for Indian religious practices. Mom and apple pie stuff. Even politicians
representing anti-Indian constituents would find it hard to oppose such
Mo's advocacy of Indian rights went well beyond, however. Bills introduced to strike at the heart of Indian treaty and other rights never saw the light of day during Mo's chairmanship. Mo likes to quote a former Rules Committee chairman who, when asked where he stood on a certain bill he opposed, replied, "I don't stand on it. I sit on it." Mo sat on those anti-Indian bills, often in the face of heavy pressure from some of his colleagues to move on them. Mo stood up to those, in and out of the Congress, who fought and maneuvered to further erode the few remaining rights of Indian tribes and "just said no," generally with humor and good grace.
After 4 years as Counsel on Indian Affairs with the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee, I accepted Mo's offer to be the Committee Counsel on Indian Affairs. While I had watched Mo as a member of the Committee during my four years, I didn't know him personally and really didn't know his philosophy, if he had one, on Indian matters. After a little snag, I accepted his offer, but ask him if he would be willing to share with me that philosophy and his position on Indian affairs.
Some weeks later, he and I sat in his sparsely furnished apartment in Tucson, AZ, and discussed Indian affairs over a beer. After about 45 minutes of a wide-ranging discussion, I timidly pressed him on where he would come down in a conflict between Indian and non-Indian interests. Mo looked directly at me and said, "Ducheneaux, I will be with you at least 80% of the time." End of discussion. But what did it mean?
I first looked at it negatively. Twenty percent of the time he might go against Indians. As an Indian, I could not work under those conditions. But, working for Indian causes is like politics, it is often the art of the possible in the face of a fearsome, powerful majority. On the positive side, Mo had implied that it was possible he would be with the Indians 100% of the time.
In December of last year, I closed nearly 18 years of service as counsel on Indian Affairs to the Committee, 14 of those years as Mo Udall's staff person. In the scores upon scores of times that I made a recommendation to Mo to support an Indian position in the face of a powerful alternative not favorable to Indian interests, I can recall to mind only two or three times when his ultimate decision may have been less than favorable for the Indian interest.
You won't easily find the record of Mo's fight against the rising tide of anti-Indian sentiment spread on the public record like the positive laws for which he is largely responsible. You might, if you went to the National Archives and looked in the records of the Interior Committee, find the files on some bills which would have been disastrous to Indian interests which contain only a bill and the notation: "Referred to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. No further action taken."
Where you will find that record is in the love and respect which leaders, members of Indian tribes and organizations have for Mo. You can see it in his office, lined with plaques, certificates, testaments, and Indian artifacts given to him in recognition of his support, friendship and help.
Mo leaves the House after 31 years of service and leaves behind a positive record in Indian affairs unequaled in its history. But he does not leave behind the love and admiration of those Indian people for whom he so strongly fought and labored. I think that I can say for all Indians and Alaska Natives that we will miss him, perhaps more than any of the others, and that our hopes and prayers go with him as he leaves public service.
Mr. RHODES. Mo's contributions were
well known in several areas, certainly of course in the environment, certainly
of course in Indian affairs, certainly of course in the affairs of this
|Many of the
open hearings, the open meetings and the openness of this House is a direct
result of the work of Morris Udall, who fought so hard to change the seniority
system and to change the way the business of this House is conducted so
that the public could see what we are about.
I am sure many times many of us wished that were not the case, but that is the case and it is for the better that this institution operates and for the good of the people of this country that they have the opportunity to see how their elected Representatives work.
Mo will be remembered for a lot of other things as well. One of them is perhaps not so widely recognized, but certainly well known to those of us who worked with him in Arizona and those of us who worked with him in the committee from the minority side of the aisle. That was not just his willingness but his great desire to see to it that everybody's view were heard, that everybody had an opportunity to participate, that everybody had a chance to express himself and to see to it that the views of the Representative and the Representative's constituents were known and were taken into account.
My first and probably most personal experience with that particular quality came early in my tenure here, when we began work in Arizona on what became known as the Public Lands Wilderness Act. That started early in 1987 when Mo asked for a meeting of the members of the delegation, both House and Senate, and announced to us that he intended to proceed with establishing a Public Lands Wilderness Act in the State of Arizona and that he intended to follow a particular timetable and that it was his intention to have that legislation passed within 18 months to 2 years and that it was his intention to see to it that each and every one of us participated and that at the end all of us would be able to cosponsor that legislation.
We began work on a very public process in Arizona of involving all interested parties in trying to determine what the extent of the Arizona Public Lands Wilderness Act would be. There was a lot of fight about it, a lot of unhappiness; a lot of people who wanted more wilderness were dissatisfied because certain areas were not included and a lot of people who wanted less wilderness were dissatisfied because areas that they thought were not suitable were included.
Mo's timetables came, and we went
back to him and we said, "Mo, we are not ready. We cannot represent to
you that there is consensus either at home or amongst us, and we need more
time." Mo agreed. He extended his deadlines again; then he had to do it
again. But his goal was to see to it that everybody was heard, everybody's
concerns were taken into account, that we come as close as
could to agreeing amongst all of us that we could support legislation that
ultimately came through, and that was the ultimate result.
That Public Lands Wilderness Act was passed in 1989 overwhelmingly in both the House and the Senate, and with the full support of the Arizona delegation and with most of our constituents at home. That was typical; that was the way he worked; that was the way he wanted things done. I saw him do that over and over again. I think that is probably his greatest legacy to all of us. We should follow that example. We should be sure in our interactions with our colleagues that nobody gets cut off, that everybody has a chance to be heard, that everybody's viewpoint has a chance to be presented and considered; not accepted, but presented and considered. And if Mo's legacy to this House is anything, it is the lesson that we are all here for one purpose: We all got here the same way, by being elected to represent our people at home, and if their voices cannot be heard, then this is not a representative body.
That is a lesson that I hope everybody, on both sides of the aisle, backbenchers like the gentleman from California and myself, and leaders, will reflect on and will remember.
Finally, just one last vignette. Back in the mid to late seventies, Mo began working on a bill that related to Alaska. The net result of that bill was the addition of some 1.2 or 1.3 million acres of land in Alaska to the wilderness system. Now, as Mo is leaving the House, that Alaska Lands Act is being touted by many, if not practically everybody, as being one of Mr. Udall's greatest contributions. But I can assure you that while 1.3 million acres of wilderness in Alaska may have been wildly applauded by people here in the lower 48 States, it was greeted with somewhat a smaller degree of enthusiasm by those who reside in Alaska. And if you ever wish to see a grown man break down in apoplectic tears, just simply mention that particular piece of legislation to the gentleman from Alaska (Mr. Young), who went through that experience back in the 1970's. But anyway, about the time of the passage of the act, Mo went to Alaska. And as I gather it, not having been there of course, but as I gather it, his reception in Alaska was probably as chilly as the Alaskan winter weather is up around the circle. As a matter of fact, legend has it that his public appearances generated a lot of light and heat and hostility directed toward the chairman.
The bill passed. Ten years passed. Mo went back to Alaska. I happened to go with him on this particular trip. He spoke to the chamber of commerce in Anchorage. He was very warmly received, to the extent of a standing ovation.
In his opening remarks he said:
As I reflect on Mo in the times I have known him and in the time so many people have spent with him, it would be easy to say I was proud to know Mo Udall, and I certainly do say that, and I know we all do, but I also think, in retrospect, that Mo in fact, "We hardly knew you at all, and we are certainly going to miss you, miss you very much."
Mr. Speaker, I yield to my friend and colleague from Arizona (Mr. Kolbe).
Mr. KOLBE. I appreciate my friend yielding to me and for taking this special order to say some words on behalf of our colleague, the Honorable Mo Udall.
I had an opportunity to say a few words last week during a special order that was held prior to his departure from Congress. But I think it is appropriate today that Members of the Arizona delegation take this opportunity to talk very specifically about what Mo Udall has meant to each and every one of us.
Mo Udall has been a very special person from the State of Arizona, he has been a very special person for me personally. I guess, growing up in Arizona, I can hardly think of Congress without a Udall in it. A Udall has represented me or a part of my district, part of the area that I grew up in, since I was just 10 years old.
His brother, Stewart, of course, first came to Congress in 1952, elected representing all of the State of Arizona, except that part which in that year my colleague's father took the seat representing central Arizona, Phoenix and Maricopa County, but all the rest of the State was represented by Stewart Udall. In 1961, when Stewart Udall was appointed Secretary of the Interior, his brother, Mo, ran for the seat. I remember it well. I was in college. It was a spirited, active campaign. I worked hard on behalf of--even though from a long distance and during the time that I was home -- I worked on behalf of an individual who I had known for years, my family had known, a rancher by the name of Jack Specon who ran for that seat. He was not successful, and of course Mo took the seat, and the rest is in a sense history.
Mr. Speaker, Mo represented that seat for 30 years, from 1961 to 1991, continuing a legacy started by his brother, continuing a legacy started really before that time with the Udall family in Ari-
history is intertwined with the Udall family. There are, I think, few States
that have this kind of relationship where a few families have been so dominant
in the history of the political history of our State, and certainly the
case of Mo Udall is one of those. The Udall family has been an integral
part of the history of our State, and, interestingly enough, for some who
are not aware from outside the State, it has not been all one-sided from
a political, from a partisan, standpoint. Indeed at least half of the Udall
family are staunch Republicans. The family divided a couple of generations
back, and one branch went Republican, and one branch went Democratic. Indeed
Mo's uncle served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was a very
loyal Republican for the many years which he served in that capacity.
So, Mr. Speaker, this is a family that has Republicans and Democrats which have been very active in the history of our State.
The importance of Mo Udall as a Member of Congress is hard to overestimate. I think every one of us in this body owes a great debt of gratitude to him, a debt of gratitude for, not only the wit which he brought to this body, but the dignity that he brought to this body, the sense of purpose that he brought here, his vision of government as it could be by the very best of people. He has perhaps done more than any single individual that I know that has served in this body to raise the public's expectations, as well as their understanding, of what our Congress can be and should be, and for that I think each one of us should be grateful.
We are also, of course, very grateful for the achievements that Mo Udall has accomplished. There are many of his achievements that might be ones that I would disagree with, and certainly many of his votes on national issues are ones that he and I were on opposite sides of and, before I was here, would have been on opposite sides had I been serving in the Congress at that time, but Mo Udall has been an individual who has done much to protect public lands in this country, to protect the heritage and the environment of this country for future generations.
It is often said that perhaps the most important legacy of Mo Udall is the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge, and it certainly is one of the more significant legislative accomplishments of Congressman Udall. But I also think of many other things, what he did in this body to reform this body in terms of the changes that he brought about of making it possible for younger Members to have more say in the body earlier on and not have to rely on the seniority system. I think about the changes that he made in terms of political reforms, campaign reforms that have been so important to this country and for Arizona. I think about the many, many things that he did from the beginning with his role in helping to bring
authorization of the central Arizona project back in the 1960's, to his
efforts through the decades since that time to fund the central Arizona
project to be sure that it got to fruition. In addition I think of the
efforts that he made just a few years ago to be sure that, when we ran
into the problems we did with the Cliff Dam problem, that we were able
to find some kind of a compromise that enabled us to be sure that the central
Arizona project did not get off track, that indeed it could be finished
and, as it is now today, brought to completion.
So, Mo Udall's legacy for our State is one that is very important. We just completed this last fall action on a wilderness bill, the Bureau of Land Management wilderness, dealing with land owned by and managed by the Bureau of Land Management. It is the first BLM wilderness bill in the United States, and I think it is not only a tribute to Mo Udall, but it is illustrative of how Mo Udall operated. This bill, despite the obvious contentious provisions in it at the outset, the obvious disagreements that the interest groups in Arizona had over that; it was because of his influence that the groups were kept together in a room, in a sense their feet to the fire, to bring about the kind of agreement that ultimately we achieved. Without his influence in this process I am not sure we could have accomplished that. But Mo Udall has done that kind of thing and in the process has kept Arizona and Arizonans together.
Last, Mr. Speaker, I think of one of the, I think, very important things that he has done that gets little credit because it is hard to get a handle on, it is hard to understand, but it is important for Arizona, but cannot be underestimated, and that is the Indian water settlement legislation. Arizona has numerous problems and issues dealing with water rights belonging to native Americans in our State. If we were to have litigation on those issues, we could find ourselves in litigation for decades with a cloud hanging over the future of our State. It has been the clear direction that Mo Udall has brought to those issues to keep us moving for settlement of those issues.
Mr. Speaker, I wish he were going to be here in the 102d Congress to see the completion of this. We will have completed the last two major Indian water settlements, I believe, in this Congress, and then truly that will be the capstone of Mo Udall's legislative history.
But the man does not need to be remembered only for the legislation which he accomplished. I remember very well coming to Congress in 1985, when I was sworn in. I had taken the seat from an individual who had been the closest friend of Mo Udall, had campaigned for him, had been his campaign manager, actually been on opposite sides when they were in school together at the
of Arizona, but had been fast friends from the days of college. No two
people were closer than Mo Udall and Jim McNulty, and, when I took that
seat, it would have been understandable if Mo Udall had been bitter about
that, if he had not been welcoming when I arrived here, but that was not
the case. Mo Udall and Mo Udall's staff met me at the front of the Capitol
when I came here, figuratively speaking, with open arms, and they have
never treated me or my staff any differently since that time, and I shall
always be grateful for that, not only for the insights he gave to me about
the way that Congress operates, but for the welcome that he gave to me
and an extended hand.
That was the way Mo Udall was. That is the way Mo Udall is. He is not somebody who carries a grudge, he is not somebody who is going to be bitter. He knows that there will be political differences, but the issues of the State and the issues of our Nation are far more important than any of those and that, in the end, it is what is best for our country and what is best for the State of Arizona that has always guided Mo Udall in his work here in the House of Representatives.
That is what makes each and every one of us, I think, so proud of him, and that is what makes each and every one of us so proud to have been associated with Mo Udall, and though he may be gone from the Halls of this House of Representatives, though we may not see him again here working legislation, casting his vote, telling his stories or his jokes here on the floor of the House of Representatives, the legacy of Mo Udall will be here forever because he has made this a better place for each and every one of us.
We shall miss him, but we are better for having had his service here.
Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman for yielding to me and for the time he has taken for this special order.
Mr. RHODES. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman for taking part in this presentation and for his very generous words about our friend.
Mr. Speaker, I now yield to another of our friends, the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. Kyl), whose father likewise had the opportunity to serve with Congressman Udall when the senior Mr. Kyl was representing the State of Iowa.
Mr. KYL. Mr. Speaker, I thank my colleague for yielding, and I appreciate his creating this special order in honor of our comrade, Mo Udall.
Mr. Speaker, much of what has been said here reminds me of things that I wanted to say as well, starting with the comment of my colleague, the gentleman from Arizona, (Mr. Jay Rhodes), about
service with Mr. Udall on the Interior Committee when my father served
in the Congress. I guess I should say that in much of what I say reflecting
on Mo Udall's career, I would speak for my father as well, because they
did serve together on the committee.
I think I first really became aware of Mo Udall when I won the moot court competition in law school and I won a copy of "Udall on Evidence," which at that time was the law book one used to learn the law of evidence if one wanted to practice in the courts of Arizona, because Mo Udall had been a trial lawyer. And as a matter of fact, I was able to listen to some tapes of his and aspired to be as eloquent and as convincing as Mo Udall was that day when he was in court and I heard him argue an automobile case.
So Mo's abilities were significant before he came to the Halls of Congress, even though that is, of course, what we are reminded of here.
I thought that some of the comments from our colleague, the gentleman from Arizona, (Mr. Jim Kolbe), were pertinent when he talked about the Udall family having its roots or, one might even say, tentacles grasped around all of us. In one way or another we are all connected with that ubiquitous family, Republicans and Democrats. One of my former law partners, Nick Udall, tried to explain to me his relationship with Mo. He said they were cousins, but once he went beyond that, I got very confused about how all these Udalls fit together. They were a family, however, Republicans or Democrats, liberal or conservative, which stuck together, and they are one of Arizona's great families. Mo Udall will be remembered in that way as well, again not just for his service in Congress but for having been one of that great pioneer family of Udalls, and I am sure their name will continue to live on for a long time.
As a matter of fact, I guess I should blush to say that my campaign chairman from the beginning of my service in Congress as a Republican is Dick Udall, another one of Mo's cousins, and I am sure Mo is chuckling at that today. I suspect also that Mo would be chuckling at some of the accolades he received the other day and perhaps even today that almost seemed to refer to him in the past tense. Of course, we were speaking of his past accomplishments. But as my colleague, Jim Kolbe, just said, I suspect that from his armchair he will continue to observe what we are doing and may even provide a little advice and counsel to us from time to time, as he has done all during his service.
I think probably the thing that I will miss most of all about Mo, since his political philosophy and mine are not consistent and since our votes canceled each other on most occasions, is the way he
humor to great good advantage, not just to enthrall an audience but in
times when it was difficult to reach an agreement on something and perhaps
tempers were getting a little bit near the boiling point and tensions existed
and there needed to be something to break that tension and get us back
focused on achieving the objective at hand, Mo would usually break in with
one of his patented stories, and inevitably and invariably it enabled us
to break that tension and to refocus on the fact that we were Arizonans
in a small delegation that needed to get back together as one to pursue
our common interests, which for the most part we did and in which, I am
sure to the chagrin of some of our colleagues from California, enabled
us to be somewhat successful in some of those early water battles and in
other areas in which we were able to cooperate. Mo was able to keep us
together, and as I said, it was frequently because of the use of his good
I know his humor has been alluded to in the past here. Probably the most famous of all his jokes is the one in his famous book about announcing his candidacy for the Presidency in a barber shop in New Hampshire: "Hi, I'm Mo Udall. I am running for President," to which the response was: "Yes, we were just laughing about that this morning."
Mo, of course, can tell that joke on himself. In that regard, he was very humble, and I think he taught all of us the benefits of humor and humbleness in this institution.
As has been noted, Mo is part of a legacy of great statesmen from Arizona. It might be wondered by some of our colleagues how a State as sparsely populated as Arizona has seemed to send so many of the giants to this body--people like Barry Goldwater, John Rhodes, the father of our colleague, Jay Rhodes, who served as minority leader here, Paul Fannin, Carl Hayden, and others. Mo Udall certainly deserves to be included in that illustrious group of Arizonans who really do stand very tall in the institution of the U.S. Congress.
A few years ago, when concern over his health was becoming a subject of conversation, Mo Udall was asked how he would like to be remembered. I would like to quote to the Members what he said. He said:
I would hope that in Arizona people would think of me as somebody who cared about the land deeply, who left a legacy of national parks and wilderness areas and resource policies that give future generations some idea of what kind of love of the land and environment that I've always felt.
I cannot think of a greater tribute to a man, particularly who accomplished so much to achieve those goals, than to say that Mo Udall will indeed be remembered for that, and as we acknowledge
in those areas today, future generations will not only remember him for
his successes in that area but will be able to enjoy the benefits of those
The Arizona Republic, the primary newspaper in the State of Arizona, a newspaper that frequently disagreed with Mo Udall on a lot of policies, editorialized not too long ago about Mo Udall, and here is how they concluded an editorial about "the end of an era," as they described it: "Clearly Mr. Udall achieved that and more," speaking of the legacy that he wished to be remembered for. "His distinguished example in gentle word and historic deed set a standard for public service. In riding into the sunset, Mr. Udall carries the heartfelt admiration of all Arizonans. We wish him Godspeed."
Mr. Speaker, we, too, wish him Godspeed.
Mr. RHODES. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman again for his remarks and for joining us here today.
Mr. Speaker, in closing, let me just say, probably in contravention of House rules, because I am not supposed to address somebody directly, but I will take my chances, "Mo, don't forget us, because we certainly will not forget you."
Mr. KLECZKA. Mr. Speaker, the retirement of Morris Udall is a change that will not only affect the people of Arizona's Second District, but a change that will have a long-lasting effect on the institution of the House of Representatives.
Very few individuals in the history of this Nation have amassed such an impressive record of public service as Mo. He has led battles for campaign finance reform, civil service reform, and has been one of the foremost protectors of the environment.
Despite frail health and personal hardships, Mo will always be remembered in this Chamber as a man with a joke, a funny story, or a smile for his colleagues. Few Members of Congress can claim to have as many friends--both Democrat and Republican -- as Mr. Udall. And few Members can claim to have consistently risen above petty politics for the ultimate good of the Nation as Mr. Udall.
When such a revered Member leaves office, I feel it is appropriate that younger Members, such as myself, look at the legacy he has left and try to learn from it. Clearly, some important lessons can be learned from Mr. Udall. These include the lesson that your opponent one day can be your ally the next; that humor can bring us together, even in the most trying of times; and perhaps most importantly, that people, their needs, and this Earth we live on, should come before partisan bickering.
Mr. Speaker, in 1968 the easternmost point in St. Croix, Virgin Islands, was named Udall Point in honor of Mo's brother Stewart,
Main | Contents | Illustrations | Book Cover | Title Page
Addresses and Special Orders Held in the U.S. House of Representatives
and the Senate, Presented in Honor of The Honorable Morris K. "Mo" Udall,
A Representative from Arizona, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993