarely discussed aspect of publishing, the strategies houses develop to drive the sales of their books. Although similar information is not available for Van Dyke's parallel desert classic, Langlois's piece likely sheds a good deal of light on what was going through the minds of the people at Scribner's.

358. Langtry, Lillie. The Days I Knew. New York: (George H. Doran,). 1925. [See 190]. Mrs. Langtry presents herself as a proper and kindly lady, a lover of distressed animals, etc., and I could find no mention of Van Dyke, Julius L. Stewart--in fact, nothing to do with the shadier (and more interesting) side of her life. She does have a charming portrait of Oscar Wilde (83-94), but that, of course, was quite innocent.

359. Lathrop, George Parsons. The Progress of Art in New York. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 86.515 ( April 1893): 740-52. For some decades, American art floundered about, unsure of where to go, of which school to follow. Then, an "amazing change" occurred in the 1870s (741). Things suddenly coalesced, and art in America gained its sea legs. Although French Impressionism served as a strong catalyst, art has not rigidified into orthodoxy but, liberal in outlook, has preferred to encourage an "amicable diversity" (742).

360. Lears, T. J. Jackson. No Place of Grace: Anti-modernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880- 1920. New York: (Pantheon,). 1981. Lears depicts an upper class during Van Dyke's time so rattled by social, economic, religious, and demographic changes that, trembling with the cultural jim-jams, it dashes after various health and spiritual fads, beginning to destroy the very values once giving it stability.

361. Lee, W. Storrs. The Great California Deserts. New York: (G. P. Putnam's Sons,). 1963. Calls Van Dyke a "[f]amed naturalist" (136). Otherwise, this essential study details the huge shift over the years from a desert-hating to a desert-loving culture. In other words, Lee does for the desert in particular what Roderick Nash's far better-known work does for the nation as a whole.

362. Limerick, Patricia Jernigan. Desert Passages: Encounters with the American Deserts. Albuquerque: (University of New Mexico Press,). 1985. 91-111. A feminist approach making the gratuitous declaration that Van Dyke "was preoccupied with issues of strength and weakness, health and illness, virility and impotence" (110).


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363. Lindsay, Suzanne G. Mary Cassatt and Philadelphia. Philadelphia: (Philadelphia Museum of Art,). 1985. 15-16. Lindsay does a beautiful job of researching the interchange of influences between wealthy Cassatt and her native city. The references to Van Dyke's friend Frank Thomson point the researcher down intriguing paths toward a deeper appreciation of Van Dyke and his exclusive but intellectually keen haut monde.

364. Loti, Pierre. The Desert. 1895. Translated by Jay Paul Minn. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1993. A possible influence on Van Dyke's The Desert [See 13, p. 168-69, 247 note 5; 524, p. 130-31; and 626].

365. Low, Will H. A Chronicle of Friendships, 1873- 1900. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1908. Van Dyke gives us only tempting glimpses of his youthful days chumming with budding artists in New York City and his early trips to Europe in pursuit of art [See 13, p. 52-58]. For this, Low's sketches of a young American's artistic beginnings, principally in Paris but also in New York City, become all the more valuable, creating the atmosphere in which Van Dyke likely moved. Perhaps those days were not as sans souci as Low remembered them, but we can hope they were. Of special note in Low are the appearances of artists such as Saint-Gaudens, who later moved in common orbit with Van Dyke [See 524, p. 97, 98 note 67].

366. Low, Will H. A Painter's Progress. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1910. Continuing the above, Low, a painter unusually blessed with writing talent and gently informed perception, reviews his career in terms of the larger forces shaping America's art life. He's particularly good at catching the influence of young American painters returning from study in Europe.

367. Lundberg, Ann E. Mapping the Geologic Wilderness: Science, Nature Writing and the American Self. Dissertation. (University of Notre Dame,). 1999. Amateur geologist Van Dyke often fancied himself far wiser than the experts in the field. This study links science with aesthetics by investigating how nature writers since Thoreau (including Van Dyke) have used geology to develop a sense of self in relation to nature.

368. Lutz, Tom. American Nervousness, 1903: An Anecdotal History. Ithaca: (Cornell University Press,). 1991. The lot of the upper classes was a hard one at the turn of the nineteenth century. Prosperity freed them up to indulge their neuroses, and psychically driven out from traditional values by rapid social change they sought balm in everything from spiritualism to colonic irrigation, the arts, and nature.

369. Lyon, Thomas J. The Age of Thoreau, Muir, and Burroughs. This Incomperable Lande: A Book of American Nature Writing, edited by Thomas J. Lyon. (ed.) Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1989. 49-73. One of today's foremost students of nature writing says of Van Dyke: "Perhaps the desert has had no better-trained pair of eyes look on it. Indeed, there may be no more detailed parsing-out of scenes anywhere in American nature writing" (69). Lyon follows this on the next page with a long quote from The Desert and concludes sadly that the nation did not heed Van Dyke's exhortations against development (73).

370. Lyon, Thomas J. The Nature Essay in the West. A Literary History of the American West, edited by J. Golden Taylor, (ed.) Thomas J. Lyon, (ed.) et al. Fort Worth: (Texas Christian University Press,). 1987. 221-65. "Muir, Austin, and Van Dyke represent the flowering of the post-frontier vision" (240), with aesthetic communion at its heart (239).

371. MacKay, James. Little Boss: A Life of Andrew Carnegie. Edinburgh: (Mainstream Publishing,). 1997. Unfortunately, this, among the latest works about Carnegie, follows its predecessors in passing on the oft-recited, but likely fabricated, role of Van Dyke in the aftermath of the Homestead affair (211-12).

372. Mahoney, Harry Thayer, and Margorie Locke Mahoney. Biographic Dictionary of Espionage. San Francisco: (Austin and Winfield,). 1998. 283-87. Not only do the Mahoneys give the John Honeyman espionage story at some length, they pass on details of Honeyman's life not found in other major sources.

373. Mathé, Sylvie. Désir du désert: Hommage au Grand Désert américain. Revue Française d'Etudes Americaines 16.50 ( November 1991): 423-36. On the desert, Van Dyke and Edward Abbey "pursue an identical quest for an impossible object of desire, sharing the same passion which they transform into a love lyric, a poetic rhapsody" (423). Perhaps, but starting with such a grand assumption, the article reflects more the appeal of melodrama than literary or even biographical truth.

374. Mather, Frank Jewett, Jr. Van Dyke, John Charles. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1946. 19: 188-89. "He was a man of magnificent stature, easily carried, with large gray-blue eyes that belied the habitual fixity of his fine olive mask" (189). The reference to a strange skin color possibly yields to an explanation involving the


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doses of silver nitrate Van Dyke was taking for various maladies [See 524, p. 10, 98 note 68].

375. Matthews, James Brander. Glad Nights and Days under the Blue Sky. Review of The Open Spaces, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 7 May 1922): 3. The innocence of this review shows that Van Dyke had successfully horns-woggled even close friends into believing that he had been a rugged frontiersman during his early days.

376. Maurice, Arthur Bartlett. Bon Voyage. Review of In Egypt, by John C. Van Dyke. The Bookman 72 ( February 1931): xi. Maurice appreciates the "poise" and "sureness of touch" experienced world traveler Van Dyke exhibits in a book not afraid to criticize the tourist scene but perfectly willing to gasp before Egypt's ancient wonders. Despite this, the reviewer seems to have missed the passages of visionary flights pulsing at the book's core. My "John C. Van Dyke's 'Other' Desert Book" explores such aspects of In Egypt [See 611].

377. McBride, Henry. Professor John C. Van Dyke's New Book. Review of American Painting and Its Tradition, by John C. Van Dyke. The Bookman 50.5 ( January 1920): 489-90. This is a reviewer who knows his trade. Hardly in awe of Van Dyke, the writer begins with a light touch of false praise for Van Dyke's modesty and compliant taste for prevailing fashion. Then the knife goes in painlessly but deep. Not only was Van Dyke dazzled by the réclame and inflated prices of their paintings, he has missed catching some of the artistic virtues of the painters he has chosen. It's an interesting take, and although one might disagree with the harsh judgment underlying the reviewer's dissembling gentleness, it's refreshing to see someone stand up so ably to the pomposity in Van Dyke which often wraps the views he passes on.

378. McClellan, George B., Jr. The Gentleman and the Tiger: The Autobiography of George B. McClellan, Jr., edited by Harold C. Syrett. (ed.) Philadelphia: (J. B. Lippincott,). 1956. 332-37. Here's another of Van Dyke's aristocratic pals. The son of a famous (infamous) Civil War general, he carried his light as a congressman, mayor of New York City, a professor at Princeton, and a patron of the arts. To boot, in the tradition of the gentleman scholar, he was one of the few American authorities on Italian history. Editor Styrett (ed.) comments that McClellan "retained until his death ... the views and values of a class and era that had all but vanished with his youth" (9). Van Dyke gives his approval by counting McClellan among his "much-valued friendships" [See 13, p. 71].
Traveling with Van Dyke at the outbreak of World War One, here McClellan writes an account of escaping Europe which pretty well parallel's Van Dyke's portrait of the turmoil [See 13, p. 161-66, 71]. McClellan and wife elsewhere appear in Van Dyke's collection of letters [See 524, p. 68-69, 99].

379. McClintock, Elizabeth R. Julius Stewart. American Paintings Before 1945 in the Wadsworth Atheneum, by Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, with contributions by Elizabeth R. McClintock and Amy Ellis. New Haven: (Yale University Press,). 1996. Catalogue number 413. McClintock surveys the career of Van Dyke's friend Stewart, then focuses with admirable thoroughness on the identity of the figures, likely including Van Dyke, in the potent Stewart oil On the Yacht Namouna, Venice, 1890.

380. McIntire, Elliot. Review of The Secret Life of John C. Van Dyke: Selected Letters, edited by David W. Teague (ed.) and Peter Wild. (ed.) Journal of the West 38.4 ( October 1999): 105. A man steeped in the fine arts, Van Dyke writes letters which "illustrate how anomalous is The Desert among [Van Dyke's] writings.... He portrayed himself as a romantic adventurer, but the Introduction and letters make it clear that much of The Desert is misleading and sometimes outright wrong."

381. McKenney, J. Wilson. Desert Editor: The Story of Randall Henderson and Palm Desert. Georgetown, California: (Wilmac Press,). 1972. Beginning in 1937 and for decades thereafter, Desert Magazine told its readers about the mystery and lore of the desert lands. Editor Henderson (ed.), at once an avid entrepreneur and an avid conservationist, personified a view growing popular in Van Dyke's day, the happy contradiction that the desert both could be developed along modern lines and remain a wild, intriguing place for urbanites seeking weekend escapes. Van Dyke himself entertained a similar illusion. When traveling in South America, he declared nature "exhaustless, limitless" [See 13, p. 188].
Here, McKenney lists The Desert, much admired by Henderson, in his ‘‘sources used in writing Chapters 2, 3, and 4’’ (188), but I could find no direct mention of Van Dyke in these places or anywhere else in the book.

382. McNamee, Gregory, (ed.) ed., Named in Stone and Sky: An Arizona Anthology. Tucson: (The University of Arizona Press,). 1993. 13-14, 179. While introducing a selection from The Desert (2-4), the anthologist displays a remarkable knowledge not available to anyone else about Van Dyke and how he traveled. According to this version, "Van Dyke took his fortunes as they came, dining some


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evenings on hardtack and alkali-laden water under a solitary mesquite tree, others on fine beef and wines in well-appointed ranch houses" (13). Presented as fact to readers, the undocumented introductory material is a striking example of how even an intelligent writer can mislead the public by passing on imaginative thinking as history.

383. Meeter, Rev. Daniel James. The Gardner A. Sage Theological Library. Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries 45.2 ( December 1983): 65-81. In following the history of one of our famed theological libraries, the article notes that during his long tenure as director, Van Dyke shifted the emphasis on acquisitions from theology to aesthetics and liberal education (72-73).

384. Meisler, Stanley. William Merritt Chase. Smithsonian. 31.17 ( February 2001): 84-92. The son of an Indiana shoe-store owner, Van Dyke's friend William Merritt Chase played the role of the dandified artist and through such showmanship parlayed genuine painting talents into the first rank of the public's attention. Van Dyke likely took this profitable silliness as a matter of course and shows his admiration for Chase in the Autobiography [See 13, p. 141], while Chase's portrait of Van Dyke in the Gardner A. Sage Library is a stunning portrayal of youthful intensity.

385. Mendelowitz, Daniel M. The Impressionists. A History of American Art. New York: (Holt, Rinehart and Winston,). 1970. 306-08. The treatment, only three paragraphs, nonetheless contains a memorable brisance: "Despite its light and fragile tone, Impressionism was a serious effort to eliminate the trite and conventional elements from painting without having recourse to the exotic and remote. Impressionism represented, in essence, a turn-of-the-century combination of visual realism and esthetic sensibility" (308). Van Dyke went one better: He spun his Impressionism from "the exotic and remote."

386. Metropolitan Museum Rembrandts Real, Prussian State Museum Director Says. New York Times ( 9 October 1923): 1. First shaken, now the experts are closing ranks against Van Dyke. Among them, one of the world's recognized authorities, Dr. Wilhelm von Bode, pooh-poohs Van Dyke as simply repeating the arguments of an earlier German scholar, now discredited.

387. Millet, F. D. What Are Americans Doing in Art? The Century Magazine 43.1 ( November 1891): 46-49. The vice-president of the National Academy of Design declares that, having risen from the primitive to emulate Europe's worthy techniques, American art now enjoys "the present hopeful stage of progress"--a prospect of soon striking out into its own, individual development (47). Largely responsible for this happy state is an enlightened "coterie of picture buyers," wealthy men led by Andrew Carnegie (48).

388. Miss Armstrong, Writer, Artist, 76. New York Times ( 19 July 1944): 19. From one of the "distinguished New York families," Armstrong was raised by governesses. Her father was "the first American consul general to United Italy in 1870." Armstrong "lived most of her life with her sister in the home of her father at 58 West Tenth Street."

389. Moffatt, Michael. The Rutgers Picture Book. New Brunswick: (Rutgers University Press,). 1985. Text and pictures follow Rutgers from its founding into modern times. Some include aerial shots showing the relationship of buildings important to Van Dyke on both the Rutgers campus and on that of the adjacent New Brunswick Theological Seminary, overlooking Rutgers from what to this day students call "Holy Hill." The residence built by the Seminary for Van Dyke, where he lived with his housekeeper, was torn down long ago. The last time I visited, the site was a grassy knoll overlooking George Street and the Raritan River, a pleasant nook occupied by trees and rabbits. In any case, the historical photographs in this oversized book show the more placid days of academe when Van Dyke strode to class through tree-lined walkways while chapel bells rang to announce lectures in ivied halls.

390. Montagnoc-Voeroes, Baron T. C. A. de. Letter. New York Times ( 12 July 1925), Section 8: 12. From Budapest, Hungary, the Baron runs down the gamut of arguments others already have used against Van Dyke in his stance on Rembrandt and somewhat haughtily offers that Van Dyke's "'grand style'" is not enough to override the opinions of the experts arrayed against him.

391. Morison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: (Little, Brown,). 1942. 1: 65-67. Although "No less than seventy-one alleged original portraits of Columbus or copies were exhibited at the Chicago Exposition of 1893 ... no portrait of him was painted in his lifetime, for the great age of Spanish portraiture was yet to come" (65). Despite this, our great marine historian states his own preference for a Columbus likeness by Alejo FernÁndez, because "it can almost be proved that the painter knew Columbus" (67).


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392. Morley, John. Recollections. New York: (Macmillan,). 1917. 2: 110-11, 314-15, 336-37. The English writer and statesman remembers "idealist" Carnegie (111) and recalls the elegant soirees, also attended by Van Dyke, held at Skibo, Carnegie's monstrous castle looming over the moors of Scotland.

393. Morris, Harrison S. Confessions In Art. New York: (Sears,). 1930. Prowls the galleries with Van Dyke, "a critic keener than almost any of his time":
Our whimsical game was to go into the sacred inner gallery and ascribe the rare examples there, before asking Mr. Fischer to give us the names of the painters. Nearly always Van Dyke was right; for even though without signature, a canvas of actual merit would appeal to trained experts as coming from the identical brush. (231)

394. Mountain Scenery and Mountain Art. Review of The Mountain, by John C. Van Dyke. The Dial ( 8 June 1916): 555. The writer delights in the fact that Van Dyke describes mountains so well yet declares them unpaintable. Mountaineers and summer cottagers will want to take this study along to have their appreciation honed, for Van Dyke "reveals a great deal to those who observe with less knowledge, if not with less ardor."

395. Movies Operating at Daggett. Barstow Print [ California] ( 22 June 1917): 1. Theodore's nephew, movie director W. S. "Woody" Van Dyke, is putting people at the ranch into his new Western. "There are about 15 actors and Dix Van Dyke is reported to be taking a leading part." I have been unable to locate a copy of this film [See 564].

396. Mr. Carnegie's Autobiography. Review of The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) New York Times Book Review ( 17 October 1920): 3. Unfortunately, writings about Carnegie tend toward the poles of pure blessing or pure curse. Here, the reviewer's adulation matches the autobiographer's self-congratulations as a lover of sweet reason and the laboring man. No mention of Van Dyke's considerable hand in the book, a curious function: one sociopath editing the work of another, rendering the whole doubly suspect.

397. Muir, John. The American Forests. The Atlantic Monthly 80.478 ( August 1897): 145-57. Compare the rhetoric and diction (especially 156-57) of this powerful call for preservation of the nation's forests with Van Dyke's later The Desert [See 25, p. 57-67]. [For more on Van Dyke and Muir, see 13, p. 167-68, 227-28 note 7, 247 note 4; 539, p. 135].

398. Munro, Thomas. Impressionism in Art. Dictionary of the History of Ideas, edited by Philip P. Wiener. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1973. 2: 567-83. The particular virtue of this piece, one of the longest on the subject found in the standard references, lies in its ranging beyond art to the influence of the impressionistic concept on music, literature, history, criticism, and philosophy.

399. Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. 3rd ed. New Haven: (Yale University Press,). 1982. We can't love what we fear. The more our culture brought raw nature under control, the more it sentimentalized the wildness it had tamed. Van Dyke came precisely at this point, claiming that in the desert he had discovered the pristine nature for which the industrializing nation yearned. This is the essential text for understanding the nation's shifting attitudes toward nature over the centuries.

400. Negri, Sam. The Trip from Joseph City to Dilkon Frames the Painted Desert as It Was 100 Years Ago. Arizona Highways 76.5 ( May 2000): 50-53. Van Dyke's image as a desert authority and desert lover thrives. Traveling backroads across the Painted Desert, Negri gasps at the delicate beauty of the badlands and leaps to quote (50) briefly from Van Dyke's The Desert. At the conclusion of his tour, the writer sighs "the terrain was undoubtedly a treasure that naturalist and writer John Van Dyke would have loved" (53).

401. New Books on Various Themes. Review of A Text-Book of the History of Painting, by John C. Van Dyke. The Book Buyer 11.12 ( January 1895): 748. Van Dyke packs it in, from Egyptian art to the works of Whistler and Sargent. Although a textbook, "it will come as a welcome hand-book to many a student whose class-room is his office or study."

402. New Jersey General Assembly. Minutes of Votes and Proceedings of the Ninetieth General Assembly. Woodbury, New Jersey: (A. S. Barber,). 1866. Resolution passed condemning the memorial (next item) to impeach Justice Van Dyke as "unfounded and wicked" (1027; note also 41, 938-39, 989, 990, 1010, 1024, 1029).

403. New Jersey General Assembly, Select Committee on the Memorial of C. F. Durant. Report of Select Committee, Messrs. Staats, Fisher and Yawger on C. F. Durant's Memorial. Newark: (State of New Jersey,). 1866. Van Dyke's father served as a member of New Jersey's supreme court. This bill of impeachment filed against him when John C. Van Dyke was a boy may well confirm family rumors that the elder Van Dyke uprooted the family and moved it to Minnesota


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because of political difficulties [See 508, p. x]. The incident also may have added fuel to Van Dyke's later urge to assert the rectitude of his heritage.

404. New Jersey Senate. Journal of the Twenty-Second Senate. Salem, New Jersey: (F. F. Patterson,). 1866. Echoes the Minutes of the New Jersey General Assembly, that the memorial to impeach Justice Van Dyke is "unfounded and wicked" (781-82, 787).

405. New New York and Its People. Review of The New New York, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 22 October 1909): 627. Van Dyke "affirms ... that out of all the emphasis and exaggeration a kind of beauty will arise which by virtue of its frankness and fitness to the city's new requirements shall be genuine." One once again puzzles. All this goes counter to Van Dyke's long-held preachments against the human element in art. Furthermore, the review is so effusive it raises suspicions.

406. Nicolson, Marjorie Hope. Sublime in External Nature. Dictionary of the History of Ideas, edited by Philip P. Wiener. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1980. 4: 333-37. Eighteenth-century Englishmen traveling through the Alps found not so much beauty, which is humanly comprehensible, but the thrill of horror as they stumbled through the dangerous heig\hts of "monstrous" mountains (333). Such things, in their abilities to transport, touched people's very souls (333-34). Change the landscape to the wilds of the desert, and you have Van Dyke.

407. Nilsen, Richard. A Glorious Desert--And Then Some. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. The (Johns Hopkins University Press edition.). Arizona Republic [Phoenix] ( 16 January 2000), J: 5. Besides surveying the usual features found in a positive review, this talented piece investigates Van Dyke's style. A "master of over-the-top, purple prose," Van Dyke "is so extreme, he is brilliant." In this way, Nilsen understands an important aspect of what Van Dyke is doing in The Desert, matching a fearsome subject with "a baroque literary sensibility." It is a point often missed.

408. No Real Rembrandt Here, Says Van Dyke. New York Times ( 5 October 1923): 1, 2. Someone at the Times sniffed a winner. Instead of burying comment on Van Dyke's Rembrandt and His School in the book reviews, he ran a first-page, above-the-fold article with lengthy quotes by Van Dyke. Museum directors, dealers, and collectors were hopping mad. The controversy raged in the Times for weeks.

409. Novak, Barbara. American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience. New York.: (Praeger,). 1969. One of the standard, but quite clear and useful, texts on the shifting art movements in the century Van Dyke could not escape.

410. O'Connor, Richard. The Scandalous Mr. Bennett. New York: (Doubleday,). 1962. James Gordon Bennett and his father made the New York Herald "the greatest newspaper in America" by adding sports, financial, and social columns appealing to readers' interests (7). Nonetheless, business success did not staunch the younger Bennett's zeal for fast cars, fast women, and such sailing joie as the yacht Namouna. Noting the onboard antics, some wits called the world-traveling vessel the Pneumonia.

411. O'Malley, Frank Ward. Mr. Whistler and the Expatriated. Catholic World 69.411 ( June 1899): 340-44. In promoting Whistler as America's "greatest artistic genius" (340), O'Malley draws on Van Dyke to support his encomium for Whistler's Lady with the Yellow Buskins. "The whole execution of the picture is in Mr. Whistler's style, which Dr. John C. Van Dyke has happily described as 'the maximum effect with the minimum of effort'" (342).

412. Omar KhayyÁm. The RubÁiyÁt of Omar KhayyÁm. Translation by Edward FitzGerald. 1859. Illustrated by Elihu Vedder. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1884. [See 22].

413. The Opening of the Fair. A Century of Tribune Editorials. 1947. Freeport, New York: (Books for Libraries Press,). 1970. 63-64. At President Grover Cleveland's electric touch, the Great White City of the Chicago World's Fair leapt with the shock of life. Fountains began to flow, huge machines churned, artillery boomed. It was like--well,--it was like the fire "brought down from heaven by Prometheus." The unnamed editor of the collection comments dryly on this editorial of May 2, 1893, that he included it to show writers "the wisdom of keeping their shirts on" (63). However, grandiose as such emotions might strike us now, the nation was completely justified by the Fair's awesome accomplishments. We include this editorial to show the excitement of which Van Dyke was so aggressively a part.

414. Parr, Clare Van Dyke. Last Will and Testament of Clare Van Dyke Lambert Parr. Dated May 5, 1952. Proved December 10, 1963. Surrogate's Court of Westchester County, White Plains, New York. Given the intimacy between Van Dyke and his daughter, Clare, she would have been the logical one to inherit his personal papers. Indeed, as already observed, an elderly relative once told me


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that Clare had taken possession of Van Dyke's personal property. Although Clare's will indicates considerable wealth, it gives no clue about the disposition of her father's personal papers. A curious item mentions "a gold band ring with the inscription Spiro Asti Si," which belonged to her father (6a). Although I have been unable to translate the inscription, I tracked down the ring's donee, but more important matters intervened during a visit. The search for the ring receives attention in my Interviews and Notes, Addendum of 1994 [See 602, p. 88-89, 100], Addendum of 1995, Part 1 [See 602, p. 56, 200], and the Addendum of 1996 [See 602, p. 8, 147, 150]. However, Clare's will did bear good fruit regarding the discovery of Van Dyke's private art collection, long forgotten but in the holdings of Rutgers University's Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum [See 13, p. 211 note 3], detailed in Archival Sources.

415. Parr, Harry L. Last Will and Testament of Harry L. Parr. Dated May 12, 1964. Proved June 18, 1964. (Surrogate's Court of Westchester County,). White Plains, New York. In Item 5, Clare Parr's husband bequeaths his personal property to Professor Theodore Baumeister, but contact with the son of the deceased Professor Baumeister yielded no material relevant to Van Dyke.

416. Parr, Harry L. Map of Onteora Trails. Map. [ Tannersville, New York:] The Park Committee [of the Onteora Club], 1933.

417. Parr, Prof. Harry L. American Men of Science: A Biographical Directory. The Physical and Biological Sciences. 10th ed. Edited by Cattell. (ed.) Tempe, Arizona: (The Jacques Cattell Press,). 1961. 3: 3097. Rundown of Prof. Parr's career, notably as a professor of engineering at Columbia University. Most significantly, lists 1908 as the date of his marriage, the only place I have seen the year of the marriage to Clare mentioned. In fact, the researcher will have difficulty finding Clare, for she is curiously absent in the usual sources.

418. Payne, Henry C. Nature for Nature's Sake. Review of Nature for Its Own Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. The Dial 25. 292 ( 16 August 1898): 100-02. In the midst of our tawdry lives, cheapened by the comforts of civilization, Van Dyke leads us to the succor awaiting us in the "loveliness of perfection" free for the observing in Nature (100). During Van Dyke's lifetime, Nature for Its Own Sake went through reprint after reprint, confirming the brightness of Nature seen as romantic escape, one of our legacies from the late Victorians.

419. Peck, Daniel H. Van Dyke, John Charles ( 21 Apr. 1856- 5 Dec. 1932). American National Biography, edited by John A. Garraty (ed.) and Mark C. Carnes. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1999. 22: 209-11. Although in places the bibliographic details and a few of the assessments of Van Dyke's life and work remain spongy, this is an example of latter-day biographical encyclopedias incorporating modern, objective scholarship into an evaluation of Van Dyke.

420. Pennell, Elizabeth Robins. Nights: Rome-Venice in the Aesthetic Eighties; London-Paris in the Fighting Nineties. Philadelphia: (Lippincott,). 1916. Van Dyke must have been able to transcend his sourness to warm the cockles of his friends. Mrs. Pennell speaks of the nights of cheery talk with Whistler, then on the same page refers to "Many other nights besides" spent with Van Dyke, implying that they, too, were filled with delightful intensity and laughter (221).

421. Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell. The Life of James McNeill Whistler. Philadelphia: (Lippincott,). 1911. 335. A charming London vignette of Van Dyke meeting Whistler for the first time. In an ensuing argument over the VelÁzquez painting Las Meniñas, Whistler stabs a knife into the dinner table to emphasize a point.

422. Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell. The Whistler Journal. Philadelphia: (Lippincott,). 1921. 30-31. Van Dyke, "whom Whistler was always glad to meet" (30), attends a dinner party at which Whistler declares that "art is unchangeable" (31).

423. Pennell, Joseph. The Adventures of an Illustrator: Mostly in Following His Authors in America and Europe. Boston: (Little, Brown,). 1925. Assembling a lovely book of drawings and comment based on the artist's joy of goal-oriented vagabondage, the illustrator of The New New York remembers Van Dyke (260), sometimes cryptically (316). Many good insights on mutual friend Whistler and also on shared artistic comrade Mrs. Van Rensselaer (102, 158, 170; photograph opposite 170).

424. Pennell, Joseph. The Life and Letters of Joseph Pennell. 2 volumes. Edited by Elizabeth Robins Pennell. (ed.) Boston: (Little Brown,). 1929. 1: 308, 336; 2: 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 18, 28, 29, 31, 44, 45, 51, 63, 65, 71, 72, 73, 79, 81, 86, 91, 101, 106, 107, 108, 117, 119, 129, 156, 168, 196, 217, 218, 304, 306, 314. As they go by, the little windows of these letters keep flickering open on a relationship between writer and illustrator growing into a hilarity based on the security of solid friendship. A sample: "Dear


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Professor--Beast! You never answered my beautiful letter from Mexico (108)! One guesses that such an easy relationship was rare for Van Dyke.

425. Perkins, Judy L. John Van Dyke and Everett Ruess: A Comparison with the Spirit of Place Tradition. Thesis. (Colorado State University). 1988. Heartfelt but misled, the thesis illustrates the pattern of skewed research on Van Dyke up until recent years. Perkins compares the lives and work of two heroic desert travelers, John C. Van Dyke and Everett Ruess, the latter a young artist who disappeared into the wilds of Utah in 1934. In Perkins' mind, both men embody the rejection of the intellect as the men turn their backs on modern civilization in preference for the primitive life. One might suggest that at least in the case of Van Dyke the thesis reflects far more the mistakes of the scholars on whom Perkins depends than the substance of the subject at hand, for, enthusiastically following those who went before, she falls into a huge pitfall by assuming that the man and his writing are one. Hence, she doesn't appreciate that, no Saul dramatically converted on his way to Damascus, to a large extent Van Dyke brought his highly sophisticated, and highly civilized, way of seeing with him to the desert, then imposed it on what he saw. A man who rarely appeared in public without a cravat of some sort, only in the make-believe world he offered to his readers as a romantic sop did Van Dyke yearn for the primitive.
The standard work for Ruess, quite celebrated of late by wilderness buffs, is W. L. Rusho's Everett Ruess: A Vagabond for Beauty [See 482].

426. Peters, Lisa N. American Impressionist Masterpieces. New York: (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates,). 1991. Stunningly effective, in this large-size format Peters presents for each selection a full-page reproduction to the right matched by a one-page comment on the left. This works so well the reader feels he needs no more. Start, for example, with William M. Chase's Back of a Nude (46-47).

427. Phillips, Henry Albert. New Travel Books. Review of In Egypt, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 10 May 1931): 21. "[W]e find ourselves dipping into graceful prose that makes us aware that there may be travel 'literature' of equal distinction with other literature."

428. Phillips, William D., and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. New York: (Cambridge University Press,). 1992. 86-87, 282 note 8. The authors think that Lotto's is "the most nearly authentic portrait" of Columbus (86). It "caused quite a stir when it was discovered and was officially recognized in Madrid in 1892 as the best available likeness of Columbus" (87). The authors note Bernard Berenson's endorsement, then sadly inform us "the gallery that owned the Lotto portrait in 1956 has no record of its current whereabouts" (282 note 8).

429. Pisano, Ronald G. Idle Hours: Americans at Leisure, 1865- 1914. Boston: (Little, Brown,). 1988. This is an excellent book for the background of Van Dyke's upper-class milieu. The study shows how industrialization after the Civil War created prosperity and the consequent leisure generating the aesthetic movement. Especially good on the Art for Art's Sake movement and the links between aestheticism and women.

430. Pisano, Ronald G. William Merritt Chase. New York: (Watson-Guptill,). 1979. A richly illustrated study of the artist, famous in his day, who did the haunting oil of Van Dyke now hanging in Van Dyke's Gardner A. Sage Library. For a reproduction, see the frontispiece in Teague and Wild [See 524]. Squint at some of these full-page landscapes and you'll see with Van Dyke's eyes. Van Dyke shows his special admiration for Chase in the Autobiography [See 13, p. 141].

431. Podro, Michael. The Critical Historians of Art. New Haven: (Yale University Press,). 1982. Probing far beyond paint and canvas, Podro explores the various assumptions we bring to art in evaluating it. Much of this subsumes Rembrandt, Ruskin, Titian and other figures of special interest to Van Dyke.

432. Polmar, Norman, and Thomas B. Allen. Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: (Random House,). 1997. A brief recitation accepting the John Honeyman spy story.

433. Ponte, Alessandra. The House of Light and Entropy: Inhabiting the American Desert. Translation by Marisa Trubiano. Assemblage 30 ( 1996): 12-31. This highly theoretical article leaps about, promising much but delivering a blur of questionable results. The piece places Van Dyke in a context of popular culture, relating The Desert to 2001: A Space Odyssey and to Paolo Soleri's Arcosanti. Unfortunately, the author bases much of her musings on the false romantic image of Van Dyke as the stalwart desert wanderer; she further misses, or at least fails to clarify, the point that Van Dyke was not describing the arid lands themselves so much as writing down his creative perception of them. The caption and identification of the two-page photograph (12-13) as from The Desert is, indeed, puzzling (13).


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434. Powell, Lawrence Clark. According to LCP. Anchor and Bull: An Occasional Newsletter of the Friends of the University of Arizona Library 5 ( May 1985): 1. Some rare Van Dyke books in the library's holdings, among them The Raritan.

435. Powell, Lawrence Clark. The Desert Odyssey of John C. Van Dyke. Arizona Highways 58.10 ( October 1982): 5-29. Deserving credit for revivifying Van Dyke in modern times, Powell nonetheless needs to be read with extreme caution. His work on Van Dyke serves as a good example of the academic who abandons critical analysis in favor of wishful thinking popularly written. Furthermore, his work dutifully embodies the false image which Van Dyke wanted people to believe. Beyond this, the article makes keen comments on Van Dyke's artistic way of seeing.

436. Powell, Lawrence Clark. Henry Van Dyke. Anchor and Bull: An Occasional Newsletter of the Friends of the University of Arizona Library 6 ( September 1985): 3. Acquisition of Van Dyke's The Raritan, discussed in Powell's According to LCP, led to the discovery that the donor is the grand-daughter of Henry van Dyke.

437. Powell, Lawrence Clark. Introduction. The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1901. Tucson: (The Arizona Historical Society,). 1976. No pagination. Powell's Introduction to the first printing of The Desert since 1930 celebrates Van Dyke for "a mind both scientific and poetic." In a highly creative reading, Powell describes Van Dyke's response to the criticism of Robert H. Forbes, a lubricious performance trying to squirm around the charges of The Desert's many errors, as "thanking the scientist for his critical comments" [See 524, p. 6, 59-61 to judge for yourself]. See also The Arizona Historical Society, in the Archival Sources.

438. Powell, Lawrence Clark. Lawrence Clark Powell's Literary Guidebook to the Southwest. Tape cassette. The Glowing Heart of the World Series. Produced by Brian Laird. Singing Wind Audio, 1998. Volume 1, tape 2, side B. Powell introduces and reads selections from various desert writers. His Van Dyke excerpts are from The Open Spaces, from Van Dyke's letters to Scribner's, and from The Desert. Powell's comments contain major and minor errors. According to these, the real name of Van Dyke's nephew Dix was Dixon; far more importantly, Powell asserts that The Desert was "written with precision" and its "text never altered." Most amazingly for this late date, Powell celebrates the old, discredited myths, hailing Van Dyke as a lone desert traveler stalwartly riding his horse through unknown territories.

439. Powell, Lawrence Clark. "Southwest Classics Reread: The Desert by John C. Van Dyke." Westways 64.3 ( March 1972): 29-31, 70-71. With this laudatory piece, Powell revivifies Van Dyke's heroic image as a two-fisted frontiersman of remarkable sensitivity, thus beginning the modern surge of interest in Van Dyke. Reprinted in Powell's Southwest Classics.

440. Powell, Lawrence Clark. Southwest Classics: The Creative Literature of the Arid Lands. 1974. Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1982. 314-28. Dubbing Van Dyke "a naturalist, a romantic, and a prophet" (317), Powell declares Van Dyke a learned man and an outdoorsman of extraordinary accomplishments. This reprints Powell's "Southwest Classics Reread: The Desert by John C. Van Dyke", first appearing in Westways magazine.

441. Prof. J. C. Van Dyke, Art Authority, Dies. New York Times ( 6 December 1932): 21. Remembers Van Dyke for being at the center of the storm of Rembrandt criticism; includes testimonies by wealthy critic and writer Harrison S. Morris; George B. McClellan, former mayor of New York City; and other notables.

442. Prowell, George R. John Van Dyke. The History of Camden County, New Jersey. Philadelphia: (L. J. Richards,). 1886. 207. Exceptional for his details, Prowell identifies the elder Van Dyke as a Whig and further gives his opponents' names in his two successful runs for Congress.

443. A Question of Tradition. Review of American Painting and Its Tradition, by John C. Van Dyke. The Nation ( 6 December 1919): 719. The book's boldness combined with subtlety shows that, contrary to Van Dyke, American art has strong roots in tradition. This piece must have left the professor thunderstruck with the assertion that Van Dyke doesn't understand Whistler. Still, the reviewer sees such features of the book in question as but a momentary lapse in Van Dyke's string of fine works and ends by recommending the volume, for "Its great merit is that it makes the reader think."

444. Quick, Michael. American Expatriate Painters of the Late Nineteenth Century. Dayton, Ohio: (Dayton Art Institute,). 1976. American artists often traveled abroad to study in Europe. "In the late 1870s, however, this special aspect of American art began to take on an entirely new significance, as a growing number of our better painters remained abroad ...


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in what became a major trend during the 1880s" (9). The book captures the atmosphere of Whistler and Stewart in which Van Dyke reveled.

445. Reiff, Robert. Impressionism. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Art, edited by Bernard S. Myers (ed.) New York: (McGraw-Hill,). 1969. 3: 159. "In its purist form [ Impressionism] is an art that limits itself to the study of the properties of light and color.... In these scenes surfaces reflect light, and light from one object reflects, lightens, and colors a neighboring object.... Light, therefore, is the featured element, and atmosphere is its medium." Much the same could be said of large passages of The Desert, notably the chapter Light, Air, and Color [See 25, p. 77-94].

446. Rembrandt and the Factory System. New York Times ( 6 October 1923): 14. Someone must have gotten to the Times, for it now tries to douse the fire it started the day before with "No Real Rembrandt Here, Says Van Dyke." The editorial maintains that the Times won't attempt "to express an opinion on this highly technical controversy," but the penultimate paragraph slides lubriciously on to hint that Van Dyke likely is wrong. One gets the impression from the articles thereafter on this controversy that the Times certainly gave Van Dyke the opportunity to speak his mind while also fanning the flames with an eye to selling newspapers.

447. Rembrandt Charge Draws Hot Denials. New York Times ( 6 October 1923): 17. Poked in the eye, the critics return Van Dyke's fire. The director of New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art ridicules Van Dyke, while another expert warns that Van Dyke's "high reputation" and fastidious research will be tough factors to contend with.

448. Renehan, Edward J., Jr. John Burroughs: An American Naturalist. (Post Mills,). Vermont 1992. 252. "It is interesting to note the writers on nature and conservation who did not make Burroughs' list of favorites. One of these was John Charles Van Dyke, whose books Nature for Its Own Sake and The Desert were published in 1898 and 1901 respectively. Van Dyke was less interested in picturesque animal lore than he was in making an argument for dramatically expanding the practice of preserving pristine wilderness."
On the last score, such is the image Van Dyke successfully projected. As to animals, he certainly beat the drums for Nature red in tooth and claw. Yet note that he has Cappy, a fox terrier, trotting around with him throughout his (imagined) desert trek [See 13, p. 117, 118-119, 124-25], and years later, throughout The Meadows, indeed a very different book, shows himself quite a softie when it comes to our fellow creatures [See 72, p. 31-32, 59-60].
The bibliography on Theodore will have a good deal more to say about Burroughs and his visits, at least once with his psychiatrist mistress in tow, to the Van Dyke Ranch. In the meantime, both this and the following book, by showing the concerns of the time, form valuable contexts for Van Dyke.

449. Renehan, Edward J., Jr. The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War. New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. [See 13, p. 60, 62].

450. Review of Art for Art's Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. The Atlantic Monthly 72.433 ( November 1893): 708. This is a precise book, yet Van Dyke's "spirit is temperate and appreciative, and an inward digestion of what he says would keep many an amateur critic from foolishness in utterance of terms imperfectly understood." Note that a favorable review concerning one of Mrs. Van Rensselaer's books immediately follows.

451. Review of Art for Art's Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. Catholic World 57.337 ( April 1893): 133. In contrast to the usual run of foggy treatises on art, Van Dyke's is at once complex and lucid. The collected lectures "not only rear a beautiful edifice, but explain the why and the wherefore of every brick and beam used in it. To add to the value of the publication, the volume is illustrated throughout, and the engravings are masterpieces of miniature art."

452. Review of Art for Art's Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. The Critic ( 15 April 1893): 231. "Mr. Van Dyke's book should make plain to the reader that what he is apt to consider a wilful falsification of nature's truth is more likely an attempt to demonstrate beauties before comparatively unknown."

453. Review of The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) Publishers Weekly ( 2 August 1993): 72. A workmanlike, one-paragraph review accepting the revised view of Van Dyke and designating the book for specialists.

454. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. Atheneum [UK] ( 28 December 1901), 869 "Mr. Van Dyke has the true wanderer's eye for the essential fascination of the desert."

455. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. Critic 39.5 ( November 1901): 475. "The author has made what he saw visible to us." His method: "No terrors, no hideousness deter this seeker after the


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reality of things from his pursuit of truth and beauty." An excellent example of the blithe acceptance of Van Dyke's hoodwinking.

456. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1918 edition. Photographs by J. Smeaton Chase. The Dial ( 19 September 1918): 216. The reviewer makes an amazing union of disparities, that "Chase's photographs and Van Dyke's paragraphs reveal the desert almost as it is."

457. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1980 edition. Washington Post ( 27 July 1980), Book World section: 12. Reissued as part of a series launched with Van Dyke and including reprints of Thoreau and Muir. It's shocking to see Van Dyke grouped with such names, but it doesn't faze the reviewer: "The first offerings in Peregrine Smith's 'Literature of the American Wilderness' series, these are classic essays on the natural world of New England, the Sierras and Alaska, and the Southwest."

458. Review of How to Judge of a Picture, by John C. Van Dyke. The Atlantic Monthly 63.375 ( January 1889): 142. The reviewer sounds as if he's a man after Van Dyke's own heart. In full: "A sensible book from a man at home in his subject, and also well acquainted with the limitations of the popular mind."

459. Review of In Egypt, by John C. Van Dyke. The American Magazine of Art 22.4 ( April 1931): 324. "When Professor Van Dyke turns his attention to art it is with unbending intellectuality, but when he goes out into the open, cold intellectuality is laid aside and he frankly becomes a worshiper--bare-headed at the feet of nature." The reviewer couldn't possibly have read the book. His piece does illustrate, however, how readily shallow romantic types of a lazy bent seized on Van Dyke.

460. Review of In Java, by John C. Van Dyke. Outlook ( 13 February 1929): 270. In breezily commending the book to lovers of the "picturesque and strange," the reviewer misses the importance of a work crackling with public and private issues arising out of a matrix of aesthetic lushness.

461. Review of The Meadows, by John C. Van Dyke. The Booklist 22.10 ( July 1926): 405 Entire: "The casual naturalist and the literary sit-by-the-fire will enjoy these quiet essays. Tranquil Raritan Valley in New Jersey is the scene of Mr. Van Dyke's studies, and he gives meticulous descriptions of its wonders in summer and winter." One more step, Reviewer. Van Dyke was writing about his soul.

462. Review of The Meaning of Pictures, by John C. Van Dyke. The Critic 42.3 ( March 1903): 379. "Professor Van Dyke's placid sermonizing upon art finds full scope in the present volume, which is more than usually characteristic of academic decantation. The book contains nothing that has not been thoroughly thrashed out during the past generation, and little which was of initial consequence."

463. Review of The Meaning of Pictures, by John C. Van Dyke. The Independent ( 12 March 1903): 626. Van Dyke stands as mediator between the painter, who thinks "with his eyes," appreciating art for its technical and decorative effect, and a general public caring "only for likeness and subject" and narrative. From this position, Van Dyke gives explanations of what painting is all about that are "eminently reasonable, sober and sane."

464. Review of Modern French Masters, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Atlantic Monthly 79.472 ( February 1897): 275-76. France has been more than generous in welcoming Americans studying in Paris, and as a result, "the indebtedness of American art to that of France is profound and peculiar." Furthermore, "the most fitting response to this unprecedented generosity is fair appreciation and the establishment of an American art worthy of its parentage,--an art, not of imitation, but of new development" (275). Both the book and this review, then, preview the more elaborate thesis which would appear two decades later in Van Dyke's American Painting and It's Tradition [See 4].

465. Review of Modern French Masters, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Bookman 4.4 ( December 1896): 378 The text, by various American painters on the French artists they admire, offers "a great deal of sincere, vivacious, sometimes prejudiced, but always interesting criticism."

466. Review of Modern French Masters, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Critic ( 23 October 1897): 238. Happily recommends the American writers' analyses of their French painting masters. Van Dyke's short preface and notes on the contributors reflect a knowledge and sympathy "with all that is artistic."

467. Review of Modern French Masters, edited by John C. Van Dyke. (ed.) The Overland Monthly 28.167 ( November 1896): 605. In light of the favorable reviews, it's puzzling that in his Autobiography Van Dyke gets colicky because reviewers neither understood his book nor took it seriously (110). Although hardly gushing, the Overland Monthly gives the book


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a gentlemanly notice, praising the various writers for their "sympathy" with their French subjects, Van Dyke for his editorial role, and the volume generally for its pleasing and instructive format.

468. Review of The Money God, by John C. Van Dyke. Outlook ( 20 June 1908): 389-90. A "tremendous indictment of the degrading materialism now menacing both democracy and religion" (390).

469. Review of Old Dutch and Flemish Masters, Engraved by Timothy Cole, by John C. Van Dyke. Atlantic Monthly 77.462 ( April 1896): 564-65. "The volume to which we refer is one of pure reproduction, but its pages have the value of an original performance.... Mr. Cole and Mr. Van Dyke are in harmony over their theme, and what they have to say, each in his attractive style, will make the book more useful to the student" (565).

470. Review of Old Dutch and Flemish Masters, Engraved by Timothy Cole, by John C. Van Dyke. The Critic ( 23 November 1895): 340. The reviewer concentrates on praising the engravings of Timothy Cole, who "can forget the claims of his own art, and simply make use of it to give as good account as possible." Almost as an afterthought the piece ends: "The text by Mr. Van Dyke is of real value."

471. Review of Old English Masters, by John C. Van Dyke. The Critic 42.1 ( January 1903): 180. The engraver "catches with equal felicity the ruddy dignity of Raeburn's Lord Newton or the volatile grandiloquence of Turner's Dido Building Carthage"; also, "Professor Van Dyke's 'Historical Notes' reflect, as usual, all that is best in musty and platitudinous art criticism."

472. Review of Principles of Art, by John C. Van Dyke. The Atlantic Monthly 59.355 ( May 1887): 720. In following the development of art over the centuries from "the savage" to the civilized, "There is a good deal of sharp criticism and some dogmatic utterances" along the way.

473. Review of Principles of Art, by John C. Van Dyke. The North American Review 146.375 ( February 1888): 236-37. "Many well-worn topics are unnecessarily elaborated, yet, on the whole, the book is of considerable value, and sufficiently comprehensive to satisfy any but a very profound investigator" (237).

474. Review of The Secret Life of John C. Van Dyke: Selected Letters, edited by David W. Teague (ed.) and Peter Wild. (ed.) Virginia Quarterly Review 74.1 (Winter 1998): 18. The letters reveal "the ways in which the environmental history of the 20th-century desert and the personal history of Van Dyke both differed from their popular, romantic conceptions. Just as the desert was a richly complex ecosystem and not a fantasy world of color and distance, so too was Van Dyke a wealthy, Eastern art historian and not a rugged frontiersman who had a way with words."

475. Review of A Text-Book of the History of Painting, by John C. Van Dyke. The Atlantic Monthly 75.447 ( January 1895): 136. Van Dyke takes a drubbing! "[T]he student frequently is getting the writer's personal judgment, and not well-tested, accepted opinion, and helps himself easily thus to ready-made decisions which do not fit him." Far better it would have been if Van Dyke had stuck to the main issues at hand and foregone "throwing out his little paper pustules of criticism."

476. Rico, Martín. Recuerdos de Mi Vida [Memories of My Life]. Madrid: Ibérica, no date. Van Dyke not only admired Spanish painter Rico but also chummed around Venice with him. This brought Van Dyke particular amusement when Rico's mistress, Carlotta, took a mind "to sacrifice him with a carving knife" [See 13, p. 151]. Although his Recuerdos mentions neither Van Dyke nor Carlotta, Rico does give a charming sketch of an artist at his ease in various European cities. Rico remembers with especial warmth the generosity of Van Dyke's friend painter Julius L. Stewart and the liberal, cosmopolitan atmosphere prevailing in Stewart's home, a gathering place for artists (122-23). "[E]ra un ambiente verdaderamente de arte el que allí se respiraba." ["It was truly an atmosphere of art which we breathed there"] (123).

477. Romantic Coasts of the Caribbean. Review of In the West Indies, by John C. Van Dyke New York Times Book Review ( 21 February 1932): 4. The reviewer acknowledges the book is an aesthetic tour: "Mostly, it is true, [Van Dyke] writes about the native loveliness of the West Indies and of their setting in the Caribbean. But the condition of the black man stirred him deeply in both mind and heart, and every now and then he turns to that subject" Perhaps because Van Dyke's father, John Van Dyke, was a stout Abolitionist.

478. Roorda, Randall. Dramas of Solitude: Narratives of Retreat in American Nature Writing. Albany: (State University of New York Press,). 1998. A dyspeptic view of Van Dyke and of the world generally. Of the many references to Van Dyke, one damns him as a "querulous, duplicitous, opportunistic poseur and snob" (243). Maybe so, but in rending his garments over this one aspect, the author ignores many influential complexities in Van Dyke's work.


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479. Roosevelt, Theodore The Strenuous Life. The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses. New York: (Century,). 1902. 1-21. Roosevelt told a nation worried about losing its vigor after the passing of the pioneer era to tie itself to the outdoors and lead the manly life. It was a popular notion largely responsible for the public enthusiasm for The Desert and other outdoor adventure books of the time.

480. Roosevelt, Theodore, et al. The Deer Family. New York: (Grosset,). 1902. The book of natural history President Roosevelt wrote with Theodore Strong Van Dyke and others, thus reflecting the confidence of established nature writers in Theodore's outdoors knowledge won from experience. The Deer Family, by the way, was the first book published by a President while in office.

481. Rousmaniere, John. The Luxury Yachts. Alexandria, Virginia: (Time-Life Books,). 1981. 95-99. James Gordon Bennett, Jr., the innovative newspaper publisher who sent Stanley after Livingston, was an equally dashing yachtsman, one with a "predilection for entertaining female guests aboard" (98). Here's the lowdown on the Namouna, made famous by Stewart's painting: the ship's fifty officers and men, Bennett's mammoth cherry wood bed. All a window on the opulence surrounding Van Dyke's cronies. The lavish, full-color reproduction of Stewart's masterpiece, spread across two oversized pages (96-97), is the next best thing to seeing the original hanging in the Wadsworth.

482. Rusho, W. L. Everett Ruess: A Vagabond for Beauty. Salt Lake City: (Gibbs M. Smith,). 1983. Making ample use of Ruess's letters, block prints, and photographs, Rusho tells the story of the sensitive young wanderer with artistic ambitions who disappeared in 1934 in the canyons of southern Utah.

483. Sartwell, Crispin. Art for Art's Sake. Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1998. 1: 118-21. Especially pertinent to Van Dyke: "[A]rt is not to be appreciated for what might be termed its anecdotal value, its value as a representation.... This in turn suggests ... that the aesthetic properties of a work of art ... are the formal properties, the arrangement of lines and colors" (119).

484. Sarver, Stephanie L. Uneven Land: Nature and Agriculture in American Writing. Lincoln: (University of Nebraska Press,). 1999. 111-12. Quotes several anti-development passages from The Desert. They are "eloquent pleas for leaving some land uncultivated," reflecting Van Dyke's view that the earth is worth far more than "its value in improving human society" (112).

485. Scannell, John James, (ed.) ed., John Charles Van Dyke. Scannell's New Jersey's First Citizen's and State Guide. Paterson: (J. J. Scannell,). 1919- 20. 2: 460-63. This biographical rundown puts heavy emphasis on the accomplishments of Van Dyke's relatives.

486. Schiff, Bennett. Let's Go Get Drunk on the Light Once More. Smithsonian 22.7 ( 1991): 100-04, 106-11. This popular and quite accessible piece does a beautiful job of catching in a few pages the effervescent enthusiasm of the French Impressionists.

487. Schleier, Merrill. The Image of the Skyscraper in American Art, 1890- 1931. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, 1983. "This study commences before the turn of the [nineteenth] century when the viability of the skyscraper was a hotly debated issue. The simultaneous hostility and sympathy to the tall building was symptomatic of the rift in American values, between a European-derived art and one gleaned from the native experience, positions articulated by Henry James and John C. Van Dyke respectively." I'm not sure that I understand this, especially since Van Dyke emphasizes in American Painting and Its Tradition that the virtues of American art derive from their European provenance [See 4].

488. Scott, David W. Impressionism (American). The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art. Chicago: (Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation,). 1973. 296. "American artists were generally first introduced to the French impressionist movement during the late 1880s. By the 1890s, an active group of American painters had adopted impressionist techniques in varying degrees. Though the creative stimulation of Impressionism lasted only a decade or so, the revolutionary implications of impressionist concepts influenced all later generations of painters."

489. Sering, Jon Wesley. Van Dyke's Desert. Desert Magazine 43.10 ( November 1980): 48-51. Accompanied by lush desert photographs, the piece illustrates the glib but lively enthusiasm for Van Dyke voiced in his own day and prevailing into modern times. Typical of these pieces, as here, even bare facts, such as dates, should not be trusted.

490. Shelton, Richard. Creeping Up on Desert Solitaire. Resist Much, Obey Little: Some Notes on Edward Abbey, edited by James Hepworth (ed.) and Gregory McNamee. (ed.) Salt Lake City: (Dream Garden Press,). 1985. 66-78. In making a good case that Van Dyke's " The Desert has the strongest claim" on influencing Abbey's Desert Solitaire (73), on less


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solid ground Shelton follows Powell's lead, falling into line in his hero-worship of Van Dyke. Also, somewhat strangely, the piece describes similarities in the personalities of Van Dyke and Abbey (73-78).

491. Shelton, Richard. Introduction. The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1901. Salt Lake City: (Peregrine Smith,). 1980. xi-xxix. Echoes Powell's Introduction to the same book by promoting the romantic image of Van Dyke.

492. Sheridan, Thomas E. The Anglo Americans. Sonorensis 16.1 (Spring 1996): 16-17. This excellent, two-page survey follows the huge shift from our culture's view of the desert as a nasty place good only for exploitation to a lovely place to be enjoyed and preserved. The reason for the change is quite simple. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, technology began defanging the desert of its horrors, and the resulting comforts allowed us to see the arid lands through the eyes of permanent, pampered tourists. Pivotal to this new attitude, argues Sheridan, was John C. Van Dyke, one of the new "artistic visionaries" hailing the desert as a fantasyland (17).

493. Sheridan, Thomas E. Arizona: A History. Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1995. 231. Depicted as a literary hero, Van Dyke passed through Arizona history "in a bizarre dance with beauty and death."

494. Shoumatoff, Alex. Legends of the American Desert: Sojourns in the Greater Southwest. New York: (Alfred A. Knopf,). 1997. This book of modern desert travel offers uncritical and uninformed adulation of Van Dyke (21-23).

495. Skinner, Charles M. Nature for Its Own Sake. Review of Nature for Its Own Sake, by John C. Van Dyke. The Book Buyer 17.1 ( August 1898): 49-50. The reviewer understands Van Dyke's large-souled reach for nature's "exhaustless beauty" (50). Van Dyke's method suggests Ruskin, for the descriptions in this book "are those of an artist" and are meant to make us "admire and wonder" (49).

496. Slovic, Scott. Seeking Awareness in American Nature Writing: Henry Thoreau, Annie Dillard, Edward Abbey, Wendell Berry, Barry Lopez. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1992. Slovic does not discuss Van Dyke, but he does capture the narcissism currently prevailing in nature writing which has turned Van Dyke into a role model for "finding ourselves" through physical and spiritual adventures in the outdoors.

497. Smyth, Craig Hugh, (ed.) and Peter M. Lukehart, (ed.) eds. The Early Years of Art History in the United States: Notes and Essays on Departments, Teaching, and Scholars. Princeton: (Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University,). 1993. This book is a gift to understanding the early stage of formalizing art history in the United States, during Van Dyke's time, when something soft and amorphous was churning and beginning to crystallize. Van Dyke listed as teaching the History of Sculpture and Painting at Rutgers (elective, two hours a week) and notes that Rutgers has "a good Art Library" (27).

498. Smythe, William E. The Conquest of Arid America. 1900. Revised edition 1905. Introduction by Lawrence B. Lee. Seattle: (University of Washington Press,). 1969. Van Dyke's oft quoted " The deserts should never be reclaimed" [See 25, p. 59] should be seen in the context of the age's equally progressive, and almost religious, notion. Smythe and other reformers evangelically promoted irrigation of deserts as a divinely appointed answer to the nation's problems and a fulfillment of its democratic promises. Van Dyke's own brother Theodore not only advocated irrigation, he took his stand as an editor of Smythe's magazine, Irrigation Age, thus adding conflict to Van Dyke's admiration for his brother. [See 591; 618, p.102-15; 623, p. 12-15].

499. Snell, James P. Van Dyke, John. History of Hunterdon and Somerset Counties, New Jersey. Philadelphia: (Everts and Peck,). 1881. 628, 699-734. This text is rich in local history and essential for the study of Van Dyke's immediate background on his father's side. The public library in Somerville, New Jersey, has a typed name index to the volume. It contains dozens of references to the Honeymans, Vliets (or Vleets, Van Fleets, etc.), Lamberts, and other people and places important to the Van Dykes. Ask at the reference desk. Meanwhile, this:
One valuable feature here is the mention of the elder Van Dyke's political activities in Minnesota; another a list of his publications (628). As to more general background, the little farming community of Lamington, New Jersey, in the township of Bedminster, was the future judge's birthplace, the township's history covered here (699-734). Lamington's history (714). The father, Vliet, and Honeyman relatives discussed (707). The curious origin of the hamlet's name (717). Van Dyke gives a heart-tugging description of a childhood visit to Lamington. [See 13, p. 15-16].

500. Sontag, Raymond J. Van Dyke, Paul. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Dumas Malone. (ed.) New York: (Scribner's,). 1936. 10 (Part 1): 191. Another Van Dyke cousin, a minister and historian.


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"His slight, delicate figure and gentle manner gave little indication of the vigor of his personality."

501. Stegner, Wallace. Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1954. 8-15. [See 65].

502. Stein, Roger. John Ruskin and Aesthetic Thought in America, 1840- 1890. Cambridge, Massachusetts: (Harvard University Press,). 1967. Attempts "a full-scale assessment" of Ruskin's impact on the United States (vii). Unfortunately, no mention of Van Dyke or Van Rensselaer. Probably takes Henry James too seriously.

503. Steven, J. Phillips, and Patricia Wentworth Comus. A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert. Tucson: (Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Press,). 2000. At over 600 pages, this compendium of information ranging from articles about geology through desert birds to poisonous snakes is as reliable and updated a natural history as one can find in print. The purpose of the photographs, some of them in color, is to instruct rather than impress, although some of them do that, too. With a fine set of charts, maps, and drawings, the book is a gracious and flattering gift to the intelligence of readers seeking accurate and comprehensive desert information.

504. Stevenson, Gordon. Letter. New York Times ( 15 October 1923): 14. One who has known Van Dyke for "seven years" supports his stance on Rembrandt. Illogically, the writer asserts that counter arguments are ipso facto wrong because of Van Dyke's "extensive knowledge." Besides, Van Dyke praised Whistler back when others were hooting him down. One of Van Dyke's very few supporters on the Rembrandt issue.

505. Stewart, Frank. A Natural History of Nature Writing. Washington, D.C.: (Island Press,). 1995. 138-39. Despite Van Dyke's legerdemain in recounting his desert travels, his "love for desert aesthetics was real and his descriptions are compelling" (139).

506. Stillman, W. J. Cole and His Work. The Century Magazine 37.1 ( November 1888): 57-59. In a petulant heat, the critic spends three-quarters of his essay ranting about Americans' tastelessness in art before he remembers his subject. Then he provides instructive background on the techniques of wood engraving used by Timothy Cole, who would soon become Van Dyke's partner in Old Dutch and Flemish Masters and Old English Masters. [See 88; 89].

507. Stone, Joe. Art Critic Wrote of Desert Wonders. San Diego Union ( 14 July 1974), B: 8. Having read Powell's heroic estimate of Van Dyke, the reporter welcomes the image of the manly desert explorer and rejoices, "A move is under way to give Van Dyke his proper place among writers about the desert."

508. Strong, Philip L. Foreword to The Autobiography of John C. Van Dyke: A Personal Narrative of American Life, 1861- 1931, edited by Peter Wild. (ed.) Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1993. vii-xi. The Foreword writer, a Van Dyke relative, asserts that Van Dyke had a daughter with the wife of a fellow faculty member at Rutgers College (x-xi).

509. Stryker, William S. The Battles of Trenton and Princeton. Boston: (Houghton Mifflin,). 1898. 87-89, 358-59. Written by the president of the New Jersey Historical Society, this is the standard nineteenth-century historical account of John Honeyman's exploits during the Revolutionary War. Stryker's note #1 (89) is significant.

510. Studies of the Desert. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 9 November 1901): 815. The prose, "a little overpowering," has led to "surplusage." Yet the book's factualness about desert phenomena "will prove the most satisfactory quality ... which has above everything else the merit of sincerity"--bad logic on the part of the reviewer which nonetheless illustrates Van Dyke's success with his deceptive intent.

511. Sublime. The Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism, edited by Joseph Childers (ed.) and Gary Hentzi. (ed.) New York: (Columbia University Press,). 1995. 294-95. In brief, The Sublime "refers to the awe one feels in the presence of greatness." Philosophers put elaborate touches on the concept in the eighteenth century, but "All agree that the sublime involves a sense of wonder or awe (colored by fear, according to English theorists), which is created by the experience of grandness or 'vastness.'" (294). This is precisely Van Dyke as he trembles through the desert. Precisely, too, the more modern concept of The Sublime as a means of "transcendence" (295), in Van Dyke's case of sailing off in momentary escapes from the rank mortality dragging him down in daily life.

512. Sublime. The Oxford Dictionary of Art, edited by Ian Childers (ed.) and Harold Osborne. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1997. 543. Rightly distinguishes among the picturesque, the beautiful, and The Sublime. The last, according to Edmund Burke, inspires a terror that electrifies the imagination.


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"The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts," notably a preference for "savage" landscapes. In literature, The Sublime manifested itself in the mystery and horror of the Gothic novel.

513. Sudol, David. Perspective and Purpose: Person in John C. Van Dyke's The Desert. Southwestern American Literature 16.2 (Spring 1991): 14-22. Van Dyke celebrates the desert, writing about it "in first, second, and third person, offering various perspectives on his subject, ultimately convincing his readers to accept his views" (14). I have difficulty following the sense of some parts of this article.

514. Sun and Meadow and Woodland. Review of The Meadows, by John C. Van Dyke. New York Times Book Review ( 30 May 1926): 10. Recognizes the success of the volume's quiet musings on commonplace nature as opposed to Van Dyke's hailing the "eery fascinations of the desert." Along with this reviewer, we wonder at the chapter presenting "an interesting discussion of whether or not trees can be considered to have intelligence."

515. Sutton, Ann, and Myron Sutton. The Wilderness World of the Grand Canyon. Philadelphia: (J. B. Lippincott,). 1971. 32, 198. On their tour of the wonders of the Great Abyss, this inveterate traveling couple bolsters the awe by quoting twice from Van Dyke's The Grand Canyon.

516. Swierenga, Robert P. Dutch. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, Massachusetts: (Harvard University Press,). 1980. 284-95. Descended from seventeenth-century settlers of New Amsterdam, Van Dyke belonged to the "Old Dutch" of America. Conservative as they could be theologically, they were largely acculturated, tended to be prosperous, and were quite tolerant intellectually. A great wave of nineteenth-century Dutch, mostly lower and middle class, settled in the Midwest and remained far more orthodox in their cultural affairs, an issue Swierenga rightly brings up in his discussion of the Dutch in the United States (291-93). This gap caused problems in the Reformed Church during Van Dyke's day, as it continues to do in ours.

517. Syrett, Harold C. McClellan, George Brinton [Jr.]. Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Robert Livingston Schuyler. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1958. Supplement 2, Part 2, 401-02. Concluding his rundown on the career of this Van Dyke friend, Syrett ponders the life of paradoxes. The son of a Civil War general was "an ultra-conservative in a period of far-reaching reform," an aristocrat who became "a Tammamy sachem," and "a cynic who consistently sought the prizes he professed to scorn" (402). Sounds like Van Dyke.

518. Tang, Me Tsung K. William Crary Brownell, Literary Adviser: A Monograph. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 1946. Francophile, fussy, disliking Poe for his wildness, Brownell developed a genteel aesthetic embracing both Henry James and Matthew Arnold.

519. Tassin, Alyernon. Review of The New New York, by John C. Van Dyke. The Bookman 30.4 ( December 1909): 355. "[B]oth the writer and illustrator have sought to set forth the life and energy of its people. Doctor Parkhust's Church next to the Metropolitan Life with its tall tower resembles a green frog railing at a white giraffe, but it was meant to get contrast." Also regard for Van Dyke's "straightforward" treatment of urban problems.

520. The Taste of Andrew Carnegie. New York: (The New York Historical Society,). 1991. This unpaged brochure mentions Van Dyke as an art advisor to Carnegie.

521. Teague, David W. A Paradoxical Legacy: Some New Contexts for John C. Van Dyke's The Desert. Western American Literature 30.2 (Summer 1995): 163-78. The Desert is a cultural phenomenon written by a man who believed that nature should "be approached using the same aesthetic discipline with which one approached paintings." In asserting that the artist has the right to shape nature on his canvas, Van Dyke disagreed with Ruskin's insistence on fidelity to the natural world (167).

522. Teague, David W. A Sometime Ruskinite in the Wilderness: John C. Van Dyke's Desert Aesthetic. Southwestern American Literature 21.1 (Fall 1995): 221-28. Van Dyke as an "artist in prose" (224).

523. Teague, David W. The Southwest in American Literature and Art: The Rise of a Desert Aesthetic. Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1997. 127-44. In presenting a fanciful desert, Van Dyke and other writers were responding to the needs of a culture longing for wild and colorful places. In this sense, America created its deserts.

524. Teague, David W., (ed.) and Peter Wild, (ed.) eds. The Secret Life of John C. Van Dyke: Selected Letters. Reno: (University of Nevada Press,). 1997. In his intimate correspondence, Van Dyke steps forward, dropping his polite disguise and calling the public "a great ass of some booby" (108). Gallery of photographs 28-35, most of them appearing for the first time. The frontispiece reproduces the haunting portrait of Van Dyke by William Merritt Chase hanging


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in the library of the New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

525. Thacher, John Boyd. Christopher Columbus: His Life, His Work, His Remains. 1902. New York: (AMS Press,). 1967. 3: 64-79. In evaluating the authenticity of several Columbus likenesses, Thacher grants the Lotto portrait "the place of honour" (68), to a large extent on the authority of the United States government, which struck "five million of silver coined money pieces ... as souvenirs" celebrating the four-hundredth year of Columbus's landfall in the New World (64). More credibly, Thacher also makes valuable reference to the Italian scholars who recently "discovered" the Lotto painting.

526. Thompson, D. Dodge. Julius L. Stewart, a 'Parisian from Philadelphia'. Magazine Antique 130 ( November 1986), 1046-58. Investigating the career of a high-society painter said to have picked up his brushes for no one less than a baroness, the piece gives a rich background on the well-known Stewart painting On the Yacht Namouna, Venice, 1890, discussed in Van Dyke's Autobiography [See 13, p. 150].

527. Thrapp, Dan L. Van Dyke, John Charles. Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. Glendale, California: (Arthur H. Clark,). 1994. 1470-71. Brief biographical sketch of "desert conservationist" Van Dyke ( 1470).

528. Timothy Cole's Century Engravings. New York Times ( 23 August 1895): 16. While saddened by the imminent passage of the engraver's art due to improvements in photography, we should enjoy this remaining exemplar. His each reproduction is "in full sympathy and accord with the master whose efforts he has translated." As to Van Dyke, the writer of the text in the magazine's series: "With an intelligent knowledge of what he is talking about, he carries the reader with him."

529. Toch, Maximilian. Letter. New York Times ( 30 January 1924): 18. A professor of chemistry at the Cooper Institute who specializes in the chemistry of paintings backs Van Dyke's arguments in Who Painted This Old Woman? According to Toch, scientific investigation reveals that someone repainted the Old Woman Cutting Her Nails "exactly" as "Van Dyke has stated." Toch's letter is published as an enclosure to Van Dyke's letter published in The New York Times of the same date.

530. Tolstoy, Leo. What Is Art?, and Essays on Art. 1898. Translated by Aylmer Mande. London: (Oxford University Press,). 1962. Argues against the elitism of the aestheticians. See Van Dyke's response of the same main title.

531. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: (Prentice Hall,). 1974. Should be read in conjunction with Bachelard.

532. Tuchman, Barbara W. The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World before the War-- 1890- 1914. New York: (Macmillan,). 1966. Contrary to popular wisdom, the period of Van Dyke's day we now call the Belle Époque was a time of social turmoil and fears about the future, as, nearly losing its balance, society stumbled from the stresses of industrialization, mass migration, and rapid change. As Tuchman wryly notes, "all statements of how lovely it was in that era made by persons contemporary with it will be found to have been made after 1914" (xiv).

533. Twain, Mark. Mark Twain's Travels with Mr. Brown, edited by Franklin Walker (ed.) and G. Ezra Dane. (ed.) New York: (Alfred A. Knopf,). 1940. Part of the wonderful contradictions of his life, although Van Dyke was quite a misanthropist, he also was quite a joiner of fashionable clubs. Here, in 1867, some years before Van Dyke became a member, the humorist visiting New York City finds the Century Club not at all stuffy but convivial: "Conversation there is instructive and entertaining, and the brandy punches are good." (89). Twain was that day among a diverse and intellectually liberal group, including on its roles Edwin Booth, Albert Bierstadt, and Frederick Law Olmsted.

534. Twain, Mark. Private History of the 'Jumping Frog' Story. North American Review 158 ( April 1894): origin of the famous frog story [See 13, p. 87-89].

535. Tyndale, Walter. An Artist In Italy. London: (Hodder). and (Stoughton,). 1913. The preface, unpaged, commends Pennell's illustrations for Maurice Hewlett's The Road In Tuscany. Tyndale's paintings are new to me, and he's never mentioned by Van Dyke, but his beautiful, almost palpable light, like a bright liquid falling from the sky into his Italian scenes, surely catches the vitality in Italy making Van Dyke's pulse race.

536. U. S. Census for 1860, Somerset County, Franklin Township, New Jersey. 46. This glimpse of the Van Dyke family when John C. was four years old shows a substantial household in both size and means. It consisted of father, mother, four sons, an Irish farm laborer and his domestic wife, plus an elderly woman, Elizabeth Brown, listed as a "Lady" and probably a Van Dyke relative. The attorney father claims real estate valued at $7,000 and a personal estate of an equal amount. The "Lady" claims $3,000 and $8,000 respectively. These were large sums for the day.


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537. Valentine, W. R. Prof. Van Dyke's Study of Rembrandt. Art in America and Elsewhere 12.3 ( April 1924): 141-46. Condemns Van Dyke for his ignorance of Rembrandt scholarship (141), for his "fantastic confusion," and for attributing Rembrandt paintings to his students already long dead when the pictures were painted (142); is appalled at Van Dyke's "superficial knowledge" (143) and "astonishing" statements (144); dubs him a "superficial observer" (145) who sometimes surpasses his usual, ignorant self with outlandish judgments (146)--in other words, makes Van Dyke out to be a boob and thorough dunce when it comes to Rembrandt.

538. Van de Wetering, Ernst. Rembrandt: The Painter at Work. Amsterdam: (Amsterdam University Press,). 1997. Since the 1960s, the scholars of the Rembrandt Research Project have been trying to decide the much-disputed body of the Master's work. A member of the Project surveys its progress; apparently, even with modern analytical techniques not available to Van Dyke, an absolute determination of Rembrandt's oeuvre will not come easily, if at all. Otherwise, this oversize book is a triumph of openhanded scholarship mated with astoundingly rich color reproductions.

539. Van Dyke, Dix. Daggett: Life in a Mojave Frontier Town, edited and introduction by Peter Wild. (ed.) Baltimore: (The Johns Hopkins University Press,). 1997. In his memoir, Van Dyke's nephew captures the boisterous atmosphere of the Van Dyke ranch and of the nearby town where John C. Van Dyke often visited. He appears 6, 8, 11, 17, 41, 106, 135, and several times in the extensive photograph gallery of the ranch following 84. Don't miss the extremely rare photographs of John Muir and John Burroughs at the ranch.

540. Van Dyke, Dix. Desert Notes. The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1901. Photographs by J. Smeaton Chase. With notes on the text by Dix Van Dyke. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1930. 235-57. One suspects that rancher Dix, an old desert hand, was writing these notes on his famous uncle's book with one eye over his shoulder at his formidable relative. Whatever the reason, the notes do not address the many errors in the book's natural history but instead often concern themselves with irrelevancies. Dix speaks his mind, however, in the Dix Van Dyke Papers. See the Archival Sources, the San Bernardino Public Library. After publication, Dix glossed his own printed notes; see "John C. Van Dyke, private collection," in the Archival Resources.

541. Van Dyke Estate to Widow. New York Times ( 17 December 1932): 37. Van Dyke's will filed for probate and terms summarized. The title of the piece is puzzling. Van Dyke did not leave the bulk of his estate to a widow but to Mrs. Clare Van Dyke Parr, at the time married to Harry L. Parr. Clare, often referred to by Van Dyke as his niece or god-daughter, was the illegitimate daughter of bachelor Van Dyke. Her mother was the wife of one of Van Dyke's colleagues at Rutgers [See 508, p. x-xi; 524, p. 13-14, 16-17, 99; 13, p. 182-83, 211 note 3; 60; 414; and 415].

542. Van Dyke, John. Slaveholding Not Sinful: A Reply to the Argument of Rev. Dr. How. New Brunswick: (The Fredonian and Daily New-Brunswicker Office,). 1856. In his Autobiography, an aging Van Dyke remembered traveling around the countryside during the Civil War with his father, the respected Judge Van Dyke, who stopped the buggy to give speeches in support of President Lincoln [See 13, p. 14-15]. In this pamphlet, the father shows his fiery opposition to slavery, and although not a theologian he brings intricate Biblical knowledge to bear in arguing that the "loathsome institution" is inimical to the tenants of Christianity (3). Strong points out the bravery behind issuing the tract. At the time, the very governor of New Jersey advocated slavery [See 508, p. ix-x].

543. Van Dyke, John. An Unwritten Account of a Spy of Washington. Cincinnati: (Armstrong and Fillmore,). 1892. The Van Dykes were proud of being on the "right" side of things, and not only when it came to slavery. They were quite conscious that the deeds of their ancestors were woven throughout American history. Here, Van Dyke's father recounts the intricate dangers braved by John Honeyman, a spy during the Revolutionary War whose daring once awed America's schoolchildren. Van Dyke offers his own proud version of the story in his Autobiography [See 13, p. 19-22]. He also hints that his father, the elder Van Dyke, may also have been involved in intrigue during the Civil War (28-29).

544. Van Dyke, John. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774- 1996, edited by Joel D. Treese. (ed.) Alexandria, Virginia: C Q Staff Directories, 1997. 1983. Follows the highlights in the career of Van Dyke's father, from mayor of New Brunswick to the New Jersey supreme court. Little known is that after his remove to Minnesota in 1868, the elder served as a state senator and judge. He is buried in the Riverview Cemetery in Wabasha, Minnesota.
For further information, the bibliography suggests the Dictionary of American Biography. However, this reference text contains no article on the John Van Dyke in question.


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545. Van Dyke, John. Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, edited by Rossiter Johnson. (ed.) Boston: (Biographical Society,). 1904. 10: no pagination. Biographical details of Van Dyke's father, a lawyer, banker, congressman, and member of New Jersey's supreme court.

546. Van Dyke, John Charles. The Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy, edited by Frederick A. Virkus. (ed.) 1925. Baltimore: (Genealogical Publishing Company,). 1987. 1: 256. This synopsis is handy in showing how the Van Burens, Strykers, Honeymans, and other families entered the Van Dyke line.

547. Van Dyke, John Charles. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson (ed.) and John Fiske. (ed.) New York: (D. Appleton,). 1889. 6: 246. Biographical sketch.

548. Van Dyke, John Charles. Concise Dictionary of American Biography. 3rd ed. New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1980. 1078. Van Dyke possessed "an almost microscopic acuteness of vision."

549. Van Dyke, John Charles. The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: (James T. White,). 1930. C: 489-90. Biographical sketch, with photograph.

550. Van Dyke, John C[harles]. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. 6th ed. Edited by James D. Hart. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1995. 689. The Desert was "popular in many succeeding editions and a major creator of very favorable appreciation of a different landscape."

551. Van Dyke, John C[harles]. The Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature, edited by Max J. Herzberg. (ed.) New York: (Thomas Y. Crowell,). 1962. 1175. Biographical sketch noting that Van Dyke "edited The Studio ( 1883- 84) and The Art Review ( 1887- 88)." Van Dyke (ed.) definitely edited The Studio, and he definitely wrote for The Art Review, but his editorship of this short-lived and elegant periodical cannot be confirmed. Note how, in bringing up the two magazines, Van Dyke becomes vague when discussing his activities with the second [See 13, p. 59].

552. Van Dyke, John Charles. Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, edited by Rossiter Johnson. (ed.) Boston: (Biographical Society,). 1904. 10: no pagination. Brief biographical sketch mentioning books and positions held.

553. Van Dyke, John Charles. Who's Who in America. 1932 ed. 2331. Gives the essentials.

554. Van Dyke Offers Pictures As Proof. New York Times ( 7 October 1923), Section 1, part 2: 5. Concerns the Rembrandt controversy: "In an interview at his home in New Brunswick, N.J., Professor Van Dyke declared that he stood by his book and advised his critics to read it before rushing into print with attacks on him." He maintains that his conclusions are based on analysis of the paintings themselves, not on mutable "speculation and gossip."

555. Van Dyke Retorts to German Expert. New York Times ( 10 October 1923) 22. Van Dyke defies his detractors: "I am asked if a man like Rembrandt could not have painted more than the number of pictures I give him. I answer, 'Yes,' but 48 pictures after 300 years is a very good survival. The great Italians whom we may class with Rembrandt have no such average, and by Rembrandt's pupils there is no average of 48. Some of them have only two or three to their name."

556. Van Dyke Says He'll Prove Rembrandt Fakes; Declares Pupil Did Painting in Metropolitan. New York Times ( 21 October 1923), Section 2: 1. Heatedly replying to Professor Martin's acidity in "Dutch Art Critic Ridicules Van Dyke," Van Dyke rails back that "Dr. Martin doesn't know what he is talking about." Such critics, Van Dyke continues, are deaf to reason, for they are blindly protecting their professional turf; he vows to prove them wrong.

557. Van Dyke, Paul C. A Glimpse of the Dutch Settlement of New Jersey: As Seen by the Van Dyke Family. Bowie, Maryland: (Heritage Books,). 1997. The qualities of this study, excellently cast, thoughtful, rich in historical context, make it a pleasant introduction to Van Dyke genealogy. To our loss, however, the book swings away from the later generations of the John C. Van Dyke wing of the family, only briefly mentioning Van Dyke's father, John (101-02, 187-89, 214), and John C. but once, and this in a short comment on The Raritan (143). Giving some substance to my own hunches, the book turns a dubious eye on some of the details of the celebrated Honeyman story (187-89).

558. van Dyke, Tertius. Henry van Dyke: a Biography. New York: (Harper and Brothers,). 1935. An intelligent estimate by his son. The author uses extensive quotes from John C.'s The Raritan (4-5) and expresses thanks for them (ix). Tertius mentions an outdoors magazine in which Henry is named, along with cousin Theodore Strong Van Dyke, as one of America's "greatest living sportsmen" (299). On this last score, a pursuit of the rather vague reference did not lead to this information.

559. Van Dyke, Theodore Strong. A Cheerful Soul. Land of Sunshine 3.3 ( August 1895): 116-17. In


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this blitheful piece about the jackrabbit, the usually accurate Theodore makes a natural-history gaffe, claiming that this long-eared creature never drinks water (116), a mistake dutifully repeated by brother John in The Desert [See 25, p. 151-53].

560. Van Dyke, Theodore Strong. Down the Colorado River. Land of Sunshine 2.4 ( March 1895): 60-61. The abundance of game birds one beholds during a steamboat trip along the Colorado River reminds Theodore of the great flocks in "the days before the rapid settlement of Southern California" (60). Sport aside, the onboard accommodations are fine, and the changing scenes of timbered shores and sunsets are memorable. One can't help but suspect that brother John C. followed his brother's recommendation for taking the trip, then wrote The Desert's dramatic chapter The Silent River [See 25, p. 63-76], which leads readers to believe that the writer, off on a lone quest, is braving the river with oars and a small boat.

561. Van Dyke, Theodore Strong. Flirtation Camp: Or, The Rifle, Rod, and Gun in California. New York: (Fords, Howard, and Hulbert,). 1881. Van Dyke had great respect for elder brother Theodore, a bona fide outdoorsman and rancher, as the younger, admiring brother was not. Here, Theodore writes a delightful, mock-heroic and politely risqué novel about two unmarried couples off on a hunting and fishing expedition in the hills of Southern California. Later, the younger Van Dyke would follow suit with his own writings about outdoor adventures, but, effective as they were in several ways, he would fall far short on the points of his brother's grace and accuracy.

562. Van Dyke, Theodore Strong. Millionaires of a Day: An Inside History of the Great Southern California ‘‘Boom’’. New York: (Fords, Howard, and Hulbert,). 1890. Theodore earned a place in the literary histories by writing this novel, a spoof on the California land boom of the 1880s. It was the nation's first work to hint that the California Dream could go sour [See 638]. Millionaires likely encouraged the younger, emulating brother in similar directions of societal criticism, yet with more acidic results.

563. Van Dyke, Theodore Strong. The Quails of California. Outing 15.6 ( March 1890): 460-64. Here, Theodore's imagery about "the hoof of the great white spoiler" (464) will be echoed by The Desert as brother John strengthens the trope into "the boot mark in the dust smells of blood and iron" [See 25, p. vii-viii].

564. Van Dyke, W. S. "Woody," Director. The Lady of the Dug-Out. With Al Jennings, Frank Jennings, and Corrine Grant. State Rights, ca. 1918. One of the few films surviving from Woody's early production of Westerns, this shows several local scenes in Daggett but, unfortunately, none of the people at the Van Dyke ranch. Available from the Library of Congress but at a huge cost (FBA 8358-59); the University of Arizona Library has a copy [See Archival Sources]. With this, the best I could do after months of searching, I turn over the pursuit of further movies by Woody from this era to the film historians.

565. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). An American Artist in England. The Century Magazine 27.1 ( November 1883): 13-21. Although for the strong character of his paintings Winslow Homer should be excused for his "technical deficiencies" (21), this widely published critic of the day remains chary about the artist's use of colors, "always a little rude and violent" (15), a hesitation later but more gingerly shared by Van Dyke [See 13, p. 183].

566. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). American Etchers. The Century Magazine 25.4 ( February 1883): 483-99. Van Dyke's early artistic mentor praises the etchings of Rembrandt, Whistler, and Pennell--exactly the etchers later praised by Van Dyke. As to the process of etching, through mastery of the method's demanding techniques the artist achieves true freedom of expression, yet another concept simpatico to work-oriented, Calvinist Van Dyke.

567. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). At the Fair. The Century Magazine 46.1 ( May 1893): 3-13. She may be brittlely prim most of the time, but much to her credit Mrs. Van Rensselaer can relax, to give us lighthearted but intelligent advice about seeing the Chicago World's Fair of 1893; Van Dyke cannot. Yet, although her stiletto is so sharp it hardly causes pain, it drives deep nonetheless. Van Dyke lacked this talent. [For linkages of subject, comparison and contrast of treatment, see 67; 94; and 13, p. 82-83].

568. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Frans Hals. The Century Magazine 26.3 ( July 1883): 416-18. Mrs. Van Rensselaer, glad that the influence of the Dutch painter "is most potent" among young American artists (417), regales in the technical eloquence of Frans Hals, foreshadowing Van Dyke's similar happy sentiments.


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569. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth Century. 2 volumes. New York: (Macmillan,). 1909. If it is no coincidence that Van Dyke's own book about New York City appeared in this same year, he certainly was following a woman of admirably broad, persistent, and detailed scholarship.

570. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). People in New York. The Century Magazine 49.4 ( February 1895): 534-48. Mrs. Van Rensselaer strikes a tone with her light and warm review of New Yorkers also heard in Van Dyke's The New New York: A Commentary on the Place and the People [See 85].

571. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Pictures of the Season in New York, Part 1. American Architect and Building News 19.530 ( 20 February 1886): 89-90. Reviewing recent exhibitions in New York City, Mrs. Van Rensselaer posits that American art has reached an admirable plateau of general achievement, but it wearies with its lack of genius. Hope that the need will be filled lies in the work of Winslow Homer, Julius Stewart, and others. For the most part, this galaxy also is Van Dyke's. Compare her thoughts on Homer and his use of color to those of Van Dyke [See 25, p. 183].

572. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Pictures of the Season in New York, Part 2. American Architect and Building News 19.531 ( 27 February 1886): 103-04. More foreshadowing of Van Dyke. Cautions that artistic judgments should be left to "Those who are better able to see and better entitled to speak." Note, too, her comments on light and realism and her praise of William Merritt Chase, who did the Van Dyke portrait now hanging in the Sage (104).

573. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Recent Architecture in America. Part 1: Public Buildings. The Century Magazine 28.1 ( May 1984): 48-67. In this essay of fine, discriminating seeing, hope leaps in Mrs. Van Rensselaer's breast that the good taste of some architects will flower to the full in the future. However, that the "bad work does so rankly flourish" in the present (48) reflects the mass stupidity of the public, a method of lashing soon to be given even more swing by her Telemachus, Van Dyke.

574. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Some Aspects of Contemporary Art. Lippincott's Magazine 22 ( December 1878): 706-18. Pointing with her fescue, a young but already quite stern Mrs. Van Rensselaer designates the good and bad in contemporary art. Her early pronouncements at about the time she was mentoring Van Dyke will be echoed later, if more didactically and with some modification, by his own. Basically, great art eschews intellectualization and captures the individual genius of the artist through a perfect match of inspiration with brilliant execution. "Let us shun self-analysis, self-consciousness. ... Let us look ahead as little as possible, keeping our eyes on our brushes and on the world of beauty around us" (717-18).

575. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold (Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer). Women's Who's Who of America, edited by John William Leonard. (ed.) New York: (American Commonwealth Company,). 1914. 836. Biographical paragraph shows Mrs. Van Rensselaer's cultural importance and her opposition to women's suffrage.

576. Van Winkle, I. The Truth about Girl Student Life in Paris. The Ladies' Home Journal 20.7 ( June 1903): 17. This makes a good companion piece to Bishop's Young Artists' Life in New York [See 195]. The great new popularity of art in the United States is impelling students to Paris. Reverend Van Winkle gives the lowdown to the American girl on the practical aspects--expect to pay at least eight dollars a month for anything more than a gelid garret room and 8¢ for a quart of milk. Then he gets down to the nub of things. After she has endured high prices and the chills of drafty rooms, the innocent from abroad "may hear or see what would never be heard or seen at home, and the individual character must stand the test."

577. W. S. Van Dyke Dies; Film Director, 53. New York Times ( 6 February 1943): 13. The movie director learned his craft under D. W. Griffith and "made his greatest hit with The Thin Man, starring William Powell and Myrna Loy." [See 524, p. 149 for Woody's rascally letter to "Uncle Jack" reproduced in the photograph gallery, and the comment on the relationship between the two, p. 24].

578. Walker, Clifford J. Back Door to California: The Story of the Mojave River Trail, edited by Patricia Jernigan Keeling. (ed.) Barstow: (Mojave River Valley Museum Association,). 1986. The best overall book on the history of the Mojave Desert. For anyone interested in the historical, anthropological, and geographical background of Theodore's ranch, where Van Dyke often visited, this is an essential book. It may be hard to find, but it is worth the search.


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579. Walker, Franklin. A Literary History of Southern California. Berkeley: (University of California Press,). 1950. 185-89, 200. This usually reliable writer errs in crediting Van Dyke with leading the way in desert writing for Mary Austin and others (185); in fact, such Southern California authors had been writing favorably about the region long before Van Dyke ever saw a sand dune. Nonetheless, Walker is correct in measuring Van Dyke's large impact on shifting the general public's attitude from a negative to a positive view of the arid lands (200).

580. Wall, John P. Chronicles of New Brunswick, New Jersey: 1667- 1931. New Brunswick: privately printed, 1931. The standard history of Van Dyke's hometown. The Index lists Van Dyke's father as "Van Dyck, Mayor John." He appears presiding over a gala celebration in New Brunswick upon the completion of the New Jersey Railroad Company's double track from Jersey City in 1859 (92); includes a biographical sketch and photograph (276-77).

581. Wall, Joseph Frazier. Andrew Carnegie. New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1970. Historians have tended to cloak Carnegie in a hero's robes or draw a devil's face on him; here, Wall gives one of the cooler and more reasoned estimates of the man and his career. For instance: "It was generally believed both in Britain and in America that [Carnegie] never gave a cent that was not returned to him tenfold in public adulation" (822). However, "There were many instances of Carnegie's philanthropy which, at his express order, received no publicity whatsoever" (823). Van Dyke mentioned as the editor of Carnegie's Autobiography (1013).

582. Wall, Joseph Frazier. Skibo. New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1984. One of Carnegie's modern biographers visits Skibo, Carnegie's castle in Scotland where Van Dyke was a guest, and passes on the castle's history, lore, and anecdotes about its sometimes pompous former "laird." One can hardly grasp the monstrousness of the place until seeing Wall's photographs. As a footnote to this, in his frenzy to give his fortune away, Carnegie left inadequatem funds for the maintenance of his castle home; what has happened to the place since his death makes its own bewildering story.

583. Waters, Frank. Eternal Desert, edited by Bernard L. Fontana. (ed.) Photographs by David Muench. Phoenix: (Arizona Highways Books,). 1990. There never has been a desert like this. Making hay from the culture's adoration of a fantasyland desert, this lavish coffee-table book costing a prince's ransom features an introduction by Waters and photographs in edible colors captioned with quotations from Van Dyke's The Desert.

584. Weinberg, H. Barbara, Doreen Bolger, and David Park Curry. American Impressionism and Realism: The Painting of Modern Life, 1885- 1915. New York: (The Metropolitan Museum of Art,). 1994. Oversized, intelligently written, with quality reproductions the text offers many of the painters Van Dyke admired--as well as those he rejected. A telling feature here is the occasional comparison of a painting with a photograph of the scene. Van Dyke's The New New York mentioned (145, 196, 204).

585. Western Scenes and Problems. Review of The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. Photographs by J. Smeaton Chase. 1918 ed. Nation ( 10 August 1918): 148-49. Although Van Dyke can verge on the "fantastic," readers "will none the less revel in this delightful book" (149).

586. Wharton, Edith. The House of Mirth. 1905. New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1994. Wharton and Van Dyke, who shared the same editor at Scribner's carried on a running catfight for years. Here, her novel's characterization of woodenheaded Ned Van Alstyne may well be a pillorying of enemy Van Dyke (215, 217-18, 223, 254-60, 355-58). Teague and Wild give further details of the feud [See 524, p. 15], as does Van Dyke's correspondence about Wharton [See 524, p. 101-02].

587. Wharton, Edith. Italian Villas and Their Gardens 1904. New York: (The Century Company,). 1907. Despite it all, Van Dyke and Wharton shared sensibilities, among them a love of Italy. Here, Wharton's analyses of nature's beauties sound much like Van Dyke's own adoration. We hope that he looked past his bile over Wharton to enjoy this lovely treatise, but doubt that he did. The illustrations by Maxfield Parrish are a bit on the dark side.

588. Wharton, Edith. The Verdict. Scribner's Magazine 43.6 ( June 1908): 669-89. See the comment on Van Dyke's The High Alps.

589. White, Connie. Review of John C. Van Dyke: The Desert, by Peter Wild. Western American Literature 24.2 (Summer 1989): 163-64. "Van Dyke's love song forced Americans to question the forsaken landscape they'd conquered and asked that they see the desert 'as not merely lovely but imbued with beautifully orgasmic power'" (164). Still, both the writer of the monograph and its reviewer wonder about the man and how his most famous book arose from his own essence. It would be a healthy uncertainty soon to be answered by further scholarship.


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590. Whitehead, John. The Judicial and Civil History of New Jersey. Boston: (Boston History Company,). 1897. 463-65. Other than the false note that John Van Dyke came from a German ancestry, this is one of the most revealing sketches of Van Dyke's father. Whatever illustrious ancestors John C. Van Dyke claimed, his father, a poor farm boy, arrived in New Brunswick "a green country lad" (463). Through sheer energy, he rose through Congress to New Jersey's supreme court, but was known there, again confirming family tradition, as a stubborn outlier, often disagreeing with his colleagues (465).

591. Wild, Peter. Correspondence from John C. Van Dyke to 'The'. Annotated transcription of correspondence between the two brothers. In Archival Section, see Alan Van Dyke Golden, Mojave Desert Heritage and Cultural Association, and the University of Arizona.

592. Wild, Peter. Curmudgeon or Campus Ornament?: Focusing the Images of John C. Van Dyke, Librarian and Professor. New Jersey History 108.1-2 ( 1990): 30-45. Concentrates on Van Dyke's academic roles. Rhapsodic flights and bouts of depression marked the poles of Van Dyke's life. Whatever his emotional state, however, he kept publishing books with amazing regularity.

593. Wild, Peter. The Desert as Literature. Arid Lands Newsletter 35 (Spring-Summer 1994): 2-3, 4, 5, 6. Places Van Dyke in the larger context of Western culture. Explains the general differences between European and American writing about deserts. Brief selections from Mildred Cable, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Philippe Diolé, and Peter Reyner Banham.

594. Wild, Peter. Desert Literature: The Early Period. Western Writers Series #146. Boise: (Boise State University,). 2001. Compares and contrasts the pivotal desert works of Van Dyke and Mary Austin, placing them in their literary and cultural contexts.

595. Wild, Peter. Desert Literature: The Middle Period. J. Smeaton Chase, Edna Brush Perkins, and Edwin Corle. Western Writers Series #138. Boise: (Boise State University,). 1999. 5-12. Van Dyke's place as one of the most influential figures in the galaxy of America's desert writers. However, it also should be understood that, despite its persuasive prose, The Desert takes its place in the tradition of telling tall tales about the West, for "with its lazy coyotes and preternatural wildcats, [the book] passes off a potpourri of skewed information as fact" (7).

596. Wild, Peter. Desert Literature: The Modern Period. Western Writers Series #144. Boise: (Boise State University,). 2000. 7, 10. With good reason, the struggling pioneers abhorred the difficult trials of crossing deserts. Once technology brought ease of travel across the barren lands, however, the perspective changed. Then, "such writers as Charles F. Lummis, John C. Van Dyke, and Mary Austin wrote with the fervor of religious converts" about the new, romanticized deserts (10).

597. Wild, Peter. Desert Reading. Arid Lands Newsletter 35 (Spring-Summer 1994): 6. On The Desert: the "little the volume remains America's best, teaching us how to see deserts as grand paintings, and proving once again that life is one thing, art quite another."

598. Wild, Peter. The Fox of Piscataway: Climbing Jacob's Ladder in a New Jersey Dump. Sierra 75.5 ( September- October 1990): 68-71. A contemporary stroll through Van Dyke's once-idyllic stomping grounds as described in his The Meadows involves a tour through a hodgepodge of crass development and fleeting glimpses of a woodsy past.

599. Wild, Peter. The Handmaiden of Science in the Romance of John C. Van Dyke's The Desert. North Dakota Quarterly 59.2 (Spring 1991): 80-91. This early article asserts mistakenly that, although The Desert has errors, in the main its science is sound.

600. Wild, Peter. The Homestead Strike and the Mexican Connection: The Strange Story of 'Honest' John McLuckie. Pittsburgh History 80.2 (Summer 1997): 60-69, 74. Van Dyke's role as a bagman in Mexico for Andrew Carnegie in the aftermath of the bloody Homestead Strike at one of Carnegie's steel mills shows Van Dyke's taste for intrigue. The article's photographs include the hacienda, now in ruins, where the payoff likely occurred.

601. Wild, Peter. How a London Madman Painted Our Deserts. North Dakota Quarterly. 63.2 (Spring 1996): 5-17. Although admirers have been saying at least since Franklin Walker (186-89) that Van Dyke's prose describes the desert with a painter's eye, this piece narrows the generality: English painter J. M. W. Turner was Van Dyke's mentor for seeing.

602. Wild, Peter. Interviews and Notes Regarding John C. Van Dyke. See University of Arizona, Archival Sources

603. Wild, Peter. Introduction. The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. 1901. Baltimore: (The Johns Hopkins University Press,). 1999, xxiii-lxiii. Van Dyke's colorful


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image was a ruse disguising a far more complex writer. Gives unexpected reasons for Van Dyke's desert travels.

604. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke. American Nature Writers, edited by John Elder. (ed.) New York: (Charles Scribner's Sons,). 1996. 2: 951-62. An overview of Van Dyke and his work.

605. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke. Nineteenth-Century American Western Writers, edited by Robert L. Gale. (ed.) Detroit: (Gale Research,). 1997. 379-87. An overview of Van Dyke and his work.

606. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke: A Western Esthetician as His Own Outlier. South Dakota Review 29.1 (Spring 1991): 7-23. Attempts to reconcile contradictions in Van Dyke's writing.

607. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke and the Desert Aestheticians. The Opal Desert: Explorations of Fantasy and Reality in the American Southwest. Austin: (University of Texas Press,). 1999. 75-87. The struggle of fact with fantasy over the centuries in perceiving the desert. A main point is that Van Dyke was a central figure in the drift away from factual writing to wrapping the desert in fantasies. Now such writing has tended to leave the natural history of the desert far behind in urbanites' preference for creating a dreamland having little to do with the actual, physical desert they supposedly admire. The study places Van Dyke in the aesthetic context of other desert writers. "He was, or at least thought he was, a doomed man.... [The desert] might, nonetheless, give him some sublime moments of narcotic pleasure" (78). Thus, Van Dyke becomes a template for many a modern desert writer.

608. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke: Desert Days and Indians. Onaway [United Kingdom] 47 (Spring 1990): 3, 4-7, 24, 25, 30. Brief introduction to material reprinted from Van Dyke's The Open Spaces.

609. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke: The Desert. Western Writers Series #82. Boise: (Boise State University,). 1988. This monograph studies Van Dyke's work in light of his life.

610. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke: The Flora-Loving Frontiersman. Wildflower [Canada] 7.4 ( 1991): 38-41. Concentrates on Van Dyke's appreciation of flora during his travels in the outdoors.

611. Wild, Peter. John C. Van Dyke's 'Other' Desert Book. North Dakota Quarterly 61.2 (Spring 1993): 161-71. In a little-known parallel, the convincing fantasies of The Desert are echoed in the heady experiences and visions Van Dyke had when, some thirty years later, he traveled through the deserts of Egypt at the age of seventy-five.

612. Wild, Peter. John Muir and the Desert Connection. John Muir Newsletter 5.2 (Spring 1995): 2, 6. This and the following two articles explore the intricacies and conflicts of the Muirs and the Van Dykes at the desert ranch of Theodore Van Dyke.

613. Wild, Peter. John Muir and the Van Dyke Ranch: Intimacy and Desire in His Final Years, Part 1. John Muir Newsletter 5.3 (Summer 1995): 1, 4-5.

614. Wild, Peter. John Muir and the Van Dyke Ranch: Intimacy and Desire in His Final Years, Part 2. John Muir Newsletter 5.4 (Fall 1995): 3-5, 6.

615. Wild, Peter. The Manuscript in the Attic: A Scholar's Dream. Redneck Review of Literature 26 and 27 (Spring-Fall 1994): 29-33. Recounts the discovery of the typescript of Van Dyke's autobiography.

616. Wild, Peter. 'My Dear Van Dyke'; 'My Dear Brownell': New Perspectives on Our Foremost (And Most Coy) Desert Writer. New Mexico Humanities Review 35 ( 1991): 131-48. Van Dyke's correspondence with Scribner's reveals his dependence on his editor for literary guidance and gives insights into his personal affairs.

617. Wild, Peter. A New Look at Our Foremost Desert Classic. North Dakota Quarterly 63.1 (Winter 1996): 116-27. While Van Dyke's The Desert fits nicely into the developing context of desert writing, the book also needs to be seen as a highly individual work.

618. Wild, Peter, (ed.) ed., The Opal Desert: Explorations of Fantasy and Reality in the American Southwest. Austin: (University of Texas Press,). 1999. Surveys the sweep of Southwestern literature with emphasis on the tension created by the fantasy of some writers vying with the realism of others. The authors, covering many of the figures mentioned above, range from Cabeza de Vaca through contemporaries Ann Zwinger and Charles Bowden.

619. Wild, Peter. Pornography and Nature. Open Spaces, City Places: Contemporary Writers on the Changing Southwest, edited by Judy Nolte Temple. (ed.) Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1994. 51-59. Places Van Dyke in this context: "Is there much difference in treatment between the lurid pinups decorating seedy barroom walls and the coffee-table books in your living room and mine, lavish with photographs of redwoods and snowcapped peaks?" (55-56).


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620. Wild, Peter. Seeing and Believing in the Southwest: John C. Van Dyke's Unwitting Conspiracy. Sonora Review 17 (Spring-Summer 1989): 49-57. Van Dyke as an unlikely candidate for writing a desert classic.

621. Wild, Peter. Sentimentalism in the American Southwest: John C. Van Dyke, Mary Austin, and Edward Abbey. Reading the West: New Essays on the Literature of the American West, edited by Michael Kowalewski. (ed.) New York: (Cambridge University Press,). 1996. 127-43. Compares and contrasts three major desert writers whose work rejects utilitarianism but slides into the dangers of sentimentalism.

622. Wild, Peter. 'Sheilaism,' Words, and John C. Van Dyke. Life on the Line: Selections on Words and Healing, edited by Sue Brannan Walker (ed.) and Rosaly Demaios Roffman. (ed.) Mobile: (Negative Capability Press,). 1992. 493-97. Words used to heal an imagined illness can exacerbate problems.

623. Wild, Peter. Theodore Strong Van Dyke. Western Writers Series #121. Boise: (Boise State University,). 1995. This monograph surveys the life and writings of an elder brother and outdoorsman much admired, but not always heeded, by Van Dyke.

624. Wild, Peter. Van Dyke's Little Trick: Catching the Wily Esthetician in a Net of Poetry--Some of It (Probably) His Own. New Mexico Humanities Review 32 ( 1989): 116-28. Van Dyke enjoyed playing tricks on his readers, in this case using unidentified quotes of poetry, some of it of his making, to illustrate statements in his prose.

625. Wild, Peter. Van Dyke's Shoes: Tracking the Aesthetician Behind the Desert Wanderer. Journal of the Southwest 29.4 (Winter 1987): 401-17. How a romantic librarian translated his Art for Art's Sake attitudes into desert prose.

626. Wild, Peter. Viewing America's Deserts, Part 1: John C. Van Dyke and the French Connection. Puerto Del Sol 26.2 (Summer 1991): 58-78. The possible role of French Decadent writer Pierre Loti in shaping Van Dyke's The Desert.

627. Wild, Peter. Viewing America's Deserts, Part 3: John C. Van Dyke's Literary Offenses and Those Who Tried to Mend Them. Puerto Del Sol 28.1 (Spring 1993): 147-61. Attempting to be at once jocular and serious in analyzing both Van Dyke's style and the critics' reaction to it, the piece, using Twain's comments on Cooper as a template, perhaps is not as successful as the writer originally imagined.

628. Wild, Peter. A Western Sun Sets in the East: The Five 'Appearances' Surrounding John C. Van Dyke's The Desert. Western American Literature 25.3 ( 1990): 218-31. The Desert was but one book of six in a Natural Appearances series celebrating the beauty of nature. The volumes are Nature for Its Own Sake ( 1898), The Desert ( 1901), The Opal Sea ( 1906), The Mountain ( 1916), The Grand Canyon of the Colorado ( 1920), and The Meadows ( 1926) [See 84; 25; 91; 78; 41; 72].

629. Wild, Peter. What Manner of Man? An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Materials Concerning John C. Van Dyke, Author of The Desert. Manuscript. (University of Arizona Library,). 1991. An early gathering of Van Dyke materials; superseded by the present bibliography.

630. Wild, Peter. A Writer in a Wild Frontier Town: The Contribution of Theodore Strong Van Dyke. South Dakota Review 32.3 (Fall 1994): 51-64. Compares Theodore with brother John C. "Steeped in a conservative, Calvinist tradition, both men were rebels, and seizing the high, moral ground, they flew with considerable élan into the buzz saw of the day's common wisdom" (57). The difference, when it came down to their nature and travel writing, is that one brother was an artistic truth teller, the other an artistic fabricator.

631. Wild, Peter, (ed.) ed., The Desert As Art. The Desert Reader: Descriptions of America's Arid Region. Salt Lake City: (University of Utah Press,). 1991. 11-20. An introduction followed by selections from Van Dyke's The Desert.

632. Wild, Peter, and Neil Carmony. The Trip Not Taken. Journal of Arizona History 34.1 (Spring 1993): 65-80. This new look at Van Dyke breaks with the romantic image he projected, arguing that he was, instead, a fabulist far more complex than the plaster-saint lover of nature popular through the generations.

633. Wilder, Joseph. Desert Reading. Arid Lands Newsletter 35 (Spring-Summer 1994): 17-19. Concerning Van Dyke's The Open Spaces: "I don't care if Peter Wild has demonstrated pretty conclusively that Van Dyke never quite lived the narratives he so famously wrote. Here's Van Dyke on sleeping out in the desert, and even if he never really did it, he's got it just right" (17-18).

634. Wilhelm, Donald. A Lumberman Bibliophile. Outlook 110.17 ( 25 August 1915): 997-1001. If one looks for a Captain of Industry with a soul, here's one. A former frontiersman, Ayer grew into a


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fine-minded civic leader in Chicago, appreciative of the arts. Without Carnegie's malice, he strove to better the future for all, an example, in short, of enlightened, nineteenth-century wealth put to noble use. Saturnine Van Dyke, who chummed with Ayer at the Grand Canyon, might have learned a thing or two from him [See 524, p. 31, 62-64, 132-33]. The Newberry Library, in the Archival Sources, points to a rich source on Ayer.

635. Wilton, Andrew. J. M. W. Turner: His Art and Life. New York: (Rizzoli,). 1979. While my How a London Madman Painted Our Deserts argues for Turner's primacy in Van Dyke's powerful way of seeing in The Desert, it's instructive to see Turner wildly and convincingly flinging around paint in a manner Van Dyke would imitate with words.

636. The World of Art: Paintings and Prints. New York Times ( 21 October 1923), Section 4: 10. This piece has a strange structure. It first seizes on the Rembrandt cause célèbre, apparently to get the reader's attention. After showing Van Dyke a measure of sympathy, the writer's judgment: Rembrandt was given a good college try by Van Dyke, but he's far too petulant in his conclusions. Then the article swings off to discuss unrelated exhibitions taking place at New York galleries.

637. Worster, Donald. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. New York: (Pantheon,). 1985. 69-70, 71-74, 199, 325. It is a fairly minor point, given the major assemblage of this study, but nonetheless regrettable, that this scholar accepts the heroic image of Van Dyke.

638. Wyatt, David. The Fall Into Eden: Landscape and Imagination in California. Cambridge, England: (Cambridge University Press,). 1986. 93-94. Spun from a febrile academic realm, this prose not only sometimes bewilders in its sense, it gets the date of The Desert wrong, having the book published two years after Austin's The Land of Little Rain. Nonetheless, when we can perceive his intent, Wyatt can be instructive: "Van Dyke fully indulges his love of perception over fact" (93). The result: "By provisionally disguising a landscape of memento mori as an oasis of free play, Van Dyke converts our experience of The Desert into a happy dallying with 'false perspective'--into a mirage" (94). Wyatt also comments on brother Theodore's quite different contribution of Millionaires of a Day. The novel "initiates the tradition of life" in Southern California "as a fantasy of development gone wrong" (158).

639. Young, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. London: (E. Grant Richards,). 1906. The prudential note to the non-Lotto Columbus frontispiece of volume 2 speaks of "imaginary delineation" as the basis for all Columbus portraits. The conclusion: "There is no authentic portrait of Columbus known to have been painted during his lifetime."

640. Zalesch, Saul E. Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold. American National Biography, edited by John A. Garraty (ed.) and Mark C. Carnes. (ed.) New York: (Oxford University Press,). 1999. 22: 238-40. Educated in Europe, patrician Van Rensselaer leaps out as a lively and influential critic of her day. She hails the influence of young American artists returning from their educations in Europe, for they bring "new stylistic concepts" to Americans (238). Her life exhibits strong parallels with Van Dyke's. Excellent bibliography at end.

641. Zwinger, Ann. The Mysterious Lands: A Naturalist Explores the Four Great Deserts of the Southwest. Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1989. One of our preeminent desert writers begins her book of arid-lands exploration by quoting from The Desert: "The deserts should never be reclaimed. They are the breathing-spaces of the west and should be preserved forever" (xi). She then repeats the thundersome sentiment (158) from The Desert (59). Van Dyke was good at such performances, as in this widely quoted but also widely misunderstood passage. [See 603,p. xlv-xlvi].

642. Zwinger, Ann. Wind in the Rock: The Canyon-lands of Southeastern Utah. 1978. Tucson: (University of Arizona Press,). 1988. A middle-aged housewife slings on her pack and plunges into the barren labyrinths of a nearly uninhabited desert of rock. She comes back deeply moved: "To me there is enchantment in these dry canyons that once roared with water and still sometimes do, that absorbed the voices of those who came before, something of massive dignity about sandstone beds that tell of a past long before human breathing, that bear the patterns of ancient winds and water in their cross beddings" (7). That is, by avoiding Van Dyke's bombast, Zwinger can be profound.

Archival Sources


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American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, New York City. Van Dyke served as president of the Institute of Arts and Letters between 1924- 1925. About 300 items: newspaper clippings, letters dealing with his administrative duties when president of the Institute, articles, tributes to and by Van Dyke. Typescripts of some Van Dyke books, notably that of The Desert [See 524, p. 14, 97-105].

The Arizona Historical Society, the Robert H. Forbes Papers, Tucson. The Desert thanks Robert H. Forbes, a professor of agriculture at the University of Arizona, for information on desert flora (134 note). Apparently, upon receipt of the book Professor Forbes, shocked at its multitude of errors, took Van Dyke to task for his inaccuracies. Van Dyke's response is an embarrassing performance of slipping and sliding around the issues Forbes brings up [See 524, p. 6, 59-61]. Almost by accident, I found the letter in Ms 261, Box 12, f. 11. Otherwise, the collection, consisting of many boxes of papers, may well contain further correspondence of interest, but as yet it has not been thoroughly indexed.

Art Institute of Chicago, Ryerson and Burnham Libraries. Ten Van Dyke notebooks in pencil spanning 1911- 1913. They contain comments later refined into the New Guides to Old Masters series beginning with London: Critical Notes on the National Gallery, etc. Each hardcover notebook is signed and dated, with the location of the subject addressed. The notebooks form an interesting physical complement to Van Dyke's discussion of the series' creation in his Autobiography [See 13, p. 155-58]. There is no information about how this holding was acquired.

The Augustan Society, Daggett, California. Dedicated to the study of royalty and related aspects of history, and occupying what once was Helen Muir's mansion, the Society has a growing body of material on local history, including blueprints of the mansion, built on what once was part of Theodore's ranch.

Brown University, Special Collections, The John Hay Library, Providence, Rhode Island. The two pages in Van Dyke's hand, undated, and signed "John Van Dyke" give eloquent testimony to Rubens' stylistic brilliance. An archivist found the pages in Hay's copy of John La Farge's Great Masters. The penmanship is unusually careful. If, as I suspect, this is one of Hay's favorite Van Dyke passages the author and statesman asked Van Dyke to write out for him, I have been unable to identify the printed source.

Chicago Public Library, Special Collections and Preservation Division, Chicago Illinois. James W. Ellsworth Papers, World's Columbian Exposition Collection. In exchanges of dozens of letters, Ellsworth, Van Dyke, and several other writers discuss preparations for the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. These focus especially on the debate over the authenticity of Lorenzo Lotto's portrait of Columbus, successfully promoted by Van Dyke to serve as the emblem of the Fair. The collection of papers also contains three scrapbooks of very brittle newspaper clippings compiled by businessman Ellsworth relating to the Exposition.
http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/factfinders/ellsworth.html

Columbia University, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Kenyon Cox Collection, New York City. Correspondence with painter and critic Kenyon Cox [See 524, p. 108-09].

Columbia University, Butler Library, New York City. Correspondence with James Brander Matthews, a professor of literature at Columbia University [See 524, p. 106-07].

Cornell University, Making of America. Offers the texts of dozens upon dozens of articles by and about Van Dyke. While material from any number of magazines is swept into this net, the emphasis is on Van Dyke's articles appearing in Century Magazine and on reviews of his works appearing in The Atlantic Monthly.
http://library5.library.cornell.edu/moa/

Daggett Museum, Daggett, California. The ranch of Van Dyke's brother was about a mile east of this little town redolent of frontier days. Much on the ranch and local lore. Extensive photograph collection.


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The Desert, by John C. Van Dyke. This handsomely done Website quotes various passages from The Desert and shows its admiration for the book by introducing a Van Dyke who "in rather poor health headed out into one of the most inhospitable regions of our country accompanied only by his fox terrier and the pony upon which he rode."
http://www.gj.net/ ~ redrock/vandyke.htm

The Frick Art and Historical Center, The Frick Archives, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There are amusing aspects to these ten letters. Van Dyke apparently earned pin money by peddling artwork to the wealthy. Here, he leans backwards, and nearly falls over, trying to hawk canvases to cagey industrialist Henry Clay Frick.

Alan Van Dyke Golden, private collection, Daggett, California. The single letter reproduced in Teague and Wild is mostly chitchat from Van Dyke to brother Theodore and hardly reveals the power of the letters as a whole (124-25). However, copies in the Mojave Desert Heritage and Cultural Association show that this set of correspondence is among the most telling of the Van Dyke letters extant. The above historical center has copies of some of the other related material in the large trove of documents and photographs owned by Mr. Golden, the grandson of Theodore.

Indiana University, Special Collections, Bloomington, Indiana. Has Van Dyke's broadside, Desert Sky and Clouds.

Josephine County Historical Society, Grants Pass, Oregon. Has a folder of material concerning Van Dyke's brother Dr. Frederick W. Van Dyke and family. Clippings from the local newspaper reflect John C.'s periodic visits. Here, caution is in order; some of the information in the folder is unconfirmed.

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C. The Andrew Carnegie Papers are especially rich in revealing Van Dyke's role as art agent for Carnegie [See 524, p. 64-67]. The Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell Collection shows Van Dyke's warm intimacy with his artist friends [See 524, p. 67-77].

Library of Congress, website. The rapidly growing American Memory gives a summary of Van Dyke's contribution, a list of his books, and the complete text of The Mountain. One rejoices in the incisiveness of the summary:
Nowhere is the strong current of aesthetic appreciation for nature in turn-of-the-century America, which contributed so much to the preservationist dimension of the conservation movement, more clearly exemplified than in the work of John C. Van Dyke. A noted art historian and disciple of the philosophy of ‘‘art for art's sake,’’ Van Dyke devoted a series of memorable books to the analysis of the formal properties of natural beauty untouched by man. In the process, he made a powerful case for the glories of wilderness, instilling in his readers an appreciation for purely wild nature as a realm of inherent integrity and an appropriate object of aesthetic reverence and contemplation, requiring no further human justification for its incalculable value.
http://memory.loc.gov/

Mojave Desert Heritage and Cultural Association, Goffs, California. A vast trove of material about the region, filling several buildings. How much of this concerns Van Dyke has not been determined. Of prime importance, so far as is known, are twenty-three items, most of them copies of holograph letters from Van Dyke to brother Theodore. These form some of the most revealing letters Van Dyke ever wrote. They are transcribed in the manuscript "Correspondence from John C. Van Dyke to 'The,'" introduced and annotated by Peter Wild, also in this archive. Here, among talk about publishing and family news, the two brothers wrangle hotly over what Van Dyke calls in a letter of 27 January 1922, his "big-lie" method of manufacturing his outdoor adventures (53). The original letters are in the possession of Alan Van Dyke Golden.

Mojave River Valley Museum, Barstow, California. Not much on Van Dyke specifically but much on the region generally and some on brother Theodore and nephew Dix. Especially valuable is a nearly complete and rare set of the local newspaper, The Barstow Print (later called The Barstow Printer Review). Extensive photograph collections.

Montana Historical Society, Helena. Despite his fabulous mendacity about his career as a cowboy, found in the Autobiography and The Open Spaces, Van Dyke indeed did have a rancher cousin in Montana and may have spent some time there [See 13, p. 44, 58-60, 112-15, 222-23 note 7]. The possibility remains nearly unexplored; this archive, with extensive research materials on early ranching, would be a good place to start.

Nebula Unida Tour Report. This website features a strutting naked lady with a tiger, then goes on in a distracted fashion at some length about Van Dyke to conclude: "John C. Van Dyke was a [expletive] madman,


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only in this place he calls the desert. As just the description of it amazes me, so if you want to know the desert and can't go there, buy this book."
http://www.xs4all.nl/~ roadburn/pgtour/unida_2 .html

New Brunswick Public Library, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Material on local history. Nothing specific on Van Dyke but does have a selection of his books.

New Brunswick Theological Seminary, Gardner A. Sage Library, New Brunswick, New Jersey. The library where Van Dyke once was the director contains the holograph manuscript of My Golden Age, a large Van Dyke scrapbook and other collections of letters, photographs, watercolors, and drawings. A large sampling of the correspondence, including the infamous McLuckie letter from Carnegie, is reproduced in Teague and Wild [See 524, p. 125-49]. Also, much printed material, books and articles by Van Dyke. Of particular note are rare copies of The Studio magazine, edited by Van Dyke.
Of a different interest are two oil paintings of Van Dyke on display. The most haunting is by Van Dyke's friend William Merritt Chase, one of the most highly hailed painters of the day. It is undated, but in American Painting and Its Tradition Van Dyke mentions sitting for Chase in 1890, which accords with the likeness on the canvas of a man in his thirties (210). A reproduction appears as the frontispiece in Teague and Wild [See 524]. Of historical note is a card on the back of the picture indicating that it is a gift of Clare Van Dyke Lambert Parr and leading me to the identity of her as Van Dyke's daughter. Less dramatic is the second painting by another hand of a much older Van Dyke. Little information was available on this oil, but it closely resembles the canvas in the private collection of Mr. John C. Van Dyke.

New Jersey Historical Society, Newark. Photocopy of the typescript of My Golden Age.

New Jersey State Archives, Trenton. This wealth of documents covering the political situation in New Jersey during the elder Van Dyke's career includes Justices of the Supreme Court: Time of Appointment, Date of Commission, Expiration of Term, showing that John Van Dyke's term on the supreme court already had ended by the time his opponents started impeachment proceedings against him.

New York Public Library, Century Magazine Records, New York City. Correspondence primarily with editors Richard Watson Gilder (ed.) and Robert Underwood Johnson (ed.) regarding Van Dyke's contributions to the magazine [See 524, p. 78-80]. Holdings include a microfilm of a fairly complete set of The Studio, a magazine, now rare, edited for a time by Van Dyke (ed.).

Newberry Library, The Newberry Library Archives, Chicago. The Morton Payne Papers discuss Van Dyke's arrangements for a slide show on art in Chicago [See 524, p. 61-62]. The Edward Everett Ayer Papers, in an entry for about 9 June in the Second Part of Mr. Ayer's Journal for 1918, recounts a chance meeting of wealthy entrepreneur Ayer with Van Dyke at the Grand Canyon's tony El Tovar Hotel [See 524, p. 62-64].

The Political Graveyard, website. These curious but well done pages tell not only where thousands of expired politicians are buried but gives brief biographical rundowns, information on the various locales of burials, and fairly good location maps of them. We learn, for instance, that Van Dyke's father is interred in Riverview Cemetery, overlooking the Mississippi River, on the northwestern outskirts of Wabasha, Minnesota.
http://politicalgraveyard.com/geo/MN/WB.html

Princeton University, Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton, New Jersey. Holdings contain three rich and extensive collections concerning Van Dyke. The Charles Scribner's Sons Archives record the long relationship of Van Dyke with his publisher, especially with editor William C. Brownell (ed.) [See 524, p. 39-56]. The Henry van Dyke Family Papers show the active relationship with Van Dyke's cousin Henry [See 524, p. 56-59]. The Harrison S. Morris Papers document Van Dyke's integrity in matters of public trust while serving on the New Jersey State Board of Education. Wealthy industrialist and art aficionado Morris (ed.) had been art editor of The Ladies' Home Journal for part of the time when Van Dyke was writing his art series for the magazine. Even when Morris now asks favors from public official Van Dyke, he stands on his principles and puts the public welfare first [See 524, p. 110-23].
The alumni information on brother Theodore, a Princeton graduate, has a Van Dyke letter of 31 May 1917 responding with an enclosure in Van Dyke's hand providing information about Theodore for the Princeton University General Biographical Catalogue, 1746- 1916.

Rutgers University, Alexander Library, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Perhaps the most comprehensive holdings of Van Dyke's published works. As to Special Collections, the Biographical Files, Faculty


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(Dead Files), offer twenty manila envelopes of newspaper clippings, articles, photographs, and monographs; also, a notebook with holograph poems and drawings likely by Van Dyke. Two collections, titled Legal Papers, 1676- 1903 and Papers, 1746- 1947, have material related to the Van Dyke family. Some of this was donated to the library by Van Dyke, but none of it is by or about him.

Rutgers University, Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, New Brunswick, New Jersey. The John C. Van Dyke Collection contains over a dozen items, mostly paintings, but including a bronze statue, Winged Victory, about 18", sculptor unknown; and several artifacts from the Orient. Most telling among the canvases are two untitled by Bruce Crane, a marine and a landscape, and Mill Scene, ca. 1900, by well-known Impressionist John Twachtman [See 13, p. xxii, 211 note 3].

San Bernardino Public Library, Norman F. Feldheym Library, San Bernardino, California. The California Room contains the Dix Van Dyke Papers, a great miscellany of letters, articles, and manuscript material mostly by Van Dyke nephew Dix Van Dyke. For what rough-and-ready rancher Dix actually thought of his uncle, see Folder U-281 (1-2). Other references of substance occur in Folder E-78 (161, 163) and in Folder E-84 (233-34).

San Diego Historical Society. Less extensive than the material at the Feldheym, nevertheless, the Dix Van Dyke Papers here offer letters, manuscripts, and printed matter hinting at the controversial role of Theodore, both in San Diego and later in Daggett.

Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Art, Andrew Carnegie Papers, Washington, D.C. The most telling correspondence concerns Van Dyke's assembling of art for an exhibition at the Carnegie Institute [See 524, p. 77-78]. The August F. Jaccaci Papers contain letters from Van Dyke to Jaccaci, an Italian painter in this country working with painter John La Farge on a multivolume reference on American art [See 524, p. 90-91].

Southwest Museum, Charles F. Lummis Manuscript Collection, Los Angeles. Among other things, Van Dyke remembers a night of "wine, women, and song" with Southwestern writer and roué Lummis [See 524, p. 94-96].

Trenton Historical Society, Trenton. Material on Trenton at the time of the Van Dyke family residence there during the 1860s, when the elder Van Dyke was serving on the New Jersey supreme court.

University of Arizona, Special Collections, University of Arizona Library, Tucson. Photocopy of the holograph manuscript of My Golden Age. Apparently unaware that a typescript of this autobiography already existed, in 1975 graduate student Robert P. Mitchell made a partial typescript from the photocopy. This material includes the Preface; Contents; Chapter 1: Lincoln in 1861; Chapter 2: The Family; Chapter 19: The Desert; Chapter 20: Mexico; and Chapter 28: Mountain, Desert, and Grand Canyon. Mitchell's brief introduction claims that the manuscript "does not add a tremendous amount to what we already know of Van Dyke" (2), a surprising statement in light of the Autobiography's many revelations. In addition, several Van Dyke books containing written notes by Southwestern scholar Lawrence Clark Powell.
Holdings also include Peter Wild's Interviews and Notes Regarding John C. Van Dyke [See 602]. This, together with the periodic Addenda, offers thousands of pages of notes, hundreds of photographs, and copies of many documents relating to Van Dyke and his family; the later Addenda emphasize Van Dyke's connection to his brother's ranch and explore the wider history of the area. This holding also gathers much manuscript material. Some of it is mentioned above, such as copies of the correspondence from Van Dyke to his brother Theodore (Appendix of the Addendum of 1977 - Part 1), in the entry on Alan Van Dyke Golden and in the Mojave Desert Heritage and Cultural Association's archives. Copy of Woody Van Dyke's hilarious silent Western, The Lady of the Dug-Out, filmed partially in Daggett. Sealed until 2009. Also available is a microfilm copy of The Studio as found in the New York Public Library.

University of Pennsylvania, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Pennell Family Papers, ca. 1882- 1951. Typed letter of 30 September 1903, from George P. Brett of the Macmillan Company forwarding contract for Joseph Pennell's volume on illustrating and engraving in the History of American Art Series, edited by Van Dyke (ed.) (the book was never published). At the bottom of the letter, Van Dyke pens an undated note forwarding the contract to Pennell and suggesting that he sign it. Then Van Dyke adds: "I'm rushed off my feet by many things that have come tumbling on me at once." [See 360; 368].


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Van Dyke Family Genealogy Forum (All Messages). The forum encompasses many branches of the Van Dyke family; it provides good leads, but, freely posted by volunteers, the information should be used with great caution.
http://genforum.genealogy.com/vandyke/all.html

John C. Van Dyke, private collection, La Jolla, California. Mr. Van Dyke, grandnephew of Van Dyke, has a number of items, not all of them seen by me. In this regard, note that Clare Van Dyke's will passes on to him "a gold band ring with the inscription Spiro Asti Si which belonged to his godfather, Professor John C. Van Dyke" [2 Item Sixth (a)]. Despite consultations with a host of linguists, I have been unable to puzzle out the inscription. Perhaps of more immediate historical significance, Mr. Van Dyke has a large canvas of Van Dyke hanging in his study. It is signed K. F. Worcester and is dated 1930. It is so similar to the picture of the elderly Van Dyke owned by the New Brunswick Theological Seminary that almost surely it is by the same hand.
Of further interest still is a copy of the 1930 edition of The Desert containing Dix Van Dyke's Desert Notes on the text. Mr. Van Dyke has Dix's personal copy bearing Dix's handwritten comments on his own notes. A photocopy of these is in the 1995 Addendum to my Interviews and Notes Regarding John C. Van Dyke, listed under the University of Arizona.

Wabasha County Historical Society, Reads Landing, Minnesota. Has a wealth of material on local history at the time of the Van Dyke family's residence in Wabasha, Minnesota.

Wabasha Public Library, Wabasha, Minnesota. The library has a collection of photographs showing Wabasha in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the time of the Van Dykes' residence there. Among these is a photograph of the imposing Van Dyke house, now a part of the St. Elizabeth Hospital complex. The library also can provide valuable information on the activities of the Van Dykes, documenting, for instance, Theodore's service in the state legislature.

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford. Holdings include the oil On the Yacht Namouna, Venice, 1890, for which Van Dyke sat for his friend and painter of the haut monde Julius L. Stewart.

Western Theological Seminary, Beardslee Library, Holland, Michigan. Photocopy of the typescript of My Golden Age.

Woesstijnen van Californië. My Dutch is a little rusty, but this site guides visitors from Holland into the Mojave Desert, recommending especially Joshua Tree and Death Valley National Parks. The writer then pauses to invite modern-day travelers to remember, while gazing on those bare lands, the earlier Van Dyke, who, in moccasins and with the ascetic's gaunt devotion to beauty, went bravely before them.
http://www.amerika.nl/html/southwest/california/parkenzudcal.html

Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven Connecticut. Has Van Dyke's broadside, Desert Sky and Clouds. The John Ferguson Weir Papers includes two letters from Van Dyke to Weir graciously citing illness as a reason for turning down requests to lecture at Yale.

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