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Citation Guide


Citing the resources consulted and quoted in a research paper is necessary in order to avoid plagiarism.

There are many citation style guides in use today. Some are used specifically for certain subjects or in publications of certain organizations. The most commonly used are MLA (from Modern Language Association, used in the humanities), APA (from American Psychological Association, used in the social sciences) and the Chicago manual (and the simplified version by Turabian, used primarily in history). Always check first with your instructor or publisher to see which style they prefer.

This guide provides basic guidelines and examples to frequently asked citation questions from the three major style guides, plus links to web sites with more detailed information for each. A separate page listing some of the better-known subject-specific style guides is also provided, as well as links to formatting and submission guides for UA dissertations and theses. Finally, information on popular citation management software is given below.

Other General Citation Guides

Research and Documentation Online
Diana Hacker's excellent site focuses on MLA, Chicago Style, APA, and CSE styles with sample papers and good examples. (If you don't find examples in our guides for the types of materials you need to cite, try this one!)

How to Cite and Organize Information (Ohio State University Libraries)
Click on this heading at the above site to find guides for the latest editions of APA, Chicago, CSE, MLA, and Turabian.

OWL (Online Writing Lab) Research & Citation Resources (Purdue University)
Includes APA, Chicago and MLA guides.

Software for Creating Citations and Bibliographies 

Compare features of citation software

EndNote/EndNote Web/Mendeley/RefWorks/Zotero Features Comparison Chart 
(University of Wisconsin Libraries)

RefWorks/Write-n-Cite
RefWorks is a web-based citation manager program available to UA faculty, staff and students. It allows one to import citations from many of our databases, or input them manually, and then create bibliographies automatically in the desired style format. (See a list of the available style formats supported by RefWorks.)

Write-n-Cite is a related software program that can be downloaded and installed from the RefWorks site. This program works within MS Word as you write your paper to allow you to access your citations stored in RefWorks and to automatically create footnotes and a bibliography.
See our RefWorks Guide for further information.

EndNote Web
A bibliographic management program that will help you:

  • Collect and import references from online databases.
  • Organize your references for your research topics and papers.
  • Create a formatted bibliography for your paper or cite references while you write.

All UA staff, students, and faculty are eligible for a free EndNote Web account.

EndNote Web is similar to RefWorks. Some differences are as follows:

 

EndNote Web

RefWorks

Maximum number of records per account

10,000

Unlimited

Number of citation format styles

3,300

3,200

Ability to create custom citation format styles?

No

Yes

Direct export from Web of Knowledge databases?

Yes

Yes

Direct export from Ovid databases?

No

Yes

Ability to attach files, such as pdfs, to user account?

No

Yes

For more information, see:

 

EndNote Web Help

EndNote Web Tutorials

 

Mendeley
A free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research. Software must be installed on a personal computer.
Through the UA institutional edition, you can:
1. Manage references & citations
2. Search & discover content: Researchers can discover what research articles are trending and which ones have the greatest impact among Mendeley users by subject.
3. Read & annotate articles: Allows users to mark-up text and take notes.
4. Add & organize papers: Researchers can upload the pdfs. You can also sync across multiple devices (iPad, iPad mini, desktop, etc.).
5. Share & collaborate with peers: Researchers may create work groups of up to five people which will allow users to collaborate across country and discover additional content.
6. Receive personal recommendations: SWETS suggests articles and research to people based on what they have as their research profile and what they have uploaded.  

Zotero
A free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. Although not currently installed on UA library computers, it can be by opening Firefox and going to Zotero.org, then clicking the download button. If you have set up an account in Zotero and synced your library on their server, you can also view, but not modify, your library from any computer through your online account. Another option for using your Zotero library on multiple computers is to use portable Firefox with Zotero on a USB flash drive.
For more information, see:

Zotero Quick Start Guide

EasyBib - Automatic Bibliography and Citation Maker
Create bibliographies and download them to Word, using current APA, MLA and Chicago/Turabian styles. Available for 59 different types of materials. This is free, but more advanced options are available by setting up an individual subscription to the premium version. Items found using the WorldCat Local search box on our homepage can be easily exported to EasyBib using the "Cite/Export" feature.

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MLA Guide   |  APA Guide   |  Chicago Guide   |  Subject Specific Citation Guides

Last modified: October 15, 2014