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American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide


Examples below are based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed., located at BF76.7 P83 2010 Info. Commons Ref.
(Earlier editions may be available in the Main Stacks for checkout under the same call number.)

Note the specific punctuation, indentation, italicizing and abbreviation.
It is necessary to alphabetize a list of citations by author.
Please note that in APA, all lines after the first are indented 5 spaces or 1/2 inch.

Examples

 

Book with one author

APA

Author's last name, First and Second Initial.  (Year).  Title italic. Publication

          location*: Publishing company.

 

example:

Townsend, R. M.  (1993). The medieval village economy . Princeton, NJ: 
          Princeton University Press.

*Note: For US cities, give first place of publication listed, including city and 2-letter postal abbreviations for states (unless state is already included in publisher's name). For non-US cities, give city and country unabbreviated; also include province for Canadian cities.

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Book with an editor

APA

Editor's last name, First and Second Initial. (Ed.).  (Year).  Title italic.
          Publication location*: Publishing company.

example:

Mcrae, M. W. (Ed.).  (1993).  The literature of science: Perspectives on
          popular science writing . Athens: University of Georgia Press.

 

*Note: For US cities, give first place of publication listed, including city and 2-letter state postal abbreviations (unless state is already included in publisher's name). For non-US cities, give city and country unabbreviated; also include province for Canadian cities.

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Journal article - one author

APA

Author's last name, First and Second Initial.  (Year).  Article title.  Journal 
          title, volume number (issue number*) , page numbers.

example:

Yeh, M.  (1996).  The "cult of poetry" in contemporary China.  Journal of 
         
Asian Studies, 55 (2), 51-80.

*Note: Issue numbers are only given if each issue begins with page 1; if issues use continuous pagination through the entire volume, give only the volume number.

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Journal article - 3 authors

APA

Author's last name, First and Second Initial., Author’s last name, First and 
          Second Initial., & Author’s last name, First and Second Initial.
          (Year). Article title. Journal title, volume number (issue
          number*), page numbers.

example:

White, S., Winzelberg, A., & Norlin, J. (1992). Laughter and stress .
          Humor, 5, 43-355.

*Note: Issue numbers are only given if each issue begins with page 1; if issues use continuous pagination through the entire volume, give only the volume number.

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Newspaper article

APA

Author's last name, First and Second Initial.  (Year, Month Date).  Article
          title. Newspaper title, volume and/or issue number (if applicable),
          pp. page numbers.

 

example:

Taylor, P. (1993, December 27). Keyboard grief: Coping with computer-
            caused injuries. Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A4.

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Online journal article

(For examples of other electronic resources, see the sites listed below or refer to the Publication Manual.)

APA

Include the original publication information:

Author's last name, First and Second Initial.  (Year). Article title. Journal title,
            volume (issue number, if not continuously paginated), page numbers.

example:

Borsari, B., & Carey, K. B. (2000). Effects of a brief motivational intervention
          with college student drinkers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
          Psychology, 68, 728-733.

If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier) assigned, include it at the end. If there is no DOI, provide the homepage of the journal, preceded by "Retrieved from". Database information is not needed unless the article is difficult to locate; for example, those archived online only in JSTOR or ERIC. Include date of retrieval only if the source is likely to change.

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal title,
            volume, page numbers. Retrieved from [journal homepage URL] OR
            DOI

examples:

Davis, C., & Strachan, S. (2001). Elite female athletes with eating disorders:
            A study of psychopathological characteristics. Journal of Sport & 
            Exercise Psychology, 23
(3), 245-253. Retrieved from
            http://hk.humankinetics.com/jsep/.

Vardar, E., Vardar, S.A. & Kurt, C. (2007). Anxiety of young female athletes
            with disordered eating behaviors. Eating Behaviors, 8, 143-147.
            doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.03.002

Clausen, J.A. (1967). The Organism and socialization. Journal of Health
            and Social Behavior, 8, 243-252. Retrieved from JSTOR.

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Lecture

APA

Lector's last name, First and Second Initial.  (Year, Month).  Lecture title.
          Symposium Coordinator's First and Second Initial and Last  name
          (Coordinator's position) (if applicable), Symposium title. Symposium

          conducted at the meeting of Sponsoring Organization name,
          Location.

 

example:

Atwood, M. (1993, December).  Silencing the scream. Boundaries of the
          Imagination Forum. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the
          MLA Convention, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Interview

APA

According to the APA Publication Manual, because a personal, unpublished interview consists of unrecoverable data, there is no need to cite it in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only.

example:

K.W. Schaie (personal communication, April 18, 1993)

Note that published interviews are cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or film productions.

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Web page

APA

Author’s last name, first and second initial. (Year or n. d. if there is no date). Title of page. Retrieved from URL.

Sometimes the author may be the sponsor of the webpage. If there is no author, put the title first, followed by the date.

example:

Mitchell, S. D. (2000). The import of uncertainty. Retrieved from
          http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00000162/

About Dementia – Delirium. (2013). Retrieved from
          http://www.alzfdn.org/AboutDementia/delirium.html.

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Email

APA

Electronic mail is considered a form of personal communication, therefore it is not necessary to cite email in the reference list. Cite email in the text only.

example:

T. Danford  (personal communication, March 28, 1997).

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More Examples & In-text citations

APA

Research and Documentation online: Social Sciences (Diana Hacker) - click on Documenting Sources on the left side to see examples for in-text citations and lists of references, along with guidelines for formatting a paper and a sample paper in APA style. Includes examples for many other types of material besides those shown above.

APA Style Guide (Ohio State University) - Includes examples for both reference lists and in-text citations.

APA Citation Style (Cornell University) - includes guidelines and examples for in-text citations and reference lists.

APA Format (6th Edition, 2009) examples - University of Minnesota crib sheet.

APA Formatting and Style Guide (OWL - Online Writing Lab, Purdue University) - excellent guidelines for formatting papers (including a sample paper), in-text citations and references lists, with lots of examples.

From the APA web site :

Supplemental materials for Publication Manual, 6th ed.
APA Style Help
APA Style FAQs

 

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Last modified: April 7, 2014